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An expert remains task focused even under pressure of competition. An amateur becomes self-focused rather than task focused, which disrupts performance. Self-evaluation and self-consciousness interfere and result in choking under pressure. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 20-22. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Superior performance requires developing the ability to break the experience into multiple components and work on each separately, achieving high levels of control over every aspect. It takes time (e.g., superior music students most likely to become concert performers averaged 24 hours of practice per week, good students who would end up as teachers averaged 9 hours per week). By age 20 that’s 10,000 versus 4,000 hours. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 16-18. PA: Rodale, 2003.)