Brain imaging technologies (PET, fMRI) are modalities that show the brain neighborhoods that are active during a specific mental activity. (Schwartz, Jeffrey M., MD, and Sharon Begley. The Mind & the Brain. p 23-24. NY: Regan Books, 2002.)

PET scans, MRI, fMRI create images of the brain, and pinpoint areas where the neurons are functioning based on the specific type of mental activity that is occurring. (Brynie, Faith Hickman. 101 Questions Your Brain Has Asked About Itself But Couldn’t Answer, Until Now. p 44-45, 52. CT: Millbrook Press, 1998.)

PET Scans (Positron Emission Tomography): patients receive a radioactive form of glucose, which is taken up by active brain cells and sensed by the scanner. Brain cells that are more active use more glucose and hence, active areas show up on the image as bright areas. (Giuffre, Kenneth, MD, with Theresa Foy DiGeronimo. The Care and Feeding of Your Brain. p 28. NJ: Career Press, 1999.)

PET Scans: Different areas of the brain respond to an individual’s activities in the world: the frontal cortex lights up in planning; the left or the right hemisphere lights up while reading or painting; the reticular activations system (RAS) of the brain stem lights up when one receives sensory input, such as a sound or taste, and it sends these signals to the cortex. Individual brains vary in terms of what areas these activities arouse. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 7. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

PET Scan studies: right hemisphere is more activated when the learner is feeling depressed or stressed. Left Hemisphere is more engaged when learner is experiencing a healthy optimism about life and the future. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 18. CA: The Brain Store, 2005.)

MRI studies have shown that moral decision making is associated with activation of the Brodmann area 10 (the middorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the brain’s cerebrum). Studies by Dr. Damasio have also shown that people who injure this area of the brain may exhibit serve antisocial activity (Researchers Identify Brain’s Moral Center, Reuters Health, 5-3-00. Alper, Matthew. The God Part of the Brain, p. 217-219. IL: Sourcebooks, Inc, 2008.)

Brain imaging studies: the brain starts producing reactions before the person is conscious of his/her intentions. (Lynch, Zack, PhD., with Byron Laursen. The Neuro Revolution, p. 43-44. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.)