Field Independence (ability to think for oneself) is developed by freedom to explore one’s environment and develop bodily abilities. Spatial-visual abilities skills are equal in boys and girls until about the age of eight, after which girls come under more physical restrictions. The skills gap is pronounced by adolescence and clearly relates to socialization, not inherent ability. (Steinem, Gloria. Revolution From Within. MA: Little, Brown, & Co., 1992. p 204-205)

Freedom to explore our environment and develop our bodily abilities is a link to intellectual development. Physical freedom in the earliest years develops spatial-visual skills that are important in match, many kinds of problem solving, and in what psychologists call field independence (the ability to think for oneself). Such skills are equal in boys and girls until about age eight, when girls typically begin to come under more physical restrictions. Boys who have been allowed less mastery of space will tend, like girls, to show signs of less developed spatial-visual abilities and field independence. Eskimo boys and girls, whose culture allows children of both sexes a high degree of autonomy, including going on long hunting trips, showed no sex difference in intellectual skills. (Steinem, Gloria. Revolution From Within. A Book of Self-Esteem. MA: Little, Brown, & Co., 1992. p 204-205)

Spatial skill located mainly in the right front hemisphere in men is not strong in most women. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. NY: Broadway Books, 1998. p 19-20)

Female brain has greater functioning in memory and sensory intake. The male brain has greater functioning in spatial tasks and abstract reasoning. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001. p 30)

Gay men perform more like females (than do heterosexual males) when dealing with some types of spatial tasks (e.g., embedded figures, rod and frame test, water-level test). (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989. p 103-104)