Specific factors can influence a brain that was genetically destined for brilliance to be cognitively impaired instead (e.g., mother ingests excessive alcohol during pregnancy, a child has a diet deficient in specific nutrients). (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self. p 5, 282. NY: Penguin Books, 2002.)

Study: Cocaine interferes with the transfer of nutrients and can reduce the amount of oxygen that reaches the fetus (e.g., can negatively impact growth of the body and the brain). (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 28-29. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)