Children smile about 400 times a day. Adults on the other hand, don't. Only a third of adults smile more than 20 times a day. Ron Gutman (he presented a TED talk on the topic) said, "Smiling can reduce the level of stress-enhancing hormones like cortisol and adrenaline while increasing mood-enhancing hormones like endorphins." (SPIRIT magazine, May 2012, page 33.)

Psychologist Paul Ekman (Human Interaction Lab at the University of California in San Francisco) says real and fake smiles have the same positive effects on brain activity, skin temperature, heart rate and respiration. (Gallozzi, Paul. Canadian writer and author of over 200 published articles on personal development. Learning to Laugh.)

SMILE (Subjective Multidimensional Interactive Laughter Evaluation): a humor profile/smile assessment developed by Lee S. Berk, PhD and Barry Bittman, MD. (Loma Linda University School of Medicine news. March 11, 1999. Laughter research conducted at LLUMC)

Women smile more than men do (e.g., in social situations, when alone). Female social smiling begins in infancy. It tends to increase as women age. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. p 97-98. NY: Random House, 1999.)

Changing facial muscles into a smile increases blood flow to the brain and stimulates the secretion of positive neurotransmitters. (Sobel, David S., and Robert Ornstein, MD. The Healthy Mind, Healthy Body Handbook. p 49-56. NY: Patient Education Media, Inc., 1996.)

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