Studies: 27% increase in scores on fractions in second graders who took 3 hours of piano keyboard training per week for 4 months. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 178-181. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Studies have shown a causal relationship between early music training and development of neural circuitry that governs spatial intelligence. Music involves ratios, regularity, and patterns, all of which parallel math concepts. Music training generated neural connections use for abstract reasoning as well as for understanding mathematical concepts. Although music is view as a separate type of intelligence, high performance in music and math showed a significant correlation. Math and music were noted for their crossover talents for more than just coincidence. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p 8-10. NY: MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

Math and music have something in common: they are concerned with patterns of relationships that are primarily non-verbal. They both engage one’s feelings, but only music affects one’s emotions. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 180-185. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)