fMRI scans revealed significant increased activity in the anterior cingulated cortex of the brain when participants were lying. Four areas of brain activation included the prefrontal and frontal, parietal, temporal, and subcortical regions. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. p 272-273. NY: Broadway Books, 2004.)

A variety ofphysiological changes are associated with arousal (e.g., eye pupil dilates, respiratory rate changes, BP and heart rate rise). Changes can be recorded by a polygraph related to arousal anxiety but cannot prove innocence or guilt. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 24-26. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Polygraph tests measure changes taking place downstream from the brain rather than in the brain itself. fMRI study: “lies” could be detected based on increased blood flow to the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC). (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 104-106. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

The polygraph is a stress detector, NOT a lie detector. “Farwell Brain Fingerprinting” is a new technique that uses sensors to establish brain wave patterns (e.g., a specific memory network established in the brain is measurably activated when recalled). It depends on the skill of the operator in presenting visual stimuli that only a guilty person would know. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 373-374. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

A lie triggers physiological changes (in nonsociopaths). The accuracy of a new computerized polygraph system is close to 100% (refer to Voice Stress Analysis). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. p 271. NY: Broadway Books, 2004.)

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