Human Brain

The PNS connect the Central Nervous System to the muscles, blood vessels, glands, and sensory organs. The PNS includes neurons and glial cells. (Reiness, Gary. Development of the nervous system – Introduction. Accessed 2007.)

Your personality is composed of two fundamentally different types of traits: Character and Temperament. Character trains stem from your experiences. Temperament traits are the biologically-based tendencies you have inherited. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. Why Him? Why Her? p 1-5. NY:Henry Holt and Company, 2009.)

Around 400 B.C., Hippocrates proposed that one’s health and character were determined by the interaction among four bodily humors. 600 years later Galen expanded the theory, proposing that excess in one or another humor gave people distinctive personalities. (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self. p 25. NY:Penguin Books, 2002.)

Personality is the full-blown complex of reactions that distinguish an individual and involves hundreds of particulars. Temperament is more general, more basic than is the whole complex personality. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 46. NY:HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

Personality: a combination of temperament and learned experience. Refer to Temperament for additional information. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 129-130. NY:The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

In relation to brain function, the perspective of “further away” means the object is smaller. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Exploring Consciousness. p 261-267. CA:University of California Press, 1998.)

Positron Emission Tomography scanning: patients receive a radioactive form of glucose, which is taken up by active brain cells and sensed by the scanner. Brain cells that are more active use more glucose and hence, active areas show up on the image as bright areas. (Giuffre, Kenneth, MD, with Theresa Foy DiGeronimo. The Care and Feeding of Your Brain. p 28. NJ:Career Press, 1999.)

Study using positron emission tomography (PET): evidence that at least some of the negative brain effects related to methamphetamine abuse may be reversible with 9-17 months abstinence. (Zickler, Patrick. Long-Term Abstinence Brings Partial Recovery from Methamphetamine Damage. MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIDA NOTES, Vol 19, No 4, p 1, 6. Dec 2004.)

Although the sensation of a phantom limb may decrease over time, the brain appears to retain some memory of the limb. (Benson, Herbert, MD., with Marg Stark. Timeless Healing. p 93-95. NY:Scribner, 1996.)

Airborne molecules that elicit a reaction in a member of the same species are called pheromones. In humans, researchers said that pheromones send signals about your moods, your sexual orientation, and genetic makeup. (Source)

Dr. McClintock was the first researcher to discover menstrual synchronization among human females, 1971. Currently, Dr. McClintock studies pheromones, sexual behavior, fertility, and reproductive hormones. (Source)

Males have primarily been the piano tuners, at least in the past. They can listen with their left ear and get excellent pitch connection in the right hemisphere. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family.)

Although the hemispheres don’t function in isolation from each other (unless the corpus callosum is missing), the right hemisphere is specialized for working with images over words. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 72-73. PA:Rodale, 2003.)

The structures of the brain and body are somewhat flexible and can be altered by the mind (e.g., walk across live coals, allergies come and go, the placebo effect where up to 70% of the effects of a medication or treatment is due to the person’s belief). (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

The term remembered wellness was coined by Dr. Benson to replace the “placebo effect.” It more accurately describes brain functions involved when affirmative messages/beliefs positively impact the brain/body toward health and wellness. (Benson, Herbert, MD., with Marg Stark. Timeless Healing: The Power and Biology of Belief. p 20-22. NY:Scribner, 1996.)

Many brain systems are somewhat plastic. They were designed to perform particular tasks (e.g., processing sounds or sights, detecting food or danger, controlling actions). Plasticity is simply a feature that helps them do their job better. (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self. p 303-304. NY: Penguin Books, 2002.)

Because of its plasticity, the brain can rewire itself in response to new learning, and create new cells (neurogenesis) under specific circumstances. (On the Brain. Newsletter. p 2-3. CA:2005.)

Plasticity is a label that describes the ability of the brain to change. (Benson, Herbert, MD, with Marg Stark. Timeless Healing: The Power and Biology of Belief. p 90-91. NY:Scribner, 1996.)

The brain is not as plastic when it comes to gender as it is about other aspects of brain development. In large part we are hard-wired to be who we are. (Gurian, Michael, PhD., and Barbra Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. p 12-13,23. NY:Jossey-Bass, 2007.)

Quotes Paul Ekman, UCSF, that emotion is the least plastic portion of the human brain. (Shreeve, James. Beyond the Brain. National Geographic, Vol. 207, No. 3, p 19. March, 2005.)

Child’s brain recovers from injury more quickly (generalized). The adult’s brain post-trauma shows less and plasticity (more specialized). (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 42-43. NY:Harmony Books, 2001.)

There are limits to the brain’s flexibility, despite its amazing ability to adapt. Age does make it harder to reroute and establish new circuits. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 39-41. NY:Vintage Books, 2002.)

Refer to Brain Development, Postnatal for additional information.

A variety of physiological changes are associated with arousal (e.g., eye pupil dilates, respiratory rate changes, BP and heart rate rise). Changes can be recorded by a polygraph related to arousal anxiety but cannot prove innocence or guilt. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 24-26. NY:Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Polygraph tests measure changes taking place downstream from the brain rather than in the brain itself. Describes a fMRI study that showed “lies” could be detected based on increased blood flow to the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC). (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 104-106. PA:Rodale, 2003.)

The polygraph is a stress detector, NOT a lie detector. “Farwell Brain Fingerprinting” is a new technique that uses sensors to establish brain wave patterns (e.g., a specific memory network established in the brain is measurably activated when recalled). . It depends on the skill of the operator in presenting visual stimuli that only a guilty person would know. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 373-374. GA:Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Measures a person’s respiration, relative blood volume, and pulse rate. A lie triggers physiological changes (in nonsociopaths). The accuracy of a new computerized polygraph system is close to 100% (refer to Voice Stress Analysis). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. p 271. NY:Broadway Books, 2004.)

To process a negative instruction (e.g., don’t fall down), the child must access some representation of “falling down.” That internal representation, especially if it is kinesthetic, will usually result in the behavior you are trying to prevent. A positive instruction (e.g., be careful, move slowly) will access a representation that will help the child cope with the situation. (Bandler, Richard, and John Grinder. Frogs into Princes. p 64-65. UT:Real People Press. 1979.)

The more higher skills (e.g., bike riding, cognition) are practiced the more automatic they become. Initially these routines require mental strain and stretching—the formation of new synapses—but mastered, the mental processing becomes easier. Neurons initially recruited for the learning process are freed to go to other assignments, the fundamental nature of learning in the brain. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 34-35. NY:Vintage Books, 2002.)

The frontal cortex lights up during meditation (or prayer, which is a form of meditation). Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind. CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

Refer to Meditation - Prayer and the Brain for additional information.

According to recent studies by a group of leading Northeastern University network scientists, human behavior is 93% predictable. Despite the common perception that the actions of human beings are rather random and unpredictable, human mobility follows surprisingly regular patterns. The researchers were also surprised to find that the regularity and predictability of individual movement did not differ significantly across demographic categories, including age, gender, language groups, population density, and urban versus rural locations. They also studied three months of anonymous cell-phone data capturing the mobility patterns of 50,000 users chosen randomly from a pool of 10 million. The team’s research is published Science magazine. (Source)

Your preference is your predisposition for one type of thinking based on its superior natural efficiency that makes using it fun and effortless. You are born with this preference. It is a key part of who you are and it never changes. (Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind. TX: KBA Publishing, 2000.)

A preference or predisposition essentially opens up “the path of least resistance.” It takes special energy, conditions, and environment to over-ride or alter systems. (Blum, Deborah. Sex on the Brain. p 17-20. NY:Penguin Books, 1997.)

Competency and preference are not the same. Everyone can and generally does develop competencies in every cerebral mode. Some of the competencies may be at a very high level (e.g., mastery). It is possible for a person to develop this type of mastery in more than one of the four specialized cerebral regsions. But each person only has one preference (e.g., one specialized region with natural efficiency that allows it to use 1/100th the energy that is required by the other three modes). Competency alone may improve efficiency by 1-2 percent. While the person’s one and only preference improves efficiency by 100 percent. Thinking with “preference” uses so little energy the person feels it is easy and effortless. This was shown originally more than a decade ago by Dr. Richard Haier and subsequently by other independent researchers including Dr. Karl Pribram. (Benziger, Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind: The Art and Science of Using Your Whole Brain. p 250-263. IL:KBA, 2009.)

Individuals, although a coalition of four different selves (e.g., four cerebral quadrants), prefer to use one or more of those selves compared to the others. All profiles are composed of most preferred and least preferred thinking modes. These combinations of preferences are sometimes extreme. Over time the chances are good that we will do the things we prefer as a result of our thinking style, and we will not do the things that we prefer not to do. (Herrmann, Ned. The Whole Brain Business Book. p 38-41. NY:McGraw-Hill, 1996.)

See Brain Lead and Lateralization for additional information.

The prefrontal cortex receives connections from specialized systems (e.g., visual and auditory systems), enabling it to be aware of what’s going on in the outside world and to integrate the information it gathers. It receives connections from the hippocampus allowing it to retrieve stored information. It sends connections to areas involved in movement control, allowing executive decisions to be turned into voluntary actions. (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self, How Our Brains Become Who We Are. p 180-181. NY:Penguin Books, 2002)

Stage 1 development is during 1st year of life; stage 2 begins about age 15. Development is shaped by experiences the child has. Level of care, nurturing, and caregiver’s emotional state can impact development at the cellular level. (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence. p 42-46. VT:Park Street Press, 2002.)

The prefrontal cortex is responsible principally for four control functions:

  • Sequencing
  • Drive
  • Executive Control
  • Future Memory

(Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 47-50. NY:Harmony Books, 2001.)

The pre-frontal portions of the brain play a role in the “volitional control of conscious sensory experience.” (Schwartz, Jeffrey M., MD, and Sharon Begley. The Mind & the Brain. p 313-315. NY:Regan Books, 2002.)

The hind brain (e.g., brain stem, cerebellum), that functions in a habitual manner, registers present tense only. (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence. p 24-25. VT:Park Street Press, 2002.)

Problem solving and creativity both function by using intelligent memory (as opposed to ordinary memory), in finding new connections. (Gordon, Barry, MD, PhD, and Lisa Berger. Intelligent Memory. p 46, 158. NY:Penguin Group, 2003.)

The experience of stories can lead to the development of imagination that is utilized in a wide range of intellectual activities and required for all types of problem solving. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Endangered Minds. p 92-93. NY:Simon & Schuster, 1990.)

The most liberal estimate is that people can process consciously about 40 pieces of information per second. (Wilson, Timothy D. Strangers to Ourselves. p 24. England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002.)

Much of the energy influencing your decision to put off doing certain tasks comes from your natural dominance and your own internal desire to do the things that uplift and energize you, even if you have not known that they did this because: they use your preference, or they match your natural extraversion or introversion, or they do both. (Thriving in Mind. Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. p 133. TX:KBA Publishing, 2000.)

Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI) Research: The way in which the brain thinks translates directly to the way in which the body and all its systems operate. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. p 215. CA:Mountain of Love/Elite Books, 2005.)

Refer to Senses and the Brain for additional information.

At puberty the brain changes toward increased genderization. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! p 41. CA:Jossey-Bass, 2001.)

Each cerebral quadrant brings critically important contributions to effective living and working. (Herrmann, Ned. The Creative Brain. p 69. NC:Ned Herrmann Group, 1993.)

It is easier for the brain to first quantify objects into pairs and then to differentiate them into opposing groups:  right or wrong, lights or dark, Republican or Democrat, etc. This neural process of simplification and generalization is a form of biological stereotyping because it does not take into account individual differences and nuances. Once an oppositional dyad is created, the brain will then impose an emotional bias on each (root for favorite sports team and disparage the other). This includes people from different cultural, religious, and ethnic background. Unfortunately, this inborn us-versus-them mentality easily converts into racism. (Newberg, Andrew, MD and Mark Robert Waldman. Why We Believe What We Believe. P 87-92. NY: Free Press, 2006)

Brain imaging studies have indicated that the brain starts producing reactions before the person is conscious of his/her intentions. (Lynch, Zack, PhD., with Byron Laursen. The Neuro Revolution, p. 43-44. NY:St. Martin’s Press, 2009.)

Based on baboon studies by Jonathan Grainger of CNRS and Aix-Marseille University in France, the ability to read may involve simple object-identification skills rather than on more advanced linguistic skills. Even though baboons do not use language, they can learn to distinguish real words from nonsense. The baboons probably identified the English words by using orthographic information—the identity and position of the letters within the word. The hope is that this and similar studies may help to uncover the causes of reading disabilities such as dyslexia.(Haghighat, Leila. "Baboons can learn to recognize words," Nature, 2012. Granger, Jonathan. "Orthographic Processing in Baboons (Papio papio)," Science, 2012. Platt, Michael L., Geoffrey K. Adams, "Monkey See, Monkey Read", Science; 2012.)

Are you a proficient reader? Researchers at Stanford University have found that proficient reading requires efficient communication between brain areas that involve vision, hearing, and language. These areas are distributed throughout the brain so thedevelopment of reading ability relates to growth in the brain’s white-matter tracts, bundles of myelinated nerve fibers that connect these distant regions of the brain.The growth of these white-matter tracts is governed by pruning (the elimination of extraneous nerve fibers and neuronal connections); and myelination (the coating of nerve fibers with myelin, a fatty, insulating tissue that increases the speed of transmission). Both processes are influenced by experience: underused nerve fibers are pruned while others are myelinated--so they occur at different rates and times in different people. Bottom line? Read to children; listen to them read. Read aloud to yourself. Keep those nerve fibers stimulated! (Source)

The brain processing for reading is different from listening (e.g., listening to an audiobook creates a different set of memories compared to reading a book). The right hemisphere is not as active in reading. Listening triggered increased activity in the left part triangularis (a component of Broca’s area). (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. 181-182. PA:Rodale, 2003.)

Both left and right hemispheres and the prefrontal systems are used in the brains of good readers. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Endangered Minds. p 215-218. NY:Simon & Schuster, 1990.)

Under certain circumstances, emotion can disrupt reasoning. Yet research indicates that reduction in emotion may constitute an equally important source of irrational behavior. (Cooper, Robert K., PhD., and Ayman Sawaf. Executive EQ. p xxxii-xxxiii. NY:Grosset/Putnam 1997.)

Within one hour, 60% of all we learn is forgotten—80% within one month. (Stine, Jean Marie. Double Your Brain Power. p 13. NY:Prentice Hall, Inc., 1997.)

Receptor molecules have a specific shape. Think of a lock and key. That’s a metaphor for how receptor molecules and neurotransmitters work. (Brynie, Faith Hickman. 101 Questions Your Brain Has Asked About Itself But Couldn’t Answer, Until Now. p 35. CT:Millbrook Press, 1998.)

Look at faces activates the fusiform area; looking at places the parahippocampal area. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 180-181. PA:Rodale, 2003.)

Recruitment can be defined as enhancement of a sensory experience through the use of two or more senses (as compared to only one) when absorbing sensory data. For example, regardless of your sensory preference, you probably benefit from seeing a person’s face while communicating with him/her, especially if the surrounding environment is noisy. Looking at beautifully presented food often enhances the perception of its taste. Watching a person present a musical concert as you listen to the music may provide a very different experience to your brain when you listen to a CD of the concert later on. Studies in France have shown that multisensory integration is mediated by flexible, highly adaptive physiological processes that can take place very early in the sensory processing chain and that operate in both sensory-specific and nonspecific cortical structures in the brain in differing ways. Bottom line? Sensory recruitment often enhances your sensory experience as your brain absorbs incoming data in a way that does not occur when you receive the data primarily through only one sensory system. (Source 1) (Source 2)

Alternative labels to explain the brain phenomenon of downshifting.  (Sylwester, Robert. The Downshifting Dilemma: A Commentary and Proposal.)

Refer to Downshifting for additional information.

Any pattern of emotion or behavior that is continually reinforced will become an automatic and conditioned response... anything we fail to reinforce will eventually dissipate. Reinforcement is responding to a behavior immediately after it occurs, while punishment and reward may occur long afterward. (Robbins, Anthony. Awaken the Giant Within. p 136-140. NY:Fireside, 1991.)

Pivotal people, so-called, can impact you positively or negatively. They often affirm or uplift you in some life-changing way. Sometimes the impact is negative. (McGraw, Phillip C., PhD. Self Matters. p 155. NY:Simon & Schuster Source, 2001.)

Because of its plasticity throughout life, the brain can rewire itself in response to new learning, and can even create new cells (neurogenesis) under specific circumstances. (On the Brain, Newsletter. p 2-3. CA:2005.)

Studies by Michael Merzenich of UCSF have shown that the more a person indulges in any pattern of behavior the stronger that pattern becomes. (Robbins, Anthony. Awaken the Giant Within. p 117-120. NY:Fireside, 1991.)

The hind brain that functions in a habitual manner. It can’t alter learned patterns of behavior on its own. It can take over the physician functions of learned skills (e.g., typing, bike riding, driving a car). It registers present tense only. (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence. p 24-25. VT:Park Street Press, 2002.)

Brain-based research came into its own in the 1990s. Outlines how his book brings together three primary points of view on brain-based research: Neurologcial and endocrinological (hormonal) effects on learning and development; Developmental psychology; Gender-difference research. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! p 2. CA:Jossey-Bass, 2001.)

The human brain has the same organization, the same types of neurons, and the same set of neurotransmitters as other mammalian brains, which is why rats and monkeys are so widely used to test theories about human brain function. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 22. NY:Vintage Books, 2002.)

The brain is about 2% of total body weight. It consumes 25% of metabolic energy and 40% of blood glucose as food. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. Why We Love. p 140-141. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004.)

The RAS collects sensory input from the body, collates it, and routes it to appropriate decoding centers in other parts of the brain (e.g., the cerebrum). (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence. p 110. VT:Park Street Press, 2002.)

Activity in the Reticular Formation stimulates the cortex into action—without which there is no consciousness. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Exploring Consciousness. p 29, 115. CA:University of California Press, 1998.)

The RAS originates in brainstem and handles functions essential to the alert conscious state. (Guiffre, Kenneth, MD. The Care and Feeding of Your Brain. p 22-23. NJ:Career Press, 1999.)

The RAS controls the general level of arousal (e.g., one’s position on the extroversion-ambiversion-introversion continuum). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 51-52. NY:HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

The caudate is involved with preferring, anticipating, and seeking a reward. The ventral tegmental area houses cells that make and distribute dopamine, the brain chemical associated with feelings of elation (e.g., core feelings of romantic love). (Fisher, Helen, PhD. Why We Love. p 69-80. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004.)

The brain’s ability to rewire means that in theory, at least, it can recover from damage. Young children who have had an entire brain hemisphere removed manage to compensate with only slight mental or physical disabilities. Rewiring is possible throughout life. The brain can rewire on a widespread scale. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 38-40. NY:Vintage Books, 2002.)

The brain can rewire its circuitry at almost any age. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 149. PA:Rodale, 2003.)

Your habitual attitudes form neural circuits in the brain. If you choose to maintain a specific attitude, the brain can literally rewire itself to facilitate that attitude. (Childre, Doc and Howard Martin. The HeartMath Solution. p 195-196. CA:Harper SF, 1999.)

See Hemisphere, Right (above) for additional information.

Right-brained or left-brained thinking (so called) is actually a fluctuation on a continuum between two extremes: Left linear, analytical sequential thinking; versus Right holistic, global, and simultaneous thinking. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Endangered Minds. p 124-126. NY:Simon & Schuster, 1990.)

fMRI studies at USC Brain and Creativity Institute with a task that measures risk tolerance have identified distinct brain regions in the prefrontal with competing responses. Activity in one region identified risk-averse volunteers, while activity in a different region was greater in those with an appetite for risk. (Brain Mysteries. Risk and reward compete in brain. 2008.)

Romantic love can last in the brain between 12-18 months. Where there are barriers to the relationship, however, adversity may extend ardor. Also refer to Emotions and Feelings for additional information. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. Why We Love. p 24-25. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004.)

The more that higher skills (e.g., bike riding, cognition) are practiced, the more automatic they become. Initially they require the formation of new synapses and connections to neural assemblies. But once the routine is mastered, mental processing becomes easier and neurons are freed to go to other assignments. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 34-35. NY:Vintage Books, 2002.)

CT (computerized tomography) scans and PET (positron-emission tomography) scans can turn out clear images of brain anatomy and metabolism and track chemicals as they make their way through elaborate pathways in the brain, as they elicit mood changes and lay down long-term memory. (Carper, Jean. Your Miracle Brain. p 3. NY:HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 2000.)

Things we consciously know about who we are make up the explicit aspects of the self. Implicit aspects involve other aspects that are not immediately available to consciousness, either because they are inaccessible, or because they are accessible but not being accessed at the moment. (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self, How Our Brains Become Who We Are. p 27-29. NY:Penguin Books, 2002.)

The region of brain in which the self-will area was found is the prefrontal cortex, a region of the frontal cortex that lies mainly behind the forehead. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 25. CA:University of California Press, 1998.)

Indicates that sensory data are either dropped or retained in approximatelythree-fourths of a second. In order to retain longer the brain must implement a strategy (e.g., rehearse, repetition, sing, rhyme, movement, chunk information, tie to another known). Information is available on her web site. (Barron, Maria Almendarez. Surprising Truths, the Implications of Brain Research.)

We actually see, hear, taste, and smell with the brain rather than with the eyes, ears, taste buds, and nose. This is an example of brain plasticity. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 158-159. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Refer to Senses and the Brain for additional information.

Each individual has a set point, like that of a thermostat, for each of three basic dimensions or aspects of temperament: gain, deliberation-liberation, and approach-withdraw. Where one is set on each of these dimensions seems to endure within the individual. They are the primitive roots of individuality. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 48. NY:HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

Sexual drive centers on the hypothalamus, but like other urges, it radiates out to encompass a wide range of other brain areas in both the limbic area and the cortex. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 72. CA:University of California Press, 1998.)

Refer to Brain Dysfunctions for additional information.

The hypothalamus is the sex center. Less than an ounce in weight and about the size of a cherry, it is larger in the male brain than in the female brain or in the brains of homosexuals and transsexuals. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 183-200. NY:Broadway Books, 1998.)

Refer to Sexuality and the Brain for additional information.

Shifting enables you to use more of your brainpower by consciously selecting the appropriate brain style. This can increase energy levels and release creative abilities. For example: Shift phone to left ear (controlled by right brain) for empathetic listening. Shift phone of right ear (controlled by left hemisphere) for analytic listening. (Wonder, Jacquelyn and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 52-56. NY:Ballantine Books, 1984.)

The use of sign language can stimulate and educate the right brain, thereby cultivating student creativity. Sign language's benefits are that it forces the hearing person to think differently, can add clarity to oral communication, and could be applied to help children with learning disabilities. (ERIC: EJ405300 - Using Sign Language to Access Right Brain Communication: A Tool for Teachers)

The human brain is not an all-purpose computing device, but a device made up of an enormous number of serially wired specialty circuits. They run in parallel and are distributed across the brain, which allows all manner of simultaneous nonconscious processing to occur (e.g., enables you to drive a car). (Gazzaniga, Michael S. Who's In Charge? p 69. NY:HarperCollins Publishers, 2011)

The quality of the ear’s response to sound is reflected in the quality of the individual’s voice. If the ear can’t clearly perceive higher frequency sounds, the individual will be unable to reproduce these sounds vocally: in singing or in speech. (Tomatis, Alfred A, M.D. Editor Timothy M. Gilmore, PhD, et al. About the Tomatis Method. p 18-20. Canada:The Listening Centre Press, 1989.)

The brain is a physical object that can be seen, held, and touched. It is about the size of a grapefruit, divided into two hemispheres by a midline cleft extending from front to back. (Restak, Richard. Mysteries of the Mind. p 13. Washington, DC:National Geographic, 2000.)

Brain size is determined by body size. Intelligence is not related to size. (Greenfield, Susan, Con. Ed. Brain Power, Working out the Human Mind. p 146. The Ivy Press Limited, 1999.)

Males have a specific location in the brain for sensing direction. Females have specific locations for speech. People are not naturally good at/don’t particularly enjoy tasks that require use of skills for which there is no clear brain location. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 48-50. NY:Broadway Books, 1998.)

The mind continues to work during sleep (e.g., processes information, stores memories, solving problems). The subconscious is free to take an unorthodox approach. (Fontana, David, PhD. Teach Yourself to Dream. p 60-64. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 1997.)

The brain has different levels of vigilance but it never truly falls completely asleep. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. p 24. NY:Broadway Books, 1999.)

Sleep gives the brain a rest. Production of serotonin and norepinephrine are reduced during sleep. Rapid Eye Movement sleep is correlated with dreaming. Several periods each sleep period. REM sleep is important to one’s psychological health. (Fontana, David, PhD. Teach Yourself to Dream: A Practical Guide. p 16-19. CA:Chronicle Books, 1997.)

Refer to Sleep and the Brain for additional information.

Dr. Daniel Siegel is the founder of interpersonal neurobiology, a new field that studies the "social brain." It includes a multitude of circuitry designed to interact with another person's brain. One key discovery was "mirror neurons They activatge in you exactly wha you see in another person including emotions, movements, and even intentions. (Goleman, Daniel Jay, PhD. The Brain and Emotional Intelligence: New Insights. p 54-58. MA:More Than Sound, 2011)

Social interactions play a role through neuroplasticity. Repeated experiences reshape the brain in terms of size, shape, and number of neurons and their synaptic connections. Our relationships have subtle, yet powerful, lifelong impacts upon us. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD. Social Intelligence. p 11. NY:Bantam Dell. 2006.)

A well-developed limbic system contributes to social adroitness. (Miller, Lawrence, PhD. Inner Natures. Brain, Self & Personality. p 273-290. NY:Ballantine Books, 1990.)

Social neuroscience is a fledgling discipline that says the brain operates differently depending on social context. A fundamental insight concerns the basiclaly social nature of the brain. For example:

  • In monkeys, physical contact was even more iportant than food in determining mother-infant attachment.
  • Amphetamine increases dominant behavior in monkeys high in the social hierarchy, but increases submissive behavior in monkeys close to the bottom of that hirearchy.

(Restak, Richard, M.D. The Naked Brain. p 3-7. NY:Three Rivers Press, 2006.)

A person’s verbalization of time appears to differ based on language. Here are some examples:

  • English speakers tend to use horizontal spatial metaphors for time (e.g., this time is ahead of us, that time is behind us)
  • Mandarin speakers tend to use vertical metaphors for time (e.g., next month is the “down month,” last month is the “up month”)

(Max Brockman, Editor. What’s Next? Dispatches on the Future of Science. p 118-123. NY:Vintage Books, 2009.)

Refer to Cultural Neuroscience for additional information.

Refer to Practical Applications, Cultural Neuroscience for additional information.

Studies have shown that sociopaths have deficits in several brain areas that are key to emotional intelligence: the anterior cingulate, the orbitofrontal cortex, the amygdala, and insula. There are also deficits in the connectivity of these regions to other parts of the brain. (Goleman, Daniel. The Brain and Emotional Intelligence: New Insights. p 66-67. MA:More Than Sound, 2011)

The chemical composition of the neurons themselves is ever changing. There is no separate and unchanging hardware, in contrast to a programmable range of software. (Carper, Jean. Your Miracle Brain. p 3. NY:HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 2000.)

Speaking and drawing utilize different areas in the brain. Speaking and writing, however, share some of the same brain circuitry. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 60-62. PA:Rodale, 2003.)

Speaking effectively requires a fine balance between the left and right hemispheres. Speakers who hold your attention usually shift from side to side, alternating between precise, logical speech in rapid crisp style, and some personal comment, a joke, or a dramatic experience in an animated expressive style. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 166. NY:Ballantine Books, 1984.)

The quality of the ear’s response to sound is reflected in the quality of the individual’s voice. If the ear can’t clearly perceive higher frequency sounds, the individual will be unable to reproduce these sounds vocally: in singing or in speech. (Tomatis, Alfred A, M.D. Editor Timothy M. Gilmore, PhD, et al. About the Tomatis Method. p 18-20. Canada:The Listening Centre Press, 1989.)

There is an area in the temporal lobe of the right hemisphere that appears to be able to produce intense feelings of spiritual transcendence, combined with a sense of some mystical presence. Such feelings have been elicited in otherwise unreligious people by stimulating this area. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 20. CA:University of California Press, 1998.)

After all, if God exists, it figures He must have created us with some biological mechanism with which to apprehend Him. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 19. CA:University of California Press, 1998.)

Identifies spirituality as difficult to describe and as relating to functions of the right hemisphere (as compared with “proclamation” that involve left-hemisphere functions). (Benson, Herbert, MD, with William Proctor. Your Maximum Mind. p 195-198. NY:Avon Books, 1987.)

Refer to Spirituality and the Brain for additional information.

Much of what we know about the differences in left- and right-brain processing comes from studies of split-brain patients, patients studied by Michael Gazzaniga and Joseph LeDoux. The nerve fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the brain (the corpus callosum) were cut in these patients, to reduce severe seizures that did not respond to other treatments. (Wilson, Timothy D. Strangers to Ourselves. p 95-96. England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002.)

In 1981, Roger Sperry won the Nobel Prize for his proof of the split-brain theory, which says that our problem-solving skills, physical and mental abilities, and even personality traits are strongly influenced by our habit of using one side of the brain more than the other. Brain bias explains why one person is a math whiz while “creative types” often flounder when trying to balance their checking accounts. Not only individuals, but also organizations have brain bias. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p X. NY:Ballantine Books, 1984.)

The most important aspect of split-brain research is not that specific areas in the brain perform specific tasks but that in undertaking most physical and mental activities, the intricate integration of both hemispheres is fundamental. Smaller communicating commissures in the brainstem (e.g., left and right superior colliculi) are not cut in split-brain operations. (Dauphin, Bridget. Understanding Brain Specialization Through Split-Brain Research.)

Studies by Mark Cregan PhD, a molecular biologist with The University of Western Australia: breast milk has been found to contain cells that possess all the characteristics of stem cells. This could provide science with a method of harvesting stem cells for research. (Hartley, Jo. Stem Cells Discovered in Human Breast Milk)

The tendency to categorize and stereotype other people is an example of automatic thinking, which is likely innate. The brain is prewired to fit people into categories. The content of one’s stereotypes is not innate, however. (Wilson, Timothy D. Strangers to Ourselves. p 52-53. England:The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002.)

Stories help you make sense out of the world, you dream stories. They give life to past experience, help build intellect, enable you to grasp and retain information more easily, and can educate heart and mind. (Trelease, Jim. The Read-Aloud Handbook. p 56-57. NY:Penguin Books, Fifth Edition, 2001.)

Stories have their own “special niche” in the process of the brain developing memory, attention, and reflective thought patterns. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Endangered Minds. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1990.)

The Yerkes-Dodson Law (a century old) describes the relationsip between stress and performance. Showing three main states (disengagement, flow, and frazzle, it actually describes the HPA axis, the circuitry that secretes stress hormones when the amhygdala gets triggered. Disengagement triggers too little hormone and performance lags; overwhelm triggers too much that can lead to burnout and hampered performance; motivation and engagement can result in flow and good performance. (Goleman, Daniel Jay, PhD. The Brain and Emotional Intelligence: New Insights. p 45-57. MA:More Than Sound, 2011)

Refer to Stress and the Brain for additional information.

Seeking knowledge about the brain is not only a valid scientific pursuit; it can also improve the quality of life, as when it uncovers new ways of treating neurological or psychiatric disorders. (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self, How Our Brains Become Who We Are. p 3. NY:Penguin Books, 2002.)

Techniques to study functions of normal brains include use of:

  • A tachistoscope, specifically designed glasses to present stimuli to a single visual field.
  • Dichotic listening, headphones through which each ear hears a competing stimulus.

(Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 20-22. CA:Touchstone Books: 1986.)

Your body is your subconscious mind. What goes on in the brain is acted out in the body. (Pert, Candace, PhD Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind audiocassettes). CO:Sounds True, 2000.)

Studies by Emmanuael Donchin, Director of the Laboratory for cognitive Psycholophysiology at the University of Illinois. As much as 99% of cognitive activity may be nonconscious. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD, and Robert M. Williams, MA. Mind or Genes: What Controls Your Life?)

Studies have shown that the brain may have difficulty (or may not do so at all) distinguiging between supraliminal (above the conscious threshold) and subliminal (below the conscious threshold. (Restak, Richard, MD. The Naked Brain. p 33-34. NY:Three Rivers Press, 2006.)

Discovered about 1930, Substance p is involved in the transmission of pain impulses from the spinal cord to the brain. Released in the skin, you feel pain. Released in the brain you feel anxiety and depression. (Perricone, Nicholas, MD. The Perricone Promise. p 24-25. NY:Warner Books, 2004.)

Variations in brain organization produce special talents in some individuals and deficits in others. In fact, deficits and talents can be seen in the same person. Fundamental elements of personality (e.g., thought, feeling, action, subtleties of perception and communication) can be understandable in terms of individual differences in cognitive style--encoded in the hemispheric brain systems. (Miller, Lawrence, PhD. Inner Natures. Brain, Self & Personality. p 44-46. NY:Ballantine Books, 1990.)

Some things are easy to learn and to do. Others may be easy to learn and hard to do (e.g., tying shoelaces). Some are hard to learn and hard to do (e.g., golf). Talent is when something is easy to do and you don’t remember learning it. When you mix talent with what you love to do, you are in a state of grace. (Frare, Bob, CSP. The Legacy of William H. Gove. Professional Speaker. p 11. NSA, October 2002.)

Maximize the effectiveness of teamwork based on brain preference. Team up with another brain, each contributing what it does best. (Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind. p 302-326. TX:KBA Publishing 2000.)

Offers suggestions for maximizing the results that can be obtained through teamwork by utilizing mental diversity, and emphasizes the importance of the climate in which the team is expected to function. (Herrmann, Ned. The Whole Brain Business Book. p 123-130. NY:McGraw-Hill, 1996.)

Tears (an emotional signal) are triggered by the amygdala and the nearby cingulated gyrus in the emotional brain layer. Being held/comforted soothes these same brain regions. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD. Emotional Intelligence. p 14-15. NY:Bantam Books, 1995.)

Tears of sadness and of laughter contain proteins not present in tears from cutting onions or other eye irritations. Both types of tears can help cleanse the body of stress chemicals but sad tears tend to turn us inward and laughter tears tend to turn us outward. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. p 196-197. CA:Mountain of Love/Elite Books, 2005.)

Refer to Television – Movies and the Brain for additional information.

There is considerable evidence that much of our basic temperament is inherent to us, whether it is directly inherited or not. For example, people with differing temperaments have different requirements for sedatives. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 44. NY:HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

Temperament refers to neurological processes that are inherited and observable as behaviors from infancy, and/or in the womb. Examples include:

  • Activity
  • Adaptability
  • Approach/withdrawal
  • Attentiveness/persistence
  • Rhythmicity
  • Sensory sensitivity (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for The Brain. p 67. GA:Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Your personality is composed of two fundamentally different types of traits: Character and Temperament. Character trains stem from your experiences. Temperament traits are the biologically-based tendencies you have inherited. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. Why Him? Why Her? p 1-5. NY:Henry Holt and Company, 2009.)

Describes the existence of personality traits or temperament. Includes a table outlining the four temperaments from early Greece to the present (Phlegmatic, Melancholic, Sanguine, Choleric), to Jung (Thinker, Intuitor, Sensor, Feeler), and Kolbe (follow through, quick start, implementor, fact finder). (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 418-440. GA:Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Heredity exerts a direct effect on temperament, determining the basic style of any individual’s behavior (the content, quality and outcome showing wide variation that reflects the differing ways underlying temperament can be expressed). (Claridge, Gordon. Origins of Mental Illness. p 68-70. MA: Malor Book, 1995.)

Temperament: a person’s predisposition to respond to specific events in a specific way. Refers to style rather than content of behavior (the how, not the what). It is more basic than the whole complex personality (e.g., does things slowly or quickly, seeks excitement or sits alone, is highly expressive or inhibited). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 40-47. NY:HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

Temperament: a subset of personality, refers to children’s basic orientation to emotion and arousal (e.g. sensitivity to stimulation). It appears early in life and is greatly influenced by environmental experiences even before birth. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 129-130. NY:The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

Temperament refers to neurological processes that are inherited and observable as behaviors from infancy. While temperament is inherited, adult personality is based on inheritance plus what is learned from the environment—formed around the core of inherited neurological processes. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 67. GA:Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

The temporal lobe in each hemisphere contains areas involved in hearing and understanding speech. It also contains connections to the hippocampus and amygdala, which are important in learning, memory, and emotion. The temporal lobe helps integrate inner experiences and provides a sense of identity. (Restak, Richard. Mysteries of the Mind. p 20. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 2000.)

The temporal lobes store personal memories and processes sound and speech. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Exploring Consciousness. p 29, 115. CA:University of California Press, 1998.)

According to Ericsson, the highest levels of performance and achievement appear to require at least 10 years of intense prior preparation. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 23. PA:Rodale, 2003.)

Testosterone level can be increased by participating in a competitive sport and winning. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 691. GA:Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

The male brain is prewired to respond to testosterone. Identical doses of testosterone can raise a girl’s aggression level but will not have the same degree of effect as it does on a boy. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 161-162. NY:Broadway Books, 1998.)

Testosterone shapes center in the brain that process spatial information. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! p 42. CA:Jossey-Bass, 2001.)

When highly anxious people takes tests, the heightened anxiety drives up the level of mental noise in the brain. They may literally see less of their environment, as though the brain space usually open for perception is busy with the internal noise. They will look at a test question and literally not see certain words, misinterpret the question and give the wrong answer, or miss seeing entire questions on the page. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 61-62. NY:Vintage Books, 2002.)

The thalamus is a sort of relay station, directing incoming information to the appropriate part of the brain for further processing. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 11. CA:University of California Press, 1998.)

A way station for nerve impulses on their way from the periphery to the cerebral cortex and other parts of the brain. Taken from the Greek word for “inner room,” the thalamus is located just outside the main entrance to the cerebral hemispheres. (Restak, Richard. Mysteries of the Mind. p 21. Washington, DC:National Geographic, 2000.)

The thalamus directs the flow of sensory data between the sense organs and decoding centers in the cerebrum. (Wolfe, Patricia, PhD. Brain Matters. p 24-26. Virginia:ASCD, 2001.)

Most sensory information from the outside world enters the lower brain stem. The thalamus then classifies the information (e.g., visual, auditory) and relays it to the appropriate part of the cortex. The thalamus can also amplify or reduce incoming information. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 52-53. NY:HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

The thalamus regulates emotional life and physical safety; processes incoming sensory information; tells us what’s going on outside body. It processes data faster in females, especially at certain times in the menstrual cycle. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! p 26. A:Jossey-Bass, 2001.)

The thalamus functions as the brain’s switchboard that filters sensory data to be sent to the cortex. (Brynie, Faith Hickman. 101 Questions Your Brain Has Asked About Itself But Couldn’t Answer, Until Now. p 146. CT:Millbrook Press, 1998.)

The thalamus directs attention and switches sensory input on and off. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Exploring Consciousness. p 29, 115. CA:University of California Press, 1998.)

All types of thinking utilize both hemispheres at the same time. The well-functioning brain is able to mix/match abilities for any learning situation. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Endangered Minds. p 124-126. NY:Simon & Schuster, 1990.)

Behavioral Kinesiology (the study of muscles and their movements) played a part in revealing how closely connected the mind is with the body. The mind “thinks” with the body itself. (Hawkins, David R., MD, PhD. Power versus Force. p 1-3, 41-43. CA:Hay House, Inc., 1995, 2002.)

Every though you think goes toward the composition of your body chemistry. (Fox, Arnold, MD, and Barry Fox, PhD. Wake Up! You’re Alive! p 30-32. FL: Health Communications, 1988.)

Psychoneuroimmunology Research: The way in which the brain thinks translates directly to the way in which the body and all its systems operate. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. p 215. CA:Mountain of Love/Elite Books, 2005.)

The cortex, a wrinkled layer less than ¼ inch thick covers each hemisphere for the thinking brain. More than seven of every ten neurons in the entire human nervous system are found in the cortex. (Brynie, Faith Hickman. 101 Questions Your Brain Has Asked About Itself But Couldn’t Answer, Until Now. p 15. CT:Millbrook Press, 1998.)

In the adult brain, the two hemispheres are quite different in their functioning. (Greenfield, Susan, Con. Ed. Brain Power, Working out the Human Mind. p 52. The Ivy Press Limited, 1999.)

The brain is always thinking about something. Like background music in a movie, thoughts are with us 24 hours a day, from birth to death. (Shaevitz, Marjorie Hansen. The Confident Woman. p 189-190. NY:Harmony Books, 1999.)

Consciousness creates reality, mind becomes matter. Thoughts precede physical bodies, not vice versa. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. p 250-251. NY:Scribner, 1997.)

The brain can keep only one thought at a time in the foreground of consciousness. It is important to emphasize uplifting thoughts. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 113-114. NY:Harmony Books, 2001.)

The prefrontal cortex of the human brain (among other functions) collects and weighs sensory data, integrates thoughts with feelings, makes choices, and controls basic drives. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. Why We Love. p 76. NY:Henry Holt and Company, 2004.)

The concept of downshifting appears to fit with both what is now known about the triune nature of the human brain, and what is observed in instructional settings, as well as in activities of daily living. If the brain is shut down (downshifted) by threat one must expect learning failure. One’s neocortex functions fully only when one feels secure. (Hart, Leslie A. Human Brain and Human Learning. p 108-110. NY: Longman Inc, 1983.)

Your brain is as unique as your thumbprint. Its variability reflects genetic and environmental influences, and the connections between cells created as a result of personal thoughts. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 15. CA:The Brain Store, 2005.)

Time is proccessed (past to future) from the back to the front of the brain. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 16-17. CA:The Brain Store, 2005.)

You "train your own brain" at some level every time you develop a habit or hone a skill. Psychologist Anna Rose Childress and colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania have used a combination of brain-scanning and feedback techniques to train subjects to move a cursor up and down using only their thoughts. The subjects could perform this task after just five minutes of training. Earlier studies have shown that people can learn to consciously control their brain activity if they're shown their brain activity data in real time—a technique called real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Using this technology people have learned to control chronic pain and depression. Similar feedback methods may be able to help drug users alter their behaviors in relation to addictions. (Source)

Refer to Sexuality and the Brain for additional information.

Refer to Trauma and the Brain for additional information.

Conscious thought occurs in the cerebral layer. The pre-frontal cortex handles most of our decision making, and helps to process a variety of sensory stimuli. The other two brain layers are the brain stem and the limbic system. (Gurian, Michael, and Patricia Henley with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! p 17-20. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Company, 2001.)

The triune brain, so called, consists of the cortex and neo-cortex, limbic system or mammalian brain, and the brainstem and cerebellum or reptilian brain. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 33. CA:University of California Press, 1998.)

The brainstem, the limbic system, and the cerebrum constitute one way of describing the brain. The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres. The cortex of each hemisphere is divided into four areas called lobes: The frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the occipital lobe, and the temporal lobe. (Ornstein, Robert, and Richard F. Thompson. The Amazing Brain. Preface. NY:Houghton Mifflin Company, 1984.)

enfrdeitptrues
Share this page via
Go to top
JSN Boot template designed by JoomlaShine.com