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Gifted students who were underachievers (as compared with achievers) showed a strong need for tactile and kinesthetic modalities; intake of food, drinks, or both; sound in the learning environment; informal seating design; and dim lighting. They also perceived themselves to be nonpersistent. (Rayneri, Letty J., et al. Gifted achievers and gifted underachievers: the impact of learning style preferences in the classroom. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, Vol. 14, 2003.)