There are three dimensions including extravert, introvert, and ambivert (between the two extremes). (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 418-440. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Extraverts generally have a higher threshold for sensory stimulation and typically can take much more of the “maddening crowd” before they feel a need to be far from it. Extraverts generally like lots of eye contact; they prefer windows, open offices, and low walls. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 700-717. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

A learning environment stimulating enough for extroverts to learn may be too stimulating for their introverted pears. (Schmeck, Ronald R. Introverts and Extroverts Require Different Learning Environments. Educational Leadership. Vol. 40, No 5. p 54-55. February 1983.)

Extraverts are more rebellious because they form conditioned reflexes less easily (e.g., more difficult to train). They tend to talk more, have more eye contact, listen to loud jazz music, look at bright lights, creating their own disco effect, choose higher levels of noise in a learning situation and perform better in the presence of noise. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 54-57. NY:HarperCollins, 1995.)

The extroversion-introversion dimension is a derivation of gain. It is intrinsic, and determines the amount stimulation the person requires. Investigators include Galen, Hans Eysenck, Gordon Claridge, Emmanuel Kant, and Carl Young. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 58-59. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Humor model: people who are high in extraversion usually prefer nonsense and sexual humor; those who are low in extraversion (e.g., more toward introversion) tend to prefer incongruity resolution humor. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 169. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.

Extraverts have naturally low levels of arousal, so they tend to seek stimulation outside (e.g., high interest in parties, sex, and dangerous sports). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 54-57. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Extraverts are more rebellious because they form conditioned reflexes less easily. They are more difficult to train. Extroverts tend to talk more and have more eye contact. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 54-55. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Extraverts tend to prefer warmer colors (e.g., red or orange). The lens of the eye adjusts to red shapes at a closer distance than with other colors, so they appear to jump out. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 704. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Energy levels are usually closely aligned to the circadian rhythm (time of day). Introverts tend to have higher energy earlier in the day versus extroverts who have higher energy later in the day. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 370-372. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Mental fatigue builds up more quickly in extroverts and their attention tends to flag. Unless given frequent breaks, Extraverts will not do as well as introverts on tests that require concentration. Perhaps due to a shorter attention span, extroverts are more prone to accidents (e.g., have more frequent automobile accidents). The upside is that extroverts are less likely to be worriers. (Blitchington, Peter, PhD and Robert Cruise PhD. Understanding Your Temperament. p 11-14.MI: Andrews University Press, 1979)

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