Studies at Howard Florey Institute, Anthropology and Social Inquiry, University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Neuroanthropology is a new field of research that can make two distinctive contributions to an understanding of the brain-culture nexus. The first contribution has to do with how socially shared meanings and practices are reflected in brain function and structure (the culture in the brain problem). The second contribution relates to the neural processes that generate socially shared meanings and practices (the brain in culture problem). All brain areas, cortical and subcortical, respond to regularities in the cultural stream of experience. However, the PFC (pre-frontal cortex) is the structure that stands first to be modified or constituted by cultural experience as it is the structure that lays culture's foundations. (Domínguez, D JF, et al. The brain in culture and culture in the brain: a review of core issues in neuroanthropology.