Listening to music while studying can interfere with complex tasks and with verbal tasks (as opposed to simpler tasks and visual-spatial tasks). The music can compete for the student’s attention, vocal even more than instrumental. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. P179-185, 489. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Study: Music can enhance the learning environment (e.g., calm nervous systems, improve memory/cognition/ concentration/creativity) but it can be very different for different learners. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning. p 69. CA: The Brain Store Publishing, 2000.)