Many addictions are related to low self-esteem. (Greenwood-Robinson, Maggie, PhD. 20/20 Thinking. p 104-105. NY: Avery, Putnam Special Markets, 2003.)

Low levels of self-esteem can result in anxiety, despair, isolation, and fear of rejection. Many quirks of addictive thinking are simply psychological defenses against these painful feelings. (Twerski, Abraham, MD. Addictive Thinking. p 14-18. CA: Harper & Row, 1990.)

Refer to Addictive Behaviors and the Brain for additional information.