Individuals who have been guilty of battering a spouse have been found by neuroimaging to be impelled by the fear of abandonment. When shown enactments of abandonment (e.g., a battered spouse announced his/her independence and leaves) areas of the batterers brain associated with anxiety and anger fire up. (Lynch, Zack, PhD., with Byron Laursen. The Neuro Revolution, p. 36-37. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.)