Study by Sumby and Pollack (1954) of visual contribution to speech intelligibility as a function of auditory signal-to-noise (S/N) ratios and vocabulary size: visual contribution to overall speech intelligibility increases as the S/N ratio is decreased, such that a listener who has never been trained in lip-reading always perceives speech more accurately when she sees the speaker’s face than when she does not. (Nielsen, Kuniko. Segmental differences in the visual contribution to speech intelligibility. Abstract.)

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