Gender becomes hard-wired in the brain and body in a three-stage process of genetics (markers on the X and Y chromosomes), hormones (surges in mother’s body during gestation and in body of fetus and again at puberty), and societal impacts. Some individuals are hard-wired toward the middle of the gender/brain spectrum and have higher-than-average-amounts of the other gender’s brain characteristics. (Gurian, Michael, PhD., and Barbra Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. p 6-10. NY: Jossey-Bass, 2007.)

The brain is not as plastic when it comes to gender as it is about other aspects of brain development. In large part we are hard-wired to be who we are. (Gurian, Michael, PhD., and Barbra Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. p 12-13,23. NY: Jossey-Bass, 2007.)

Males have a specific location in the brain for sensing direction. Females have specific locations for speech. People are not naturally good at/don’t particularly enjoy tasks that require use of skills for which there is no clear brain location. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 48-50. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

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