Drugs, alcohol, tobacco, neglect, and chronic stress are all toxins. Chronic stress or neglect can affect the development of the fetal or early infant brain; early child abuse and neglect can negatively impact learning; as does neglect/lack of stimulation necessary for normal brain development, loss of primary relationships, or breaks in caregiving. These are the precursors of the growing epidemic of violence. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 14-15. NY: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

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