Lists effects of music such as conveying stories, creating goose bumps, prompting dance, making people happy/aggressive/sad, speeding people up or putting them to sleep, and influencing buying patterns in a supermarket. (Carter, Rita, ed. Mapping the Mind. PO 147. CA: University of California, 1998.)

Study: closer relation between hearing and emotional arousal than between seeing and emotional arousal (e.g., usually have music in motion pictures). (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 25-28. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Examples of effects:

  • Classical: when played softly in the background, enhances concentration and learning
  • Jazz: helps to set a romantic mood; encourages lingering over a meal, etc.
  • Loud with strong rhythm: energizing; encourages motion; promotes aerobics and dancing
  • Rock: increases energy; encourages movement
  • Soft and melodic: helps to reduce stress and promote relaxation; enhances mood; ideal for learning abstract concepts and studying
  • Waltz rhythms: soothing; helps to reduce stress; encourages slow movement and dancing

(Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 12-14. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).