A body water deficit of great then 2% of body weight marks the level of dehydration that can adversely impact performance. When exercise begins in a euhydrated state, the difference between pre- and post-activity body weight is a reasonable estimate of acute body water losses and provides an estimate of the volume of fluid replacement needed to approximate euhydration. (Casa, D. J, et al. American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on Hydration and Physical Activity: Consensus Statements. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2005: 4:115-117.)

For inactive people in temperate climates, daily water needs are as small as 1000 to 2000 ml. For most moderately active individual, daily water needs are 3000 to 5000 ml. Extended intense exercise can increase the need to 10,000 ml. During exercise, sweat loss commonly ranges from 500 to 2000 ml per hour. Additional water loss occurs through the lungs in breathing and urine. In athletes, clinical symptoms (e.g., thirst, dizziness, headache, tachycardia, oral mucosal surface moisture) should be address but are too imprecise to assess hydration accurately. During activities of long-duration, athletes should replace fluids during the activity in order to limit their fluid deficit to less than 2% of euhydrated body weight. (Casa, D. J, et al. American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on Hydration and Physical Activity: Consensus Statements. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2005: 4:115-117.)

Normal water and food intake are usually sufficient to restore normal hydration when exercise sessions are more than 24 hours apart. Rehydration within six hours of exercise requires 125-150% of water lost during exercise to make up not only for water loss but also for normal fluid needs and normal urination. For rehydration, 2000 ml consumed in 500 ml amounts every 20-30 minutes tends to be more effective than consuming the entire 2000 ml at one time. (Casa, D. J, et al. American College of Sports Medicine Roundtable on Hydration and Physical Activity: Consensus Statements. Curr Sports Med Rep. 2005: 4:115-117.)

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