EEG studies: it was virtually impossible to tell by looking at EEG output whether individuals were listening to or just imagining music. The brain wave activity was virtually identical. At least for music, it appears that the same brain areas may be involved and utilized for recalling as for perceiving. (Janata, pp. Electrophysiological studies of auditory contexts. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences of Engineering. University of Oregon, 1997. Janata, Petr. The neural architecture of music-evoked autobiographical memories. Cerebral Cortex, 19, 2579-2594. 2009.

Refer to Music and the Brain for additional information.