A chromosome consists of a single molecule of DNA associated with several regulatory proteins. A chromosome contains thousands of hereditary units known as genes, which control most aspects of cellular structure and function. (Tortora, Gerard J. and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003, p 61)

Chromosomes reside in the nucleus of the cell. Half of chromosomal contents is DNA, half is made of regulatory proteins (that act as a covering sleeve). Only when the genes are uncovered can their information be“read.” (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books,2005, pp 68-70)