Sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen can profoundly impact neural transmission and other brain functions. (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self. p 59-60. NY: Penguin Books, 2002.)

Testosterone levels are inherited. Males and females with higher levels of circulating testosterone tend to engage in more sexual activity. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. Why We Love. p 80-85. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004.)

Males have 10-20 times more testosterone in the body. The desire for sex arises in the hypothalamus, stimulated by hormones (especially testosterone). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 183-200. NY:Broadway Books, 1998.)

Testosterone levels in males dramatically increase with a vigorous exercise workout; even more so after a competitive nonaerobic workout (e.g., handball as compared to brisk walking). Levels do not appear to increase in women with similar activities. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 163. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Testosterone impacts brain and body laterality. Higher levels of testosterone are associated with faster development of the right hemisphere and the right side of the body. (Baron-Cohen, Simon, Dr. The Essential Difference: The Truth About the Male and Female Brain. p 107-109. NY:Basic Books, 2003.)

Studies have shown that music causes a biochemical expression (e.g., lowered testosterone levels) while listening to favorite music (e.g., diminishing the heightened testosterone levels necessary for fighting). It seems that music has the ability to either arouse (e.g., following the rhythmic beat of a call to fight) or to soothe and relax the mind and body. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p 11. NY:MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

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