Brain Scans: Dyslexia, a reading problem in people of normal intelligence and schooling, appears to be associated with dysfunction of the left temporoparietal cortex and the left inferior frontal gyrus in English monolinguals. In Chinese monolinguals, however, the dysfunction appears to center in the left middle frontal gyrus. In addition, compared to healthy controls, English dyslexic children exhibited reduced grey-matter volume in the left parietal region; Chinese children with reading problems exhibited reduced grey matter volume in the left middle frontal gyrus. These results suggest that abnormalities in both functional and anatomical structures of language processing might be language-dependent. (Shaywitz, S. E. et al. Functional disruption in the organization of the brain for reading in dyslexia. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci.USA 95, 2636–264. 1998. Temple, E. et al. "Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: evidence from functional MRI." Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 100, 2860–2865. 2003. Siok, W. T., Perfetti, C. A., Jin, Z. & Tan, L. H. "Biological abnormality of impaired reading is constrained by culture." Nature 431, 71–76. 2004. Hoeft, F. et al. "Functional and morphometric brain dissociation between dyslexia and reading ability." Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104, 4234–4239. 2007. Siok, W. T., Niu, Z., Jin, Z., Perfetti, C. A. & Tan, L. H. "A structural-functional basis for dyslexia in the cortex of Chinese readers." Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 105, 5561–5566. 2008.)