The male brain is hard-wired for aggression (e.g., related to testosterone). Violence is a different matter; it is taught/learned. (Gurian, Michael. The Wonder of Boys. p 6-8. NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1996.)

By age four, the majority of early offenders already had shown consistent patterns of aggression, bullying, tantrums and coercive interactions with others. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 9. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

Maternal stress and exposure to alcohol is the worst possible combination for producing aggression in offspring, particularly when it occurs early in pregnancy. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. p 62. Ghosts from the Nursery. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

Offensive aggression (competing for dominance) is impacted by male sex hormones and is more typical of males; defensive aggression (protective of oneself and one’s family) can be equally exhibited by females. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. p 116-117. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989.)

The brain’s adaptation to chronic fear and anger can trigger permanent changes in hormone levels, which may be picked up by the genes and passed on, (e.g., generations may become successively more aggressive). Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 167-168. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

Thinking aggressive thoughts can alter blood flow to the brain and interfere with abilities to control angry impulses. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 82-83. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Studies of violent males (e.g., aggressive criminals) with non-violent males: higher androgen levels were found in the blood and saliva of the violent types. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. p 116-118. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989.)

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