Hormones are modulating substances that typically are released from body organs (e.g., adrenals, pituitary, sex glands) into the bloodstream and that can influence many parts of the brain/body simultaneously. Due to differences in numbers of receptor molecules in specific areas, considerable specificity can be achieved by hormonal modulation. In the brain they can alter the efficacy of gluatamte or GABA transmission. (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self. p 59-60. NY:Penguin Books, 2002.)

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