Messages are sent across the synaptic cleft by means of chemical substances known as neurotransmitters. Synaptic vesicles (microscopic “bottles” inside neurons) filled with neurotransmitters are visible only under the high-power magnification of an electron microscope. The force of an electrical impulse smashes one or more bottles against the cell wall, releasing the contents into the synaptic gulf. The chemicals then diffuse across to the opposite shore. (Fields, R. Douglas, PhD. The Other Brain. p 19-21. NY: Simon & Schuster, 2009.)

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