Studies on recall of events: Chinese people were more likely to describe memories of social and historical events and focused more on social interactions. European Americans tended to focus on memories of personal experiences and emphasized their personal roles in events. (Wang, Q., and M. A. Conway. The stories we keep: autobiographical memory in American and Chinese middle-aged adults. J. Pers. 72, 911–938. 2004.

Studies on recall of traits: Westerners were better at remembering trait words that they associated with themselves than they were at remembering words that they associated with people close to them; Chinese people remembered both equally well. (Klein, S. B., et al. Two selfreference effects: the importance of distinguishing between self-descriptiveness judgments and autobiographical retrieval in self-referent encodingJ. Pers. Soc. Psychol. 56, 853–865. 1989. Zhu, Y., and L. Zhang. An experimental study on the selfreference effect. Sci. China C Life Sci. 45, 120–128/ 2002.)