Each individual has a set point, like that of a thermostat, for each of three basic dimensions or aspects of temperament: gain, deliberation-liberation, and approach-withdraw. Where one is set on each of these dimensions seems to endure within the individual. They are the primitive roots of individuality. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 48. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

Children definitely have “styles” or preferences for thinking and processing information. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 73-74. NY: Doubleday, 1987.)

Individuals differ in cognitive style, defined as a person’s consistent approach to organizing and processing information during thinking. This doesn’t appear related to intelligence; reflects qualitative rather than quantitative differences between individuals. (Riding, Richard J., and Eugene Sadler-Smith. Cognitive Style and Learning Strategies: Some Implications for Training Design.

Sooner or later every kid proclaims what it is he is wired for as well as what he is miswired for. Nobody may be watching or listening. Care providers need to respond positively to these declarations of identity. (Levine, Mel, MD. A Mind at a Time. p 296. NY:Simon & Schuster, 2002.)

Every individual is born with a set of preferred talents and activities. Although at birth, human beings have many innate predispositions, yet they are born unfinished, open to development. Individuals need the world to give them their individuality, yet the world can only develop what has been inherited. (Beck, Martha, PhD. The Joy Diet. p 46-47. NY: Crown Publishers, 2003.)

There are innate differences in the human personality, including four functions: Feeling (evaluating), Thinking, Sensation, and Intuition (labeled by Carl Jung). Each person is born with one of the four functions dominant. (Dossey, Larry. MD. Healing Words. p 125-130. NY: HarperPaperbacks, 1993.)

The world can profoundly effect our development, and this fact allows us to remake ourselves through conscious choice, even in adulthood. Yet we can never abandon our inherent natures, our roots. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 12. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

Research suggests we have inherent tendencies (e.g., getting to the point, knowing bottom line, need context, impatient with details, craving details, making own judgment). There is little evidence that we can actually change such inherent tendencies but we can recognize them in our relationships with others and become more flexible. (Cooper, Robert K., PhD., and Ayman Sawaf. Executive EQ. p 98-99. NY: Grosset/Putnam, 1997.)

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