fMRI study of 17 Americans and 17 Japanese: a first demonstration that culture can flexibly shape functional activity in the mesolimbic reward system, which in turn may guide behavior. Assessed behavioral tendencies towards dominance versus subordination and measured neural responses during the passive viewing of stimuli related to dominance and subordination. In Americans, dominant stimuli selectively engaged the caudate nucleus, bilaterally, and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), whereas these were selectively engaged by subordinate stimuli in Japanese. American culture tends to reinforce dominant behavior whereas, conversely, Japanese culture tends to reinforce subordinate behavior. (Freeman, Jonathan B., et al. "Cultuer shapes a mesolimbic response to signals of dominance and subordination that associates with behavior.)