Senses and the Brain

Any part of the mind can be accessed and entered at any point (much like the internet that you can access it at many different sites). This can happen through the ear, the hand, the eye, the nose, etc. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

The five senses react most strongly to change. When the same stimulus is presented continuously, receptors undergo adaptation—they accept the signal as routine and the messages in the brain weaken in intensity. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 72-73. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)

When your eyes have been looking at something for awhile, especially something in a bright spotlight, and the spotlight is turned off, your visual neurons that have become adapted to the spotlight object will fire a rebound reponse (an after discharge). This causes a ghostly image of the object to linger for a moment. Afterimages linger in all sensory systems. (Macknik, Stephen L. PhD and Susana Martinez-Conde PhD. Sleights of Mind. p 14-16. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2010.)

See Brain Challenges for additional information.

Ample evidence that being out in the real world and engaging all the senses (including emotional and social senses) is essential to a healthy brain and an active memory, especially as the brain ages. (Katz, Lawrence C., PhD and Manning Rubin. Keep Your Brain Alive. p 29. NY: Workman Publishing Company, Inc., 1999.)

The timing of sensory events is the job of large neurons with rapid dynamics. Their signals are conducted to the brain along large high-speed fibers, so you are alerted to any changes that might indicate danger or opportunity. (Greenfield, Susan, con. Ed. Brain Power. p 56-57. MA: The Ivy Press Limited, 1999.)

Studies at the University of North Carolina Wilmington on the impact of custom animation in PowerPoint lectures: although students appear to like the animation, it is actually entertaining distraction for the brain. Students seeing the non-animated lecture performed much better in subsequent tests of content than those who watched the animated lecture. Conclusion: animated slides meant to present information incrementally actually require greater concentration, which makes it harder to remember content as well as reducing overall exposure time to the "complete" slide. (The Dark Side of Animation.)

Specific anosmia is the name for odor blindness. Age brought with it little decline in smell ability among respondents. (Gilbert, Avery N., and Charles J. Wysocki. The Smell Survey. 1.5 million participants. p 514-523. Washington D.C.:National Geographic Society, October 1987.)

In the human brain, the anterior commisure (one of the bridges that connects the two cerebral hemispheres), tranfers auditory and olfactory information but does not transfer visual information. (Gazzaniga, Michael S. Who's In Charge? p 35-36. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2009)

Research by Weiner and Brown, 1993: certain aromas inspire individuals to set higher personal goals, take on greater challenges, and get along better with others. Neurologist Alan Hirsch discovered that groups exposed to the aroma of peppermint solved puzzles 30% faster than the unexposed control groups. Basil, lemon, cinnamon, and rosemary seem to have a similar stimulating effect. (Teaching tips in a nutshell, University of Colorado. Brain-based Learning 1—Optimal Environments.)

Taylor’s Sensory Preference Assessment is available at the following locations:

  • Taylor’s website homepage - www.arlenetaylor.org
  • MindWaves - The Concerned Group (book)
  • Wired by God - Focus on the Family (book)
  • Your Brain Has a Bent (not a Dent) amazon.com (book)

The brain synthesizes separate sights, sounds, and sensations into a whole.

Each lobe (occipital, temporal, parietal, frontal) is anatomically and functionally specialized. The occipital processes only vision. The other three each dedicate a small portion (about 25%) to simple sensory civilities with 75% making up the association cortex. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mysteries of the Mind. p 20. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic, 2000.)

Adult brains tend to use the simplest, fastest route to identify objects, while infants and children more often use several senses. This tends to increase the number of associations in the brain. (Katz, Lawrence C., PhD and Manning Rubin. Keep Your Brain Alive. p 95. NY: Workman Publishing Company, Inc., 1999.)

The more information that is received through a variety of paths the more likely the person is to remember things. (Einberger, Kirstin, and Sellick Janelle, MS. Strengthen Your Mind. p 7. MD: Health Professions Press, 2007.)

You have about 18 seconds to catch another brain’s attention—assuming it is tuned in from the beginning. Data from visual, auditory and tactile stimulation are retained or dropped in 3/4 of a second or less. (Barron, Maria Almendarez.)

Studies at McGill University: When human beings are learning to talk, the brain receives at least two types of feedback information. One type involves auditory information from the sound of the person’s own voice. The other involves information from receptors located in the skin (the largest organ of the body) and in the muscles. (Breakthrough in understanding of speech offers hope to the deafSept., 2008.)

The first embryonic cells are sound sensitive, and by and one half months in the womb, a baby’s auditory system is virtually complete. Every cell in the body is influenced by the energy reflected in sound waves. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. p 110. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Studies: Females tend to demonstrate greater auditory perception, centered in the left hemisphere. They tend to make fewer errors in auditory tasks (e.g., talking on telephone, taking dictation, interviewing others, listening for malfunction indicators in machinery). (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 700-706. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Most auditory input is processed on the opposite side of the brain to the ear through which it enters. (Carter, Rita. Mapping the Mind. p 10. CA: University of California Press, 1999.)

Auditory pathways continue to develop until age 7-10 years. Music, human speech, and environmental sounds are all important in a balanced auditory diet. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 34-35. NY: Doubleday, 1987, 1989.)

One way to deal with mixed messages is to literally shut out the sense. Those that cut off the auditory portion are going to hear voices. (Bandler, Richard, and John Grinder. Frogs into Princes. p 53. UT:Real People Press. 1979.)

Most of the sensory problems in autism involve vision, touch, and hearing oversensitivities. With hearing, they receive disordered, inaccurate information about their environment because their perceptual systems become oversensitive and because they process incoming stimuli slowly. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 78-91. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)

Did you know that odors can trigger autobiographical memories very quickly? Researchers have used a variety of non-verbal cues in an attempt to trigger memories. Study results showed that odors are particular effective in triggering autobiographical memories, more so than other types of non-odor-related cues. Memories for specific events that were triggered by odors were more detailed and more emotionally loaded than memories triggers by verbal, visual, or non-odor-related cues. (Chu, S., & Downes, J. J. (2002). Proust nose best: Odors are better cues of autobiographical memory. Memory and Cognition, 30, 511-518.)

Behavioral Kinesiology (the study of muscles and their movements) played a part in revealing how closely connected the mind is with the body. The mind “thinks” with the body itself. (Hawkins, David R., MD, PhD. Power versus Force. p 1-3, 41-43. CA:Hay House, Inc., 1995, 2002.)

Change blindness refers to the frequent inability of your visual system to detect alterations to something staring you right in the face. Since far more information lands on your eyes than you can possibly analyze, the brain screens visual stimuli using bottom-up or top-down attentiveness. Bottom-up (e.g., wildly waving hand) can get your attention because it sticks out. Top-down is a volitional act where you turn your “spotlight” of attention toward something specific (e.g., finding your suitcase on an airline baggage carousel). (Angier, Natalie. Blind to Change, Even as It Stares Us in the Face. April 2008.)

Less than 2% of the population has some form of color blindness in the U.S. (National Geographic. “The Smell Survey, 1.5 million participants.”) (Gilbert, Avery N., and Charles J. Wysocki. p 514. Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society, October 1987.)

The X chromosome carries all genes for red/green color vision. Only 1 in 230 females is born with red/green color blindness; 1 of 8 males has some red/green color vision deficiency. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. p 90-91. NY: Random House, 1999.)

The memory of the sense of one’s body becomes so ingrained in the neural circuits governing self-experience that the brain has difficulty reorganizing itself after a crippling accident or stroke. A false belief can be constructed (e.g., man with phantom erections after penis removal; person "sees" fat on their body where there is none in anorexia nervosa). fMRI scans showed that the sensory motor areas of the body do not distinguish between imaginary and actual images and activities. (Newberg, Andrew, MD and Mark Robert Waldman. Why We Believe What We Believe. P 61-62. NY: Free Press, 2006)

The human body does, in fact, give off certain radiations (e.g., electromagnetic from the electrical activity of the nerves, sonic waves from physical actions within the body, and chemical emissions that may be detected at times as body odors. (Nickell, Joe. Real-life X-files Investigating the Paranormal. p 42. Kentucky: University Press of Kentucky, 2001.)

No matter what you see, feel, think, or do, it must all be processed through the brain. (Newberg, Andrew, MD and Mark Robert Waldman. Why We Believe What We Believe. P 7. NY: Free Press, 2006)

Outside your brain there is no sound, no color, and no smell. All of those things exist inside your head as the brain picks up sensory data and interprets them as sounds, colors, and smells. (Eagleman, David. The Brain, P 58.NY: Pantheon Books, 2015.)

We actually see, hear, taste, and smell with the brain rather than with the eyes, ears, taste buds, and nose. This is an example of brain plasticity. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 158-159. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Exposure to stimulation (e.g., sight, sound, touch, taste, and smell) lead to growth and development of motor, cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and social functioning. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p vii, xi. NY: MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

Hearing, a small part of vision, touch, and taste all enter the brain through the brainstem and are passed up to the thalamus. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 63. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)

Thalamus: directs attention and switches sensory input on and off. Except for olfactory signals, sensory stimuli go through the thalamus that directs the incoming information to the appropriate portion of the cortex for further processing. (Carter, Rita. Exploring Consciousness. p 11, 29, 115. CA: University of California Press, 2002.)

Most sensory information from the outside world enters the lower brain stem. The brain stem’s thalamus then classifies this information (visual, auditory) and relays it to the appropriate part of the cortex. Incoming information may be amplified or reduced as it passes through the Thalamus. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 52-53. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

Sensual experience (e.g., auditory, visual, tactile, and olfactory) typically travels first to the neocortex for analysis. When accompanied by a strong emotional impact, they may go directly to the amygdala (bypassing conscious choice) which mobilizes the organisms for fight or flight. All of this can happen in an instant—without input from rational processing by the neocortex. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 40. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

In most people (97%), both Broca's area (spoken speech) and Wernicke's area (heard speech) are found in only the left hemisphere of the brain. (Chulder, Dr. Eric. The Brain and Communication. Think Quest.)

Conscious thought occurs in the cerebral layer. The pre-frontal cortex handles most of our decision making, and helps to process a variety of sensory stimuli. The other two brain layers are the brain stem and the limbic system. (Gurian, Michael, and Patricia Henley with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! p 17-20. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Company, 2001.)

The prefrontal systems of the brain are involved in the volitional control of conscious sensory experience. (Schwartz, Jeffrey M., MD, and Sharon Begley. The Mind & the Brain. p 312-315. NY: Regan Books, 2002.)

The five senses of the left hemisphere (sight, hearing, touch, taste, smell) correspond to senses of the right hemisphere. However, right-brain senses are not the senses of sight and hearing in the so-called normal manner, Rather they involve the ability to see, hear, and sense things through waves translated into images. Thus includes the ability to retain complete image of things seen at a glance in the memory, serving as the receptacle for inspiration and the site of expression for image abundant creativity, and the abilities to visualize images and the realization of those images physically. (Loh, Andrew. Brain Development Centers.)

The visual brain can reorganize in small ways in as little as thirty minutes. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 52. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)

The brain multi-processes, constantly registering perceptions, including more than 36,000 visual cues per hour. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 13. CA: The Brain Store, 2005.)

Proprioception is the sensory feedback received continually from muscles, joints, and skin, signaling the position of you body and limbs. You constantly monitor this feedback and make adjustments to your body (e.g., lift your left arm and shift some weight to your right side to maintain balance. (Wilson, Timothy D. Strangers to Ourselves. p 19. Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002.)

Proprioceptive (sometimes called the 6th sense) is an unconscious map in the parts of the brain that control movement. It provides an ongoing feedback that allows a person to sense where parts of his/her body is in space. (Katz, Lawrence C., PhD and Manning Rubin. Keep Your Brain Alive. p 36-38. NY: Workman Publishing Company, Inc., 1999.)

Refer to Cellular Memory for additional information.

The centers for sound, sight, and other sensory data can be altered by experience and necessity. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 153-154. 2003.)

In their early years, children use all their senses to learn about the world. They handle a new object, look at it from all sides, listen to any sound it makes, smell it, and often put it in their tongue. (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 144-145. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

Color is the brain’s neural interpretation of various light frequencies. The eye and the visual system in the brain help with the differentiation. (Newberg, Andrew, MD., and Mark Robert Waldman. Why We Believe What We Believe. p 56. NY:Free Press, 2006.)

Prisoners in red and yellow wings were more inclined to violence than those in the blue and green wings. Yellow is highly stimulating—a possible relationship between violent street crime and sodium yellow street lighting. (Graham, Helen. Discover Color Therapy. p 13. CA: Ulysses Press, 1998.)

When the content of the presentation has emotional significance, the use of a colored background in overhead transparencies/PowerPoints can influence the brains of listeners to go to a subconscious memory (e.g., abuse or trauma), involving that color. Even if the memory is positive it can distract the brain from absorbing information from the current presentation. (Discussion with brain researchers.)

Pink has been found to have a tranquilizing and calming effect within minutes of exposure. People cannot be aggressive even if they want to because the color pink saps their energy. (Graham, Helen. Discover Color Therapy. p 13. CA: Ulysses Press, 1998.)

Studies of the ability of Russian and English speakers to discriminate shades of blue: In Russian there is no single word that covers all the colors that English speakers refer to as “blue.” Russian speakers tend to distinguish between light blue (goluboy) and dark blue (siniy) and are quicker to distinguish two shades of blue that are called by these different Russian names than shades that fall into the same category. English speakers, on the other hand, designate all shades as “blue” and show no comparable difference in reaction time. (Max Brockman, Editor. What’s Next? Dispatches on the Future of Science. p 118-123. NY: Vintage Books, 2009.)

Most people spend at least 75% of waking time communicating with others. Mehrabian (1967 study) estimates how the meaning of the message (involving attitudes and feelings) is conveyed: 7% by verbal cues; 38% by vocal cues; and 55% by nonverbals (facial expressions). Percentages can be altered by a variety of factors. (Nonverbal Communication. Article (website)

Studies: A mismatch between words and nonverbal portions of a communication cause a shift in brain waves similar to the reaction to misused or unexpected words. Pay as much attention to the physical actions of people as to what they are saying in their verbal message. If congruent, the message will be more powerful, and vice versa. (Where brain science and marketing meetArticle.)

Refer to Message Conveyed in Communication.

CTA requires that the neural taste and the nausea-producing stimulus come together synaptically at individual neurons. The parabrachial nucleus is likely involved in the conditioning of taste by nausea. Other areas may be involved as well (e.g., damage to the cortical taste area and the central amygdala has been shown to interfere with CTA). (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self. p 126-127. NY: Penguin Books, 2002.)

Studies from before the 70s have revealed the importance of nonverbals in conveying the meaning of the message in communication (e.g., 55% from nonverbals per Mehrabian, A. and R. Ferris in 1967). The match between one’s verbal and non-verbal communication indicates the level of congruency. (James, Tad. What is NLP? 2005. Website)

The pre-frontal portions of the brain play a role in the “volitional control of conscious sensory experience.” (Schwartz, Jeffrey M., MD, and Sharon Begley. The Mind & the Brain. p 313-315. NY: Regan Books, 2002.)

It takes one thousandth of a second for sight, sound, smell, emotion, thought to travel down a nerve ending to your brain. It takes 999 thousandths of a second more for what you heard or read to be relayed to your conscious mind. (Stine, Jean Marie. Double Your Brain Power. p 79-80. NJ: Prentice Hall, 1997.)

Consciousness of objects is enhanced when we receive information about them from more than one sense (e.g., a flash of light is more likely to be registered if the observer is simultaneously touched on the same side of the body from which the light shines). (Carter, Rita. Exploring Consciousness. p 267-269. CA: University of California Press, 2002.)

The sensory and motor systems are part of both the brain and body, and their proper development is a prerequisite to successful cognitive functioning. The senses are the means by which we take in information. (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 144-145. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

You can also translate between representational systems with couples. Examples of kinesthetic male partnered with a visual female. (Bandler, Richard, and John Grinder. Frogs into Princes. p 4. UT: Real People Press. 1979.)

Jumpstart creativity by using your senses. If auditory, open or close your ears. If visual, close eyes and create images in your head/concentrate on other senses, or open your eyes and become aware of specifics in your surroundings. (Greenwood-Robinson, Maggie, PhD. 20/20 Thinking. p 144-145. NY: Avery, Putnam Special Markets, 2003.)

Most sensory input to the brain crosses over from the incoming side to the opposite hemisphere for processing. Once the information enters one hemisphere it is swiftly sent on to the other via the corpus callosum. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 35. CA: University of California Press, 1999.)

Known as the cuddle hormone, oxytocin is released when a person is cuddled or the skin is gently stoked. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 236-238. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

After birth the brain wires up differently in different cultures; even their visual systems are not exactly the same (e.g., people who grow up in forests lack depth perception that others have). You can remake yourself in adulthood to some degree, but can never abandon your inherent nature. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 12. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

Sometimes referred to as "flaming," cyber-disinhibition is a phenomenon that can occur when a person is upset and sends an angry or other type of emotionally-charged and often unfortunate message via e-mail. A disconnect between the social brain (designed for face-to-face interaction) and a computer monitor results in a lack of emotional cues, which typically are picked up in person or even via telephone calls from the tone of voice. (Goleman, Daniel Jay, PhD. The Brain and Emotional Intelligence: New Insights. p. 58-60. MA: More Than Sound, 2011)

The male brain takes in less sensory data. The female brain is better at dealing with sensory data (e.g., hear, smell, touch, taste, see); the male brain with spatial data (e.g., dimensional depth perception, distance, abstract skills). (Gurian, Michael. The Wonder of Boys. p 16-19. NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1996.)

At any given moment, the five senses are taking in more than 10,000,000 pieces of information. The eyes alone receive and send over 10,000,000 signal to the brain each second. People can process consciously about 40 pieces of information per second. (Wilson, Timothy D. Strangers to Ourselves. p 24. England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002.)

Ear canals in boys undergo growth spurts that can cause a temporary form of deafness, particularly as they approach puberty. They are equipped for more effective seeing than hearing. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 31-32. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

The decision about what sensory information travels to your brain and what gets filtered out depends on what signals the receptors are receiving from the peptides. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. p 146-147. NY:Scribner, 1997.)

There appear to be some common sensory decoding areas in the brain for multisensory data. Studies by David A. Bulkin and Jennifer M. Groh of the Center for Cognitive Neuroscience, Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Department of Neurobiology, Duke University, have been published in the journal Neurobiology.Results of their studies showed that objects and events can often be detected by more than one sensory system. No surprise, interactions between sensory systems can offer numerous benefits for the accuracy and completeness of sensory perception. Visual–auditory interactions have highlighted the perceptual advantages of combining information from these two modalities and have suggested that predominantly unimodal brain regions play a role in multisensory processing. Whenever you have the option, tap into the phenomenon of recruitment and combine input from visual and auditory sensory systems. (Source.)

By 4 months of age, babies totally deprived of vision from birth are blind. Children who grow up alone or in the wild without exposure to language until age ten cannot ever learn to speak. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 22-23. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

The same area of the brain that responds to offensive tastes—the anterior insula—is also activated when one person sees another make a face showing disgust. The brain combines senses to improve your chances for ongoing existence. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 75. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)

Dreams are essentially visual experiences. Homing ability to visualize can bring us into closer contact with our inner selves. Waking and dreaming visualizations are part of the same process. (Fontana, David, PhD. Teach Yourself to Dream. San Francisco, p 31-34. CA: Chronicle Books, 1997.)

Dysgeusia can occur when a taste nerve is damaged, causing a person to perceive tastes that are not there, notably salty, metallic, or bitter sensations. Taste alteration may also be a side effect of certain types of drugs. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. NY: Vintage Books, 2002, p. 74)

The sensitive periods or plasticity for most lower-level neural pathway circuits end relatively early in life, often by 4 years of age. In contrast, sensitive periods for some high level circuits remain open (plastic) for a longer period. This may be a reason why, with proper treatment of dyslexia, normal neural pathways can be established. (Mustard, J. Fraser, MD. Early Childhood Development: How does experience in early life affect brain development? 2008. p. 13.)

Studies: Color-tinted eyeglasses can be highly effective in the treatment of learning difficulties, notably dyslexia. A new optician’s device, the Intuitive Colorimeter, can measure the most helpful tint (e.g., bright pink, yellow, green, or blue). (Graham, Helen. Discover Color Therapy. p 14. CA: Ulysses Press, 1998.)

Dyslexia describes a dysfunction in the auditory receiver in the brain. The dyslexic finds it difficult to maintain attention for more than 5-10 minutes at a time. The sound distortion (e.g., listening through a defective telephone receiver) interferes with language reception. (Tomatis, Alfred A, M.D. Editor Timothy M. Gilmore, PhD, et al. About the Tomatis Method. Toronto, Canada: The Listening Centre Press, 1989, p. 45-60)

Refer to Dysfunctions of the Brain for additional information.

The ear translates the potential of vibrational stimuli that come via the skin, to the brain. (Tomatis, Alfred A, M.D. Editor Timothy M. Gilmore, PhD, et al. About the Tomatis Method. p 214-216. Canada: Listening Centre Press, 1989.)

Infants with recurring middle ear infections will not have normal development of their neurons for sound. This is one reason why infants with repeated middle ear infections do poorly in language and literacy in later life. The sensitive periods or plasticity for most lower level neural pathway circuits end relatively early in life, often by 4 years of age. In contrast, sensitive periods for some high level circuits remain open (plastic) for a longer period. This may be a reason why, with proper treatment of dyslexia, normal neural pathways can be established. (Mustard, J. Fraser, MD. Early Childhood Development: How does experience in early life affect brain development? 2008. p. 13.)

Refer to Electromagnetic Energy for additional information.

Studies: When you engage not only the analytical mind but also emotions and intuition, your senses and emotional intelligence enable you to scan in moments through hundreds of possible choices or scenarios to arrive at the best solution in a matter of seconds instead of hours—the answer will be as good or better than if you relied solely on intellect. (Cooper, Robert K., PhD., and Ayman Sawaf. Executive EQ. p xii-xiii . NY: Grosset/Putnam 1997.)

Refer to Emotional Intelligence for additional information.

Researchers at the University of Geneva, Switzerland, have identified spatial signatures of emotion in the primary auditory cortex (temporal lobes at the side of the brain responsible helping to decode the sensation of sound). This area reacts more strongly to anger, joy, relief, and sadness than to neutrality. These findings may help researchers to better understand conditions such as schizophrenia, autism, and even depression, since reading emotions is critical to good social skills. (Fisher, Helen. Emotional Speech Leaves Signature on the Brain. NewScientist, 2009.)

Refer to Emotions and Feelings for additional information.

The electrical energy from your heart is transmitted to another person’s brain when you touch that person, and vice versa. We affect each other at the most basic electromagnetic level. This has huge social implications. (Childre, Doc and Howard Martin. The HeartMath Solution. p 159-160. CA: Harper SF, 1999.)

Refer to Energy and the Brain for additional information.

Equilibrioception is a sense of balance and acceleration. The fluids and bones of the inner ear mediate a sense of balance. A damaged sense of balance can create all manner of havoc in one's life! (Robinson, Ken, PhD. The Element. p 30-33. NY: Penguin Books, 2009)

Scientists at the University of Rochester have discovered that the hormone estrogen plays a pivotal role in how the brain processes sounds, in the way in which it extracts and interprets auditory information. There needs to be a “right balance” of this hormone for the brain to not only process the sounds but also to lay down memories of the sounds. (Estrogen Controls How the Brain Processes Sound. Psysorg.com, 2009.)

Refer to Substances and the Brain for additional information.

Most people have a dominant eye (just as most people have a dominant hand). Estimates are that two-thirds of the population is right-eyed. Approximately two to four percent have no discernible dominant eye. Generally, right-handers are also right-eyed; while left-handers are often left-eyed. Some individuals are cross-dominant, however. The dominant eye provides visual input to control movement and posture and is better at sighting targets. Acording to Mark A. W. Andrews, professor of physiology and director of Independent Study Pathway at the Lake Erie College of Osteopathic Medicine, use the Porta test: With both eyes open, point an index finger at a distant object. Alternately close each eye to view the object with one eye at a time. The eye that views your finger as pointing directly at the object is your dominant eye. (Ask the Brains. Scientific American Mind. Oct/Nov 2007.)  

Only two hours after birth newborns can follow a slowly moving light in front of their eyes. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 38. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

The eye pupil tends to enlarge when person is confronted with a pleasant stimulus. (e.g., heart uses the brain to help it take in energy). Also when the heart is energetically opening up to either absorb the beauty of a positive info-energetic event or to become more alert of negative energy around it. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. p 50-51. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

The eyes receive radiant electromagnetic energy. (Ornstein, Robert. Multimind. p 43. NY: Doubledday, 1986.)

Because they are more sensitive to auditory stimuli, females become fatigued more readily in a noisy environment. Males don’t, but they do become fatigued more readily in a visually chaotic environment. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 700-706. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

The nervous system cannot take everything in, rather it scans the outer world for material that it is prepared to accept due to its wiring, own internal patterns, and past experience. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. p 146-147. NY: Scribner, 1997.)

A woman’s fingertips are usually more sensitive than a man’s. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD.What’s the Difference? p 80. NY:William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

Five senses: taste, smell, sight, hearing, and kinesthesia (feeling sense). We make most of the decisions that affect our behavior primarily using only three sensory systems: visual, auditory, and kinesthetic systems. (Robbins, Anthony. Unlimited Power. p 40-44. NY: Fireside, 1986.)

When impressed vividly upon the brain, images can recur unbidden. Results can range from anxiety to PTSD. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 76-77. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Refer to Dysfunctions and the Brain (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) for additional information.

Study by Dr. Jenkins, Director of the Clymer Health Clinic in Pennsylvania: A room lighted with florescent lighting is less than on-tenth as bright as the area under a tree on a bright sunny day. (Colby, Barbara, ASID. Color & Light: Influences and Impact. p 75. CA: Barbara Colby, 1990.)

All physiological stimuli evoke responses over a wide area of the frontal cortex (perhaps 1% of the total excitable tissue in any particular area)…the human frontal lobes are an integral part of the sensory system. (Luria, A. R., edited by K. H. Pribram. Psychopahysiology of the Frontal Lobes. p 114. NY: Academic Press, 1973.)

Girls take in more sensory data than boys. On average, they hear better, smell better, and take in more information through fingertips and skin. 9Gurian, Michael, and Patricia Henley with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! p 27. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Company, 2001.)

At two months of age, boys are particularly attracted to visual stimuli, a tendency that seems to persist throughout life. Girls respond more to auditory stimuli. This also persists throughout life. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? p 33. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

Female brain is organized to respond more sensitively to all sensory stimuli. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex. p 17. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991.)

Women have more finely tuned sensory skills than men. Women have superior sensitivity in differentiating tone changes in voice volume and pitch, and at differentiating sounds. Men are better at identifying where the sounds are coming from. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 31-32. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

There is evidence to suggest that fetus can hear, see, taste, feel, and experience movement throughout the last half of pregnancy, and that these capabilities don’t change dramatically at the moment of birth. (Ludington-Hoe, Susan, PhD, with Susan K. Golant. How to Have a Smarter Baby. p 15. NY:Bantam Books, 1985.)

Astrocytes, a type of glial cells, respond to visual stimulation. They participate in vision by controlling neurons. (Fields, R. Douglas, PhD. The Other Brain. p 49-50. NY:Simon & Schuster, 2009.)

Refer to Glial Cells - the Other Brain for additional information.

The brain has neural receptions for various colors including black and white – there are none for gray. Seeing the color gray is simply a thought. (Newberg, Andrew, MD., and Mark Robert Waldman. Why We Believe What We Believe. p 57. NY: Free Press, 2006.)

The majority of hallucinations (in the U.S.A.) are auditory, because people in this culture do not pay much attention to the auditory system. In other cultures, hallucinations tend to cluster in other representational systems. (BandlerRichard, and John Grinder. Frogs into Princes. p 50. UT: Real People Press. 1979.)

Prenatal hearing, learning, and behavioral responses to a melody played earlier in pregnancy, occurred before or at the beginning of the third trimester. After birth, behavioral responses were specific to the tone to which the fetus had been exposure during gestation. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p 2-3. NY:MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

The skin is a piece of differentiated ear. The ear translates the potential of vibrational stimuli that come via the skin, to the brain. (Tomatis, Alfred A, M.D. Editor Timothy M. Gilmore, PhD, et al. About the Tomatis Method. p 214-216. Canada: Listening Centre Press, 1989.)

Hearing is the passive perception of sound. Listening is an active and focused process involving a quick and precise analysis of sounds that are heard. (Tomatis, Alfred A, M.D. Editor Timothy M. Gilmore, PhD, et al. About the Tomatis Method. p 18-20. Canada: Listening Centre Press, 1989.)

The ability to hear higher frequency ranges decreases with age (e.g., speak in a lower register to be better heard by the elderly). (Dychtwald, Ken, PhD, and Joe Flower. Age Wave. p 316-318. NY:St. Martin’s Press, 1989.)

Infants with recurring middle ear infections will not have normal development of their neurons for sound. This is one reason why infants with repeated middle ear infections do poorly in language and literacy in later life. The sensitive periods or plasticity for most lower level neural pathway circuits end relatively early in life, often by 4 years of age. In contrast, sensitive periods for some high level circuits remain open (plastic) for a longer period. This may be a reason why, with proper treatment of dyslexia, normal neural pathways can be established. (Mustard, J. Fraser, MD. Early Childhood Development: How does experience in early life affect brain development? 2008. p. 13.)

Female brain processes both language and feelings at the same time far more efficiently than the male brain. The left hemisphere processes words, definitions, and language. The right hemisphere processes inflection, tonality, tempo, and volume of communication. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 16-19. CA:The Brain Store, 2005.)

Males tend to hear in one ear better than the other. Females hear as well with both ears and tend to hear more data. (Gurian, Michael. The Wonder of Boys. p 16-19. NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1996.)

Study at University of Sheffield and published in the journal Neurolmage: males processed female voices in the auditory part of the brain that processes music (rather than in Wernicke’s area as is used for processing male voices). The female voice is more difficult for males to listen to as compared to a male voice. (Source.)

On average, females have superior hearing and are better at hearing high sounds, beginning in girlhood and increasing with age. They are more sensitive to loud noises. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. p 85-87. NY:Random House, 1999.)

When a child is deprived of hearing human voices, the connections that allow brain cells to process sound, and consequently language, can become ineffectual. The cells appear to be scrambled rather than appearing in neat columns characteristic of normal brain structure. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 22-23. NY:Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

The right ear (connected with the left hemisphere) has an advantage for listening to language sounds. The complementarity of right and left ears/hemispheres permits the creative use of speech and language. (Tomatis, Alfred A, M.D. Editor Timothy M. Gilmore, PhD, et al. About the Tomatis Method. p 18-20. Canada: Listening Centre Press, 1989.)

Studies: children from poor families hear 30 million fewer words by the time they are four than do kids from middle-class families. This can impact the actual structural development of the brain. (Boitnott, John. Cal Study: Poor Kids Lack Brain Development. Poor kids' brains may behave like they are damaged.)

The left hemisphere processes words, definitions, and language. The right hemisphere processes inflection, tonality, tempo, and volume of communication. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 16-19. CA:The Brain Store, 2005.)

The five senses of the left hemisphere (sight, hearing, touch, taste, smell) correspond to senses of the right hemisphere. However, right-brain senses are not the senses of sight and hearing in the so-called normal manner, Rather they involve the ability to see, hear, and sense things through waves translated into images. Thus includes the ability to retain complete image of things seen at a glance in the memory, serving as the receptacle for inspiration and the site of expression for image abundant creativity, and the abilities to visualize images and the realization of those images physically. (Loh, Andrew. Brain Development Centers.)

The right ear (connected with the left hemisphere) has an advantage for listening to language sounds. The complementarity of right and left ears/hemispheres permits the creative use of speech and language. (Tomatis, Alfred A, M.D. Editor Timothy M. Gilmore, PhD, et al. About the Tomatis Method. p 18-20. Canada: Listening Centre Press, 1989.)

Studies have shown that spirited kids are wired to be more intense, sensitive, perceptive, persistent, and uncomfortable with change than the average child. The author provides explanations and strategies to help parents cope with these types of children (sometimes referred to as individuals with a Sensory Processing Disorder). (Kurcinka, Mary Sheedy, MA. Raising Your Spirited Child, Rev Ed: A Guide for Parents Whose Child Is More Intense, Sensitive, Perceptive, Persistent, and Energetic. NY: Harper Paperbacks, 2006.)

Most homosexual orientation develops during gestation. Patterns tend to be firmly in place by age 5. Discusses lack of success of change therapies (e.g., push bisexuals to confine behaviors to opposite sex only, or enforce celibacy, or push the individuals to attempt suicide). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 171-186. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

The trauma of growing up gay in a world that is run primarily by straight men is deeply wounding in a unique and profound way. Straight men have other issues and struggles that are no less wounding, but they are quite different from those of a gay man. ( Downs, Alan, PhD. The Velvet Rage. Overcoming the Pain of Growing up Gay in a Straight Man’s World. p 5-6. NY: Da Capo Press, 2005. 2006.)

Refer to Sexual Orientation and the Brain for additional information.

The locations of brain cells sensitive to the chemicals involved in the regulation of hunger and thirst are most likely distributed in a system within the core brain stem, rather than being concentrated in a single “center,” although nodes in the system can be identified. (Pribram, Karl H. Languages of the Brain. p 184-186. NJ: Prentice-hall, Inc., 1971.)

A state that can occur spontaneously in individuals engage in critical situations (e.g., downhill skier in a race, fighter pilot in a skirmish) who must make instantaneous decision based upon processing large amounts of sensory information. (Newberg, Andrew, MD, et al. Why God Won’t Go Away. p 40-42. NY:Ballantine Books, 2001.)

Human senses can receive up to 10 million bits of input per second. (Cooper, Robert K., PhD., and Ayman Sawaf. Executive EQ. p 88-89. NY: Grosset/Putnam, 1997.)

The five senses directly affect presence of mind. The brain is constantly taking in sensory data as the afferent nerves send visual, auditory, olfactory, tactile, and gustatory messages. These messages vie for attention with other mental activities such as creativity, analysis, and inspection, all of which can be interrupted by sensory data. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 700-701. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Hearing, a small part of vision, touch, and taste all enter the brain through the brainstem and are passed up to the thalamus. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 63. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)

Music is a neural interpretation of sound. Color is a neural interpretation of light—and to the brain color is primarily a subjective experience. There is no neural receptor that distinguishes any gradation of gray. It, like many other colors the human brain imagines, is a belief construction within the brain—a form of understanding. A thought. (Davidoff, J., 2001. Lamb, T, et al, 1995. Neitz, J., et al, 2001)

The sixth sense is intuitive flow, a feeling of spontaneous challenge and elation, and on occasion, rapture. You perform at a very high level of alertness and accomplishment. There is evidence people can choose to experience this state more frequently but most don’t. (Cooper, Robert K., PhD., and Ayman Sawaf. Executive EQ. p 209-212. NY: Grosset/Putnam 1997.)

Irlen Syndrome, or Scotopie Sensitivity Syndrome, is a visual-perceptual problem. Probably results from a phypersensitivity to color, lights, glare, patterns, and contrast. (Biel, Lindsay, MA, OTR/L, and Nancy Peske. Raising a Sensory Smart Child - The Definitive Handbook for Helping Your Child with Sensory Integration Issues. p 47. NY:Penguin BOoks, 2009.)

Refer to Sensory Processing Disorder (below) for additional information.

Isolating each sense and learning to use it by itself can help you to more effectively use all the sensory systems together. This can enhance your memory. (Einberger, Kirstin, and Sellick Janelle, MS. Strengthen Your Mind. p 7. MD: Health Professions Press, 2007.)

When your conscious mind has a belief that is in conflict with “truth” previously stored in the subconscious mind, the intellectual conflict expresses itself as a weakening of the body’s muscles. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. p 158-160. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005.)

Kinesthetic and tactile learning are sometimes linked together although they actually involve different systems. The tactile system involves receptors in the skin; the kinesthetic system registers movement (its receptors in the muscle and tendons provide information on body movement. (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 150-151. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

Infants exposed to two languages (e.g., Japanese and English) in the first seven to eight months of life will easily develop the neuron functions that can differentiate the sounds of the two languages. This sets a base for fluent mastery of both languages without an accent later in development. Individuals who develop capability for two languages early in life have a larger left temporal hemisphere of the brain than do individuals with monolingual backgrounds. This may be, in part, an explanation of why those individuals can also more easily master other languages later in life. (Mustard, J. Fraser, MD. Early Childhood Development: How does experience in early life affect brain development? p 12. 2008.)

Children who grow up alone or in the wild without exposure to language until age ten rarely if ever learn to speak. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 22-23. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

Howard Gardner taught that there are a variety of types of intelligences, including Verbal, Logical, Visual, Musical, Kinesthetic (body movement), Intrapersonal (self-knowledge), and Interpersonal (knowing others). (Stine, Jean Marie. Double Your brain Power. p 61. NY: Prentice Hall, Inc. 1997.)

Some school children have problems learning due to a mismatch between the primary sensory preference of the teacher and that of the child. If neither has the flexibility to adjust, no learning occurs. A child can be labeled educationally handicapped one year and do fine the next year with a different teacher. (BandlerRichard, and John Grinder.Frogs into Princes. p 40. UT: Real People Press. 1979.)

The auditory, visual, and tactile-kinesthetic senses form the major learning modalities, the primary pathways by which information is taken in. (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 145-146. CA: Touchstone Books, 1986.)

Your senses determine how you perceive the world, and a person’s picture of the world. Some students work well at the back of the classroom. Others are so distracted by the students between themselves and the teacher that they can’t pay attention due to the way their sensory systems function. (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 49-55. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

The auditory, visual, and tactile-kinesthetic senses form the major learning modalities, the primary pathways by which information is taken in. (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 145-146. CA: Touchstone Books, 1986.)

In designing learning materials there is often the assumption that all trainees will learn in a similar manner. This approach ignorees the important issue of individual differences in cognitive style. Cognitive style may be defined as an individual's consistent approach to organising and processing information during thinking. Style does not appear to be related to intelligence and reflects qualitative rather than quantitative differences between individuals in their thinking processes. (Riding, Richard J., and Eugene Sadler-Smith. Cognitive Style and Learning Strategies: Some Implications for Training Design. Abstract.)

Your learning style or preference simply means the way your brain tends to learn best. Studies at the University of Western Ontario have shown that your learning style involves your preferred method of taking in, organizing, and making sense of information. This can be complicated by the fact that different situations and learning environments often require different learning strategies. And different teachers themselves have different learning (and therefore) different teaching styles. Three primary learning styles are: auditory (learning by hearing or reading), visual (learning by seeing), and kinesthetic (learning by doing). Researchers suggest that if you're looking to improve your effectiveness as a learner, identify the way your brain prefers to learn, and then develop a couple of additional strategies for learning in the other two learning styles. choose the learning preference category that you feel best matches the way you like to learn (e.g. visually), and check to see if you follow the suggested strategies (e.g. enhancing visual learning). Then, look at the strategies for the other two learning styles, and try to implement some of these ideas into your repertoire as well. (Source)

  • Auditory Learning Style

    Researchers at the University of Western Ontario have provided some tips for those who have an auditory learning style or who need to absorb information in that sensory system (hearing or reading) in a specific situation. When listening, sit towards the front of the room so you can hear well and avoid being distracted by sounds others make; repeat information silently to yourself as you take notes. When reading, repeat information either silently or aloud; use rhymes or jingles to remember key points; for terminology, think about how parts of the words sound ; consider studying with a partner, taking turns reading to each other and discussing key concepts. Some auditory learners like to record themselves verbalizing key points and then play the recording back as a rehearsal strategy. (Source)

  • Visual Learning Style

    Researchers at the University of Western Ontario have provided some tips for those who have a visual learning style or who need to absorb information in that sensory system (seeing) in a specific situation. In a lecture setting: sit where you can see the instructor and all visual aids; sit near the front to avoid potential distractions; watch for key words in PowerPoint slides or white boards to help organize notes; use symbols or colors in your notes to help draw attention to key concepts; review topic on a website, if available. If learning by text: minimize visual distractions; look for diagrams or charts or outline key topics in diagram format; consider rehearsing with flash cards; highlight information in color (using similar colors for topic or related information); connect important terminology to portions of a word you may already know. (Source)

  • Kinesthetic Learning Style

    Researchers at the University of Western Ontario have provided some tips for those who have a kinesthetic learning style or who need to absorb information in that sensory system (hands on) in a specific situation. In a class: take a small object (e.g., stress brain or ball) to class to squeeze with in one hand while the other takes notes; participate through questions and discussions whenever possible; stand up and stretch at every break or negotiate with the teacher to allow you to stand quietly at the side or back of room as needed; select classes with 1-hour segments (rather than 3-hour sections) whenever possible; connect relevance and applicability of the topic to life in general or to your life in particular in a practical way. (Source)

The word light is a label for the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected by the human eye. (Ultraviolet light has wavelengths shorter than the violet light that can be seen; infrared light has wavelengths longer than the red light that can be seen but can be felt as warmth.) (Ornstein, Robert, PhD, and Paul Ehrlich. New World New Mind. p 78-79. MA: Malor Books, 1989, 2000.)

When studying under full spectrum lighting, students showed significant increases in visual acuity (perception) and were much less fatigued compared to those using conventional cool-white fluorescents. (Colby, Barbara, ASID. Color & Light: Influences and Impact. p 51. CA: Barbara Colby, 1990.)

Females are more sensitive to light than males are, beginning in infancy. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? p 118. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

Researchers have studied the integration of auditory and visual information for speech perception in older as well as younger adults. The results shows that on average older adults are as successful as young adults at integrating auditory and visual information for speech perception at the syllable level. There were differences in the response alternatives chosen, however. When auditory and visual integration of speech information failed to occur, producing a nonfused response, participants selectws an alternative response from the modality with the least ambiguous signal. For example, young adults with normal peripheral sensitivity often chose an auditory alternative whereas, older adults and control participants leaned toward visual alternatives. In additions, older adults demonstrated poorer lipreading performance than their younger counterparts. (Source.)

Are among the most sensitive parts of the body, even more sensitive than the fingertips. (Katz, Lawrence C., PhD and Manning Rubin. Keep Your Brain Alive. p 113. NY: Workman Publishing Company, Inc., 1999.)

Some may have difficulty listening for information in school or conversation because, in childhood, they learned how to screen out unpleasant human voices. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 34-35. NY: Doubleday, 1987, 1989.)

Refer to Senses and the Brain – Auditory for additional information.

Listening to music is a fantastically complex mental process, since it involves both translating the various sound waves into a meaningful pattern, and recognizing and responding to the emotional content of the piece. (Greenfield, Susan, con. Ed. Brain Power. p 61. MA:The Ivy Press Limited, 1999.)

Dominant view of current scientific thinking and contemporary philosophy: the totality of human thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and experiences (including listening) are contained in patterns of electrochemical activity in the brain. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 10-11. CA: Institute for natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Female brain is organized to respond more sensitively to all sensory stimuli. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex. p 17. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991.)

Women have more finely tuned sensory skills than men. Women have superior sensitivity in differentiating tone changes in voice volume and pitch, and at differentiating sounds. Men are better at identifying where the sounds are coming from. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 31-32. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Comparatively speaking, male senses are somewhat dulled. Females, with higher perceptiveness, expect males to anticipate their needs as another female would. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 38-39. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

On average, girls take in more sensory data, hear better, smell better, and take in more information through fingertips and skin than do boys. (Gurian, Michael, and Patricia Henley with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! p 26-29. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, A Wiley Company, 2001.)

Females react acutely and quickly to pain, although their overall resistance to long-term discomfort is stronger than in males. (Gurian, Michael, and Patricia Henley with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! p 27. CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001.)

The Thalamus regulates emotional life and physical safety; processes incoming sensory information; tells us what’s going on outside body. It processes data faster in females, especially at certain times in the menstrual cycle. (Gurian, Michael, and Patricia Henley with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! p 26. CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001.)

Comparatively speaking, male senses are somewhat dulled. Females, with higher perceptiveness, expect males to anticipate their needs as another female would. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 38-39. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Women are more receptive on all five sensory channels. Illustrates using a car dealership as an example (e.g., vision, colors, hearing, touch, smell, notice, recall of details). (Barletta, Martha. Marketing to Women. p 154-155. IL: Dearborn Trade Publishing, 2003.)

Female brain processes both language and feelings at the same time far more efficiently than the male brain. The left hemisphere processes words, definitions, and language. The right hemisphere processes inflection, tonality, tempo, and volume of communication. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 16-19. CA: The Brain Store, 2005.)

Males tend to hear in one ear better than the other. Females hear as well with both ears and tend to hear more data. (Gurian, Michael. The Wonder of Boys. p 16-19. NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1996.)

Study at University of Sheffield and published in the journal Neurolmage: males processed female voices in the auditory part of the brain that processes music (rather than in Wernicke’s area as is used for processing male voices). The female voice is more difficult for males to listen to as compared to a male voice. (Source.)

On average, females have superior hearing and are better at hearing high sounds, beginning in girlhood and increasing with age. They are more sensitive to loud noises. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. p 85-87. NY:Random House, 1999.)

THC, tetrahydrocannabinol, is the psychoactive ingredient in marijuana and hashish. THC can trigger a perception of increased intensity of sensations, colors and sounds. (New Research Report presents Marijuana Facts. National Institute on Drug Abuse. NIDA NOTES, Volume 17, Number 3, p 15.)

Sensory memory is a type of memory that allows a person to hear, see, or feel an experience for a short time after the event stops. (Greenwood-Robinson, Maggie, PhD. 20/20 Thinking. p 270-271. NY: Avery, Putnam Special Markets, 2003.)

Activities that stimulate the senses and reminiscence engage multiple parts of the brain. This can help strengthen the mind and retard memory loss. (Einberger, Kirstin, and Sellick Janelle, MS. Strengthen Your Mind. MD: Health Professions Press, 2007.)

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