Visual Sense

Any part of the mind can be accessed and entered at any point (much like the internet that you can access it at many different sites). This can happen through the ear, the hand, the eye, the nose, etc. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

The five senses react most strongly to change. When the same stimulus is presented continuously, receptors undergo adaptation—they accept the signal as routine and the messages in the brain weaken in intensity. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 72-73. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)

When your eyes have been looking at something for awhile, especially something in a bright spotlight, and the spotlight is turned off, your visual neurons that have become adapted to the spotlight object will fire a rebound response (an after discharge). This causes a gostly image of the object to linger for a moment. Afterimages linger in ALL sensory systems. (Macknik, Stephen L. PhD and Susana Martinez-Conde PhD. Sleights of Mind. p 14-16. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2010.)

Ample evidence that being out in the real world and engaging all the senses (including emotional and social senses) is essential to a healthy brain and an active memory, especially as the brain ages. (Katz, Lawrence C., PhD and Manning Rubin. Keep Your Brain Alive. p 29. NY: Workman Publishing Company, Inc., 1999.)

Studies at the University of North Carolina Wilmington on the impact of custom animation in PowerPoint lectures: although students appear to like the animation, it is actually entertaining distraction for the brain. Students seeing the non-animated lecture performed much better in subsequent tests of content than those who watched the animated lecture. Conclusion: animated slides meant to present information incrementally actually require greater concentration, which makes it harder to remember content as well as reducing overall exposure time to the "complete" slide. (The Dark Side of Animation.)

Taylor’s Sensory Preference Assessment is available at the following locations:

  • Taylor’s website homepage - www.arlenetaylor.org
  • MindWaves - The Concerned Group (book)
  • Wired by God - Focus on the Family (book)
  • Your Brain Has a Bent (not a Dent) – amazon.com (book)

The brain synthesizes separate sights, sounds, and sensations into a whole.

Each lobe (occipital, temporal, parietal, frontal) is anatomically and functionally specialized. The occipital processes only vision. The other three each dedicate a small portion (about 25%) to simple sensory civilities with 75% making up the association cortex. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mysteries of the Mind. p 20. Washington, D.C., National Geographic, 2000.)

Studies: Cell phone conversation disrupts attention. It even disrupts walking. It leads to inattentional blindness. Your brain is designed to respond to one thing at a time. Multitasking (doing several things at once efficiently and well) is a myth.(Macknik, Stephen L. PhD and Susana Martinez-Conde PhD. Sleights of Mind. p 84-90. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2010.)

You have about 18 seconds to catch another brain’s attention—assuming it is tuned in from the beginning. Data from visual, auditory, and tactile stimulation are retained or dropped in 3/4 of a second or less. (Barron, Maria Almendarez.)

Overt attention is the act of purposefully directing your eyes to an object while paying attention to it. Covert attention is the act of looking at one thing while paying attention to another. Magicians use overt misdirection (draws your eyes to something of false interest while carrying out a secret action at another location); and cover misdirection (subtley draws your attentional spotlight away from the method without redirecting your gaze). You look but you do not see. Change blindness is when you mind fails to remember what it has just seen--fails to notice a change in a scene. (Macknik, Stephen L. PhD and Susana Martinez-Conde PhD. Sleights of Mind. p 75-85. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2010.)

Most of the sensory problems in autism involve vision, touch, and hearing oversensitivities. With hearing, they receive disordered, inaccurate information about their environment because their perceptual systems become oversensitive and because they process incoming stimuli slowly. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 78-91. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)

Five senses: taste, smell, sight, hearing, and kinesthesia (feeling sense). We make most of the decisions that affect our behavior primarily using only three sensory systems: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic systems. (Robbins, Anthony. Unlimited Power. p 40-44. NY: Fireside, 1986.)

By 4 months of age, babies totally deprived of vision from birth are blind. Children who grow up alone or in the wild without exposure to language until age ten cannot ever learn to speak. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 22-23. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

Change blindness refers to the frequent inability of your visual system to detect alterations to something staring you right in the face. Since far more information lands on your eyes than you can possibly analyze, the brain screens visual stimuli using bottom-up or top-down attentiveness. Bottom-up (e.g., wildly waving hand) can get your attention because it sticks out. Top-down is a volitional act where you turn your “spotlight” of attention toward something specific (e.g., finding your suitcase on an airline baggage carousel). (Angier, Natalie. Blind to Change, Even as It Stares Us in the Face. April 2008.)

Less than 2% of the population has some form of color blindness in the U.S. (National Geographic. “The Smell Survey, 1.5 million participants.”) (Gilbert, Avery N., and Charles J. Wysocki. p 514. Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society, October 1987.)

The X chromosome carries all genes for red/green color vision. Only 1 in 230 females is born with red/green color blindness; 1 of 8 males has some red/green color vision deficiency. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. p 90-91. NY: Random House, 1999.)

Exposure to stimulation (e.g., sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell) lead to growth and development of motor, cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and social functioning. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p vii, xi. NY:MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

The prefrontal systems of the brain are involved in the volitional control of conscious sensory experience. (Schwartz, Jeffrey M., MD, and Sharon Begley.The Mind & the Brain. p 312-315. NY: Regan Books, 2002.)

The pre-frontal portions of the brain play a role in the “volitional control of conscious sensory experience.” (Schwartz, Jeffrey M., MD, and Sharon Begley. The Mind & the Brain. p 313-315. NY:Regan Books, 2002.)

All physiological stimuli evoke responses over a wide area of the frontal cortex (perhaps 1% of the total excitable tissue in any particular area)…the human frontal lobes are an integral part of the sensory system. (Luria, A. R., edited by K. H. Pribram. Psychopahysiology of the Frontal Lobes. p 114. NY: Academic Press, 1973.)

Hearing, a small part of vision, touch, and taste all enter the brain through the brainstem and are passed up to the thalamus. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 63. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)

Most sensory information from the outside world enters the lower brain stem. The brain stem’s thalamus then classifies this information (visual, auditory) and relays it to the appropriate part of the cortex. Incoming information may be amplified or reduced as it passes through the thalamus. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 52-53. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

Refer to Cellular Memory for additional information.

In their early years, children use all their senses to learn about the world. They handle a new object, look at it from all sides, listen to any sound it makes, smell it, and often put it in their tongue. (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 144-145. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

Color is the brain’s neural interpretation of various light frequencies. The eye and the visual system in the brain help with the differentiation. (Newberg, Andrew, MD., and Mark Robert Waldman. Why We Believe What We Believe. p 56. NY: Free Press, 2006.)

The brain has neural receptions for various colors including black and white – there are none for gray. Seeing the color gray is simply a thought. (Newberg, Andrew, MD., and Mark Robert Waldman. Why We Believe What We Believe. p 57. NY: Free Press, 2006.)

Prisoners in red and yellow wings were more inclined to violence than those in the blue and green wings. Yellow is highly stimulating—a possible relationship between violent street crime and sodium yellow street lighting. (Graham, Helen. Discover Color therapy. p 13. CA: Ulysses Press, 1998.)

When the content of the presentation has emotional significance, the use of a colored background in overhead transparencies/PowerPoints can influence the brains of listeners to go to a subconscious memory (e.g., abuse or trauma), involving that color. Even if the memory is positive it can distract the brain from absorbing information from the current presentation. (Discussion with brain researchers.)

Pink has been found to have a tranquilizing and calming effect within minutes of exposure. People cannot be aggressive even if they want to because the color pink saps their energy. (Graham, Helen. Discover Color therapy. p 13. CA: Ulysses Press, 1998.)

Most people spend at least 75% of waking time communicating with others. Mehrabian (1967 study) estimates the meaning of the message is conveyed: 7% by verbal cues; 38% by vocal cues; and 55% by nonverbals (facial expressions). Percentages can be altered by a variety of factors. (Nonverbal Communication. Article (website)

Studies from before the 70’s have revealed the importance of nonverbals in conveying the meaning of the message in communication (e.g., 55% from nonverbals per Mehrabian, A. and R. Ferris in 1967). The match between one’s verbal and non-verbal communication indicates the level of congruency. (James, Tad. What is NLP? 2005. Website)

You can also translate between sensory representational systems with couples. Provides examples of communication between a kinesthetic male partnered with a visual female. (Bandler, Richard, and John Grinder. Frogs into Princes. p 4. UT: Real People Press. 1979.)

Consciousness of objects is enhanced when we receive information about them from more than one sense (e.g., a flash of light is more likely to be registered if the observer is simultaneously touched on the same side of the body from which the light shines). (Carter, Rita. Exploring Consciousness. p 267-269. CA: University of California Press, 2002.

It takes one thousandth of a second for sight, sound, smell, emotion, thought to travel down a nerve ending to your brain. It takes 999 thousandths of a second more for what you heard or read to be relayed to your conscious mind. (Stine, Jean Marie. Double Your brain Power. p 79-80. NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.)

Jump-start creativity by using your senses. If auditory, open or close your ears. If visual, close eyes and create images in your head/concentrate on other senses, or open your eyes and become aware of specifics in your surroundings. (Greenwood-Robinson, Maggie, PhD. 20/20 Thinking. p 144-145. NY: Avery, Putnam Special Markets, 2003.)

The brain multi-processes, constantly registering perceptions, including more than 36,000 visual cues per hour. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 13. CA: The Brain Store, 2005.)

After birth the brain wires up differently in different cultures; even their visual systems are not exactly the same (e.g., people who grow up in forests lack depth perception that others have). You can remake yourself in adulthood to some degree, but can never abandon your inherent nature. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 12. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

At any given moment, the five senses are taking in more than 10,000,000 pieces of information. The eyes alone receive and send over 10,000,000 signals to the brain each second. People can process consciously about 40 pieces of information per second. (Wilson, Timothy D. Strangers to Ourselves. p 24. England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002.)

The centers for sound, sight, and other sensory data can be altered by experience and necessity. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 153-154. 2003.)

The same area of the brain that responds to offensive tastes—the anterior insula—is also activated when one person sees another make a face showing disgust. The brain combines senses to improve your chances for ongoing existence. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 75. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)

Dreams are essentially visual experiences. Homing ability to visualize can bring us into closer contact with our inner selves. Waking and dreaming visualizations are part of the same process. (Fontana, David, PhD. Teach Yourself to Dream. San Francisco, p 31-34. CA: Chronicle Books, 1997.)

Studies: Color-tinted eyeglasses can be highly effective in the treatment of learning difficulties, notably dyslexia. A new optician’s device, the Intuitive Colorimeter, can measure the most helpful tint (e.g., bright pink, yellow, green, or blue). (Graham, Helen. Discover Color Therapy. p 14. CA: Ulysses Press, 1998.)

The sensitive periods or plasticity for most lower-level neural pathway circuits end relatively early in life, often by 4 years of age. In contrast, sensitive periods for some high level circuits remain open (plastic) for a longer period. This may be a reason why, with proper treatment of dyslexia, normal neural pathways can be established. (Mustard, J. Fraser, MD. Early Childhood Development: How does experience in early life affect brain development? 2008. p. 13.)

Refer to Dysfunctions of the Brain for additional information.

The eyes receive radiant electromagnetic energy. (Ornstein, Robert. Multimind. p 43. NY: Doubledday, 1986.)

Refer to Electromagnetic Energy for additional information.

Refer to Emotional Intelligence for additional information.

Sensual experience (e.g., auditory, visual, tactile, and olfactory) typically travels first to the neocortex for analysis. When accompanied by a strong emotional impact, they may go directly to the amygdala (bypassing conscious choice) which mobilizes the organisms for fight or flight. All of this can happen in an instant—without input from rational processing by the neocortex. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 40. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

Refer to Emotions and Feelings for additional information.

Refer to Energy and the Brain for additional information.

Most people have a dominant eye (just as most people have a dominant hand). Estimates are that two-thirds of the population is right-eyed. Approximately two to four percent have no discernible dominant eye. Generally, right-handers are also right-eyed; while left-handers are often left-eyed. Some individuals are cross-dominant, however. The dominant eye provides visual input to control movement and posture and is better at sighting targets. Acording to Mark A. W. Andrews, professor of physiology and director of Independent Study Pathway at the Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, use the Porta test: With both eyes open, point an index finger at a distant object. Alternately close each eye to view the object with one eye at a time. The eye that views your finger as pointing directly at the object is your dominant eye. (Ask the Brains. Scientific American Mind. Oct/Nov 2007.)

Saccade is the term for eye movements as your eyes jerk almost instantaneously from one point to another. Your eyes a systematically searching and gathering information from a visual scene. Fleeting moments between saccades are known as fixations (eyes are somewhat motionless). Smooth Pursuit describes the movement of your eyes when you track a oving object (e.g., continuous, uninterrupted, unfaked).

The eye pupil tends to enlarge when person is confronted with a pleasant stimulus. (e.g., heart uses the brain to help it take in energy). Also when the heart is energetically opening up to either absorb the beauty of a positive info-energetic event or to become more alert of negative energy around it. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. p 50-51. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Study by Dr. Jenkins, Director of the Clymer Health Clinic in Pennsylvania: A room lighted with florescent lighting is less than on-tenth as bright as the area under a tree on a bright sunny day. (Colby, Barbara, ASID. Color & Light: Influences and Impact. p 75. CA: Barbara Colby, 1990.)

Astrocytes, a type of glial cells, respond to visual stimulation. They participate in vision by controlling neurons. (Fields, R. Douglas, PhD. The Other Brain. p 49-50. NY: Simon & Schuster, 2009.)

Refer to Glial Cells - the Other Brain for additional information.

In most people (97%), both Broca's area (spoken speech) and Wernicke's area (heard speech) are found in only the left hemisphere of the brain. (Chulder, Dr. Eric. The Brain and Communication. Think Quest.)

The five senses of the left hemisphere (sight, hearing, touch, taste, smell) correspond to senses of the right hemisphere. However, right-brain senses are not the senses of sight and hearing in the so-called normal manner, Rather they involve the ability to see, hear, and sense things through waves translated into images. Thus includes the ability to retain complete image of things seen at a glance in the memory, serving as the receptacle for inspiration and the site of expression for image abundant creativity, and the abilities to visualize images and the realization of those images physically. (Loh, Andrew. Brain Development Centers.)

Most sensory input to the brain crosses over from the incoming side to the opposite hemisphere for processing. Once the information enters one hemisphere it is swiftly sent on to the other via the corpus callosum. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 35. CA: University of California Press, 1999.)

Humidity and low barometric pressure heighten the sense of smell. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 712. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

The locations of brain cells sensitive to the chemicals involved in the regulation of hunger and thirst are most likely distributed in a system within the core brain stem, rather than being concentrated in a single “center,” although nodes in the system can be identified. (Pribram, Karl H. Languages of the Brain. p 184-186. NJ: Prentice-hall, Inc., 1971.)

A state that can occur spontaneously in individuals engage in critical situations (e.g., downhill skier in a race, fighter pilot in a skirmish) who must make instantaneous decision based upon processing large amounts of sensory information. (Newberg, Andrew, MD, et al. Why God Won’t Go Away. p 40-42. NY: Ballantine Books, 2001.)

Studies: Cell phone conversation disrupts attention. It even disrupts walking. It leads to inattentional blindness. Your brain is designed to respond to one thing at a time. Multitasking (doing several things at once efficiently and well) is a myth.(Macknik, Stephen L. PhD and Susana Martinez-Conde PhD. Sleights of Mind. p 84-90. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2010.)

Visual images are usually perceived as more intense. When listening, (as opposed to seeing images) you don’t receive exposure to images that you will see repeatedly in your head. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 74-75. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

The sixth sense is intuitive flow, a feeling of spontaneous challenge and elation, and on occasion, rapture. You perform at a very high level of alertness and accomplishment. There is evidence people can choose to experience this state more frequently but most don’t. (Cooper, Robert K., PhD., and Ayman Sawaf. Executive EQ. p 209-212. NY: Grosset/Putnam, 1997.)

Irlen Syndrome, or Scotopie Sensitivity Syndrome, is a visual-perceptual problem. Probably results from a phypersensitivity to color, lights, glare, patterns, and contrast. (Biel, Lindsay, MA, OTR/L, and Nancy Peske. Raising a Sensory Smart Child - The Definitive Handbook for Helping Your Child with Sensory Integration Issues. p 47. NY: Penguin Books, 2009.)

Refer to Sensory Processing Disorder (below) for additional information.

Isolating each sense and learning to use it by itself can help you to more effectively use all the sensory systems together. This can enhance your memory. (Einberger, Kirstin, and Sellick Janelle, MS. Strengthen Your Mind. p 7. MD: Health Professions Press, 2007.)

When your conscious mind has a belief that is in conflict with “truth” previously stored in the subconscious mind, the intellectual conflict expresses itself as a weakening of the body’s muscles. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. p 158-160. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005.)

The kinesthetic and tactile learning are sometimes linked together although they actually involve different systems. The tactile system involves receptors in the skin; the kinesthetic system registers movement (its receptors in the muscle and tendons provide information on body movement. (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 150-151. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

Gifted students who were under-achievers (as compared with achievers) showed a strong need for tactile and kinesthetic modalities; intake of food, drinks, or both; sound in the learning environment; informal seating design; and dim lighting. They also perceived themselves to be nonpersistent. (Rayneri, Letty J., et al. Gifted achievers and gifted underachievers: the impact of learning style preferences in the classroom. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, Vol. 14, 2003.)

For kinesthetic learners, physical movement is the mode of learning. Unfortunately children and adults who use kinesthesia as their primary source of learning are often labeled as hyperactive. (Koch, Liz. Whole Brain learning is a new frontier for science. Santa Cruz Style, May 7, 2005.)

Infants exposed to two languages (e.g., Japanese and English) in the first seven to eight months of life will easily develop the neuron functions that can differentiate the sounds of the two languages. This sets a base for fluent mastery of both languages without an accent later in development. Individuals who develop capability for two languages early in life have a larger left temporal hemisphere of the brain than do individuals with monolingual backgrounds. This may be, in part, an explanation of why those individuals can also more easily master other languages later in life. (Mustard, J. Fraser, MD. Early Childhood Development: How does experience in early life affect brain development? p 12. 2008.)

Children who grow up alone or in the wild without exposure to language until age ten rarely if ever learn to speak. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley.Ghosts from the Nursery. p 22-23. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

Your senses determine how you perceive the world, and a person’s picture of the world. Some students work well at the back of the classroom. Others are so distracted by the students between themselves and the teacher that they can’t pay attention due to the way their sensory systems function. (Williams, Linda.Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 144-145. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

The sensory and motor systems are part of both the brain and body, and their proper development is a prerequisite to successful cognitive functioning. The senses are the means by which we take in information. (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 144-145. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

Refer to Learning and the Brain for additional information.

Females are more sensitive to light than males are, beginning in infancy. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? p 118. NY:William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

The word light is a label for the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected by the human eye. (Ultraviolet light has wavelengths shorter than the violet light that can be seen; infrared light has wavelengths longer than the red light that can be seen but can be felt as warmth.) (Ornstein, Robert, PhD, and Paul Ehrlich. New World New Mind. p 78-79. MA: Malor Books, 1989, 2000.)

When studying under full spectrum lighting, students showed significant increases in visual acuity (perception) and were much less fatigued compared to those using conventional cool-white fluorescents. (Colby, Barbara, ASID. Color & Light: Influences and Impact. p 51. CA: Barbara Colby, 1990.)

Females are more sensitive to light than males are, beginning in infancy. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? p 118. NY:William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

On average, girls take in more sensory data, hear better, smell better, and take in more information through fingertips and skin than do boys. (Gurian, Michael, and Patricia Henley with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! p 26-28. San Francisco:Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Company, 2001.)

At two months of age, boys are particularly attracted to visual stimuli, a tendency that seems to persist throughout life. Girls respond more to auditory stimuli. This also persists throughout life. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? p 33. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

Boys do better with visual problems when information is presented to the left eye; girls do equally well with visual information regardless of which eye is used. (Gurian, Michael. The Wonder of Boys. p 16-19. NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1996.)

Females are stimulated sexually through their ears (e.g., want to hear sweet words); males through their eyes (e.g., erotic images, erotic lingerie). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 206-208. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Males have a form of tunnel vision, Females have a wider peripheral vision (e.g. may find objects more easily in a refrigerator). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. p 80. NY: Broadway Books, 2004.)

Studies: Males tend to demonstrate better visual perception and discrimination, centered in the right hemisphere. Females tend to demonstrate greater auditory perception, centered in the left hemisphere. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 700-706. p 700-706. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Females have better short-range peripheral vision. (Pease, Barbara and Allan.Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 165-166. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Studies: Males tend to demonstrate better visual perception and discrimination, centered in the right hemisphere. Females tend to demonstrate greater auditory perception, centered in the left hemisphere. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 700-706. p 700-706. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Studies: Males tend to make fewer errors in visual tasks, such as proofreading, visual scanning, or looking for malfunction indicators in machinery. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 700-706. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Females have wider peripheral vision (have more receptor rods and cones in the retina). (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex.p 17-18. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991.)

Women have keener senses of hearing smell and taste, men have sharper eyes. (Brynie, Faith Hickman. 101 Questions Your Brain Has Asked About Itself But Couldn’t Answer, Until Now. p 115. CT: Millbrook Press, 1998.)

Because they are more sensitive to auditory stimuli, females become fatigued more readily in a noisy environment. Males don’t, but they do become fatigued more readily in a visually chaotic environment. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 700-706. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Females are more sensitive to light than males are, beginning in infancy. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? p 118. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

At two months of age, boys are particularly attracted to visual stimuli, a tendency that seems to persist throughout life. Girls respond more to auditory stimuli. This also persists throughout life. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? p 33. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

Female brain is organized to respond more sensitively to all sensory stimuli. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex. p 17. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991.)

The male brain takes in less sensory data. The female brain is better at dealing with sensory data (e.g., hear, smell, touch, taste, see); the male brain with spatial data (e.g., dimensional depth perception, distance, abstract skills). (Gurian, Michael. The Wonder of Boys. p 16-19. NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1996.)

Ear canals in boys undergo growth spurts that can cause a temporary form of deafness, particularly as they approach puberty. They are equipped for more effective seeing than hearing. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 31-32. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Because they are more sensitive to auditory stimuli, females become fatigued more readily in a noisy environment. Males don’t, but they do become fatigued more readily in a visually chaotic environment. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 700-706. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Studies: Males tend to make fewer errors in visual tasks, such as proofreading, visual scanning, or looking for malfunction indicators in machinery. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 700-706. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

The X chromosome carries all genes for red/green color vision. Only 1 in 230 females is born with red/green color blindness; 1 of 8 males has some red/green color vision deficiency. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. p 90-91. NY: Random House, 1999.)

Mirror neurons are a special type of brain cell. They can help you conjure a quasivisual experience of almost anything that can been or depicted in images--in your mind's eye. (Macknik, Stephen L. PhD and Susana Martinez-Conde PhD. Sleights of Mind. p 69-72. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2010.)

Refer to Neurons and Neurotransmitters for more information

Each eye has the fovea (central area that helps you read fine print and identify details) and the peripheral area (that helps you see gross details, otion and shadows). Focus on Mona Lisa's eye and your peripheral vision pick up shadows from her cheekbones that enhance curvature of her mouth. Focus on her mouth and the fovea doesn't integrate shadows from her cheekbones so the smile is gone. ((Macknik, Stephen L. PhD and Susana Martinez-Conde PhD. Sleights of Mind. p 46-50. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2010.)

Only two hours after birth newborns can follow a slowly moving light in front of their eyes. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 38. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

The occipital lobes are dedicated to the processing of a single sensation, vision. A vast network of communicating fibers unifies perceptual and behavioral experiences into a whole. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mysteries of the Mind. p 20. Washington, D.C., National Geographic, 2000.)

Experiment in 1920s with tribe in Ethiopia who had no exposure to modern civilization. When shown pictures of people and animals, they “felt the paper, tasted it and sniffed it,” but couldn’t recognize the images in the pictures. (Dodd, Ray. The Power of Belief. p 14, 25. VA: Hampton Roads Pub. Co. Inc., 2003.)

When impressed vividly upon the brain, images can recur unbidden. Results can range from anxiety to PTSD. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 76-77. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Refer to Dysfunctions and the Brain (PTSD) for additional information.

Prisoners in red and yellow wings were more inclined to violence than those in the blue and green wings. Yellow is highly stimulating—a possible relationship between violent street crime and sodium yellow street lighting. (Graham, Helen. Discover Color Therapy. p 13. CA: Ulysses Press, 1998.)

Prosopagnosia (sometimes known as face blindness): This condition involves an impairment in the ability to recognize faces (e.g., severe difficulty recognizing faces). The ability to recognize other objects may be relatively intact. The term originally referred to a condition following acute damage to the brain. Recently, however, a congenital form of the disorder has been proposed, which may be inherited by about 2.5% of the population. The specific brain area usually associated with prosopagnosia is the gusiform gyrus. (Grüter T, Grüter M, Carbon CC (2008). "Neural and genetic foundations of face recognition and prosopagnosia". J Neuropsychol 2 (1): 79–97. doi:10.1348/174866407X231001.PMID 19334306.)

Deep within your brain, the pulvinar functions as a switchboard operator. Its job it to regulate communication between clusters of brain cells as your brain focuses on the people and objects that need your attention—to make sure that separate areas of your visual cortex are communicating about the same external information. The pulvinar appears to provide guidance for your behaviors. For example, without the pulvinar, your observation of an oncoming semi-truck as you start to cross a busy street might get lost in a jumble of other stimuli. fMRI study results of the pulvinar could assist with developing treatment strategies for medical disorders characterized by a failure of attention mechanisms (e.g., ADHD, schizophrenia, spatial neglect that involves an inability to detect stimuli often observed following a stroke). Results of the Princeton study suggest that visual information is not transmitted solely through a network of areas in the visual cortex, but involves the pulvinar as an important regulator of neural transmission. (Source)

fMRI: Studies by Dr. Sally Shaywitz. When we read, the brain is processing one sound at a time, but we perceive it as a whole word. (Source.)

A few lonely educational pioneers have succeeded in establishing that the basis of learning to read lies in the experience of hearing (auditory sense), not of seeing (visual sense)…Visual processing has little to do with reading. A strong reliance on the visual mode can be antagonistic to progress in learning to read. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex. p 60-64. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991.)

PET Scan studies: reading aloud showed activity primarily in motor areas that govern speech. Reading silently showed much more activity in the frontal lobe (e.g., perhaps more comprehension). (Wolfe, Patricia, PhD. Brain Matters. p 11-12. Virginia: ASCD, 2001.)

Studies: that reading aloud to a child is the single most important factor in raising a reader. It can improve their reading, writing, speaking, listening ability, vocabulary, and attitudes about reading. (Trelease, Jim. The Read-Aloud Handbook. xiii-xx, 33. NY: Penguin Books, Fifth Edition, 2001.)

Studies at the UCL Institute of Ophthalmology showed that transplanting light-sensitive photoreceptors into the eyes of visually impaired mice restored their vision. After four to six weeks, the transplanted cells used in this first-time procedure had formed the connections needed to transmit visual information to the brain and appeared to be functioning almost as well as normal rod-photoreceptor cells. After additional studies with cone photoreceptor transplantation, it is conceivable that human trials could begin. (Pearson, R. A., et al., Restoration of vision after transplantation of photoreceptors, Nature, 2012, DOI:10.1038/nature10997)

The retina accounts of 40% of all nerve fibers connected to the brain. Between 80%-90% of all information absorbed by the brain is visual Your eyes can register 36,000 visual messages per hour. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 55. CA: The Brain Store, 2005.)

Over activity in the speech area known as Wernicke’s area can trigger auditory hallucinations (e.g., the illusion that internally generated thoughts are actually real voices coming from outside the brain). Disturbances in the occipital lobes (e.g., visual system) can contribute to difficulty in interpreting complex images, recognizing motion, and interpreting emotions on the faces of other individuals. (The Brain in Schizophrenia.)

Photoreceptors in your eyes convert light into chemical signals. Information (electrochemical signals) from your retina is carried by the optic nerve to your brain. The information makes a brief stop in the thalamus and then carries these pattersn to your primarily visual cortex. You don't "see" anything; you do process patterns that build up representations of the world. Your optic nerve connects each retina to your brain with about a million neural wires callec axons. Each repesents one "pixel" of your visual image. Each eye is roughly equivalent to a one-megapixel camera. "The rickness of your visual experience is an illusion creaed by tghe filling-processes of your brain. (Macknik, Stephen L. PhD and Susana Martinez-Conde PhD. Sleights of Mind. p 10-14. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2010.)

Signals from the retina of the eye must reach neurons in the brain’s occipital cortex early in life. These signals activate the genetic pathways involved in the differentiation and function and architecture of the neurons in this section of the brain necessary for vision. If one eye isn’t functioning well (e.g., lazy, cataract) the neurons and neural pathways related to the defective eye do not recover normal architecture and function after the end of the critical period, even when input from the disadvantaged eye is restored. (Mustard, J. Fraser, MD. Early Childhood Development: How does experience in early life affect brain development? 2008. p. 12.)

“Seeing" involves two distinguishable (and dissociable) stages:

  • The detection and analysis of visual input (perhaps with an associated response)
  • The “experience” of seeing.

Stage 1 processes are unconscious, quite sophisticated, and include unpredictable and creative characteristics. They are invisible to the processes involved in the experience of seeing. The latter conscious activities depend on the former but are the separate domain of the “I-function”, a distinctive set of processes constituting internal experience. (Grobstein, Paul. The Brain's Images: Co-Constructing Reality and Self. 2002.)

Refer to Sensory Processing Disorder (SPD) (below).

Sensory Processing Disorder is a common but often misdiagnosed condition. In SPD, the central nervous system misinterprets messages that are received from the senses. The authors include information from recent research on vision and hearing deficits, motor skill problems, nutrition and picky eaters, ADHA, autism, and other related disorders. (Kranowitz, Carol, and Lucy Jane Miller. The Out-of-Sync Child: Recognizing and Coping with Sensory Processing Disorder, Revised Edition. NY: Perigee Trade, 2006.)

This website provides examples of signs and symptoms that might prompt a parent or teacher to obtain professional evaluation for a child who might have a SPD, including signs for:

Tactile Dysfunction
Vestibular Dysfunction
Proprioceptive Dysfunction
Auditory Dysfunction (with no diagnosed hearing problem)
Oral Input Dysfunction (hypersensitivity to oral input)
Olfactory Dysfunction (hypersentitivity to odors)
Visual Input Dysfunction (hypersensitivity to visual input)
Auditory-Language Processing Dysfunction
Social, Emotional, Play, and Self-regulation Dysfunction

(Source 1) (Source 2)

Females are stimulated sexually through their ears (e.g., want to hear sweet words); males through their eyes (e.g., erotic images, erotic lingerie). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 206-208. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

It takes one thousandth of a second for sight, sound, smell, emotion, thought to travel down a nerve ending to your brain. It takes 999 thousandths of a second more for what you heard or read to be relayed to your conscious mind. (Stine, Jean Marie. Double Your brain Power. p 79-80. NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.)

The visual brain can reorganize in small ways in as little as thirty minutes. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 52. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)

Refer to Senses and the Brain for more information.

This is a French term that means "trick the eye." It was a style of painting that became especially popular in the Netherlands in the 17th century. Lifelike pictures appeared to jump from the frame. It was used to create a cupola (that doesn't exist) in the Saint Ignatius church in Rome, Italy. (Macknik, Stephen L. PhD and Susana Martinez-Conde PhD. Sleights of Mind. p 42-46. NY:Henry Holt and Company, 2010.)

Visual images are usually more intense. With radio, people don’t receive exposure to images that they will see repeatedly in their heads. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 74-75. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Researchers at the University of Western Ontario have provided some tips for those who have a visual learning style or who need to absorb information in that sensory system (seeing) in a specific situation. In a lecture setting: sit where you can see the instructor and all visual aids; sit near the front to avoid potential distractions; watch for key words in PowerPoint slides or white boards to help organize notes; use symbols or colors in your notes to help draw attention to key concepts; review topic on a website, if available. If learning by text: minimize visual distractions; look for diagrams or charts or outline key topics in diagram format; consider rehearsing with flash cards; highlight information in color (using similar colors for topic or related information); connect important terminology to portions of a word you may already know. (Source)

The unconscious mind responds well to suggestion and visualizations (internal mental pictures) are an especially effective way to aid dream recall. Effective visualization can be enhanced by making the most of vision itself (e.g., you see without really looking at things). (Fontana, David, PhD. Teach Yourself to Dream.p 40-54. San Francisco, CA: Chronicle Books, 1997.)

Refer to Visualizing and the Brain for additional information.

The human brain processes visuals 60,000 times faster than text and 90 percent of the information transmitted to the brain is visual. (http://archive.boston.com/business/blogs/global-business-hub/2014/03/the_power_of_vi.html)

The human world is first primarily a “sight” world and secondarily a “sound” world. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD, and Paul Ehrlich. New World New Mind. p 75. MA: Malor Books, 1989, 2000.)

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