Sexuality and the Human Brain

Between 1 in 4-6 boys are sexually abused in the United States; 90% of the time by someone known to the boy, often another male. Boys are more likely to be sexually abused by straight males than gay males. Most abusers were once abused themselves. (Gurian, Michael. The Wonder of Boys. p 233-243 NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1996.)

Refer to Trauma and the Brain for additional information.

Acedia may be the most painful and costly of all sexual disorders: the diminishing of sexual attraction between two lovers after they have settled down with each other. (Seligman, Martin E P., PhD. What You Can Change…and What You Can’t. p 172-173. NY:Fawcett Books, 1993.)

Sex, like gambling, can be addictive in many ways. (Quartz, Steven R., PhD, and Terrence J. Sejnowski, PhD. Liars, Lovers, and Heroes. p 147. NY:HarperCollins Publishers Inc., 2002.)

Refer to Addictive Behaviors and the Brain for additional information.

Typical male sexual behavior is more assertive (e.g., the penetrative role). Typical female sexual behavior is less assertive (e.g., the receptive role). (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 73. CA:University of California Press, 1998.)

Assertiveness/aggression is built into the male brain (e.g., related to testosterone). This is not true for violence, which is taught/learned. (Gurian, Michael. The Wonder of Boys. p 6-8. NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1996.)

AIS is a condition where an individual has male internal organs with a vagina. AIS may be seen in a chromosomally normal male who had reduced sensitivity to masculinizing hormones during gestations. (Seligman, Martin E P., PhD. What You Can Change…and What You Can’t. p 148-173. NY:Fawcett Books, 1993.)

AGS is a condition where an individual has female internal organs plus a form of penis and scrotum. AGS may be seen in a chromosomally normal female who was exposed to a bath of masculinizing hormones during gestation. (Seligman, Martin E P., PhD. What You Can Change...and What You Can’t. p 148-173. NY:Fawcett Books, 1993.)

The anterior commissure (one of the three main bridges that connect the two cerebral hemispheres in the human brain) is 10-12% larger in the female brain as well as in the brain of homosexual males. (Blum, Deborah. Sex on the Brain. p 45-47. NY:Penguin Books, 1997.)

No scientific basis for aphrodisiacs actually working has been identified. There may be some placebo effect. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. p 217-218. NY: Broadway Books, 2004.)

Several substances have been tried for supposedly aphrodisiac qualities (e.g., bananas, oysters, sex organs of animals). Eating bulls/ testicles doesn’t work; enzymes in the stomach break down the testosterone before it can reach the blood stream. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 255-260. NY:Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

Appearances (e.g., clothing, skin color, physical attractiveness) may dominate first impressions (probably due to one of the brain’s default positions). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD, and Paul Ehrlich. New World New Mind. p 104-105. MA:Malor Books, 1989, 2000.)

In general, males are more easily sexually aroused, are more adventurous when seeking for a sexual partner, and may be more open to casual sexual relationships. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. p 73-74. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989.)

Study: Females showed physiological vaginal arousal when watching sex films but did not necessarily “feel” aroused consciously. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 243-253. NY:Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

Female brain is less arousable than the male brain and responds differently to visual/auditory arousal stimuli. Study: levels were higher in males than females after viewing an erotic film. Influenced by testosterone, norephinephrine tends to rise with hyperactivity, euphoria, self-assertion, and aggressiveness. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 243-254. NY:Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

Under Western law, doctors glance at the genitals of a newborn and pronounce it either male or female. Transsexual men and women then are stuck with the label of the sex they were assigned at birth whether or not it matches their brain function. (Feinberg, Leslie. Transgender Warriors--Making History from Joan of Arc to Dennis Rodman. p x-xii. NY: Beacon Press, 1997.)

Studies: Males and females with larger right testicles or breasts tend to be more masculine in behavior; those with larger left testicles or breasts tend to be more typically feminine in behavior. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 183-186. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Lower levels of testosterone but higher levels of oxytocin/vasopressin have been associated with long-term relationships (e.g., couples often have less sex as they become more attached to each other). (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. p 256-258. NY:Random House, 1999.)

Study: attachment, lust, and infatuation. Each component is characterized by specific brain chemistry. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. p 226-230. NY: Broadway Books, 2004.)

There is an inverse relationship between lust and attachment. It is dose dependent (e.g., increasing testosterone can decrease vasopressin and oxytocin, increasing vasopressin can decrease testosterone, increasing oxytocin in both males and females can decrease the impact of dopamine and norepinephrine). (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. p 90-100. NY:Random House, 1999.)

Heterosexuals and homosexuals can choose (at some level) the type of behaviours they will exhibit. But exhibiting some heterosexual behaviours will not remove a gay person’s sense of same-gender attraction or make it go away. The reverse is also true. Much as a left-hander who is forced to behave as a right-hander, it is not the person’s first choice and will usually be less comfortable. Human beings all get to make choices about how to conduct their lives, but not about their feelings of sexual attraction. (Marcus, Eric. Is it a Choice? p 9-12. NY:HarperCollins, 2005.)

Avoiding and suppressing does not dissipate the heart's natural yearnings. It just stock-piles emotional energy. In addition, shutting down some emotions and feeings may shut off most other emotions, as well. (Rix, Jallen, EdD. Ex-Gay; No Way. Survivial and recovery from Religious Abuse. p 13-14; 190-196. Scotland: Findhorn Press, 2010).

Refer to Sexual Orientation and the Brain for more information.

Distinction between biological and social influences is in some senses false. All our behavior is controlled by our brain and, in this sense, is biologically based. (Hines, Melissa, PhD. Brain Gender. p 3-6. NY:Oxford University Press, 2004.)

Postulates that the way in which boys are taught about sexual behavior and the psychology of human love is deeply flawed. (Gurian, Michael. The Wonder of Boys. p 221-247. NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1996.)

The hypothalamus is the brain area related to sexual behaviors. The desire for sex arises in the hypothalamus, stimulated by hormones (especially testosterone). Males have 10-20 times higher levels of testosterone. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 183-200. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

The hypothalamus, part of the limbic system, regulates the four Fs: feeding, fleeing, fighting, and sexual activity. It is influenced by sex hormones prior to birth. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 39-41. NY:Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

For most people, heterosexual impulses predominate, although all are bisexual to some degree. (Viorst, Judith. Necessary Losses. p 107-109. NY:Simon & Schuster, 1986.)

There are exclusive homosexuals and optional (bisexual) homosexuals. Compares exclusive homosexuality in males with Androgen-Insensitivity Syndrome (AIS) and MF transsexuality. (Seligman, Martin E P., PhD. What You Can Change…and What You Can’t. p 148-173. NY:Fawcett Books, 1993.)

Defines hermaphrodites as true bisexuals: one active ovary and one active testis. They could impregnate themselves, but are usually raised as either girls or as boys. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 90-186. NY:Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

Bisexual men are often married and engage in casual sex with other males for variety. Bisexual women seek long-term relationships with members of either gender and are more likely to alternate partners. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. p 86-87. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989.)

A sexual high is generated primarily by the hypothalamus. (Newberg, Andrew, MD, et al. Why God Won’t Go Away. p 125-126. NY: Ballantine Books, 2001.)

Refer to Sexual Orientation and the Brain for additional information.

A term that describes male discomfort due to lack of orgasm following sexual excitement. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? p 36. NY:William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

Casual sex doesn’t really work on a whole mind/body level. Neurochemical changes occur in both brains during sexual activity. These changes encourage emotional/limbic bonding. One reason females are more often hurt when a casual affair ends is that the female limbic system is larger than the males and she is more likely to become limbically connected. (Amen, Daniel G., MD. Change Your Brain Change Your Life. p 39-42. NY: Times Books, 1998.)

The brain can be differentiated in several different styles. Male body with female-differentiated brain (e.g., excess estrogen in male embryo during gestation); male body with male-differentiated brain (e.g., excess androgen in female embryo during gestation); “super” male (e.g., excess androgen in male embryo). See Turner’s Syndrome for female equivalent. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 215-221. GA:Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Two centers can be influenced by male hormones. The mating center in the hypothalamus determines sexual attraction, the behavior center determines masculine or feminine behaviors (e.g., not all gay males are effeminate, not all macho males are heterosexual). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 183-186. NY:Broadway Books, 1998.)

The fetal brain grows at different rates. Different areas of the brain become susceptible at different times to sex hormones (e.g., testosterone). One portion can be masculinized while another remains untouched. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. p xviii-xix. NY: Random House, 1999.)

The brain can be differentiated in several different styles. Male body with female-differentiated brain (e.g., excess estrogen in male embryo during gestation); male body with male-differentiated brain (e.g., excess androgen in female embryo during gestation); “super” male (e.g., excess androgen in male embryo). See Turner’s Syndrome for female equivalent. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 215-221. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Brain injuries (e.g., birth injury, infantile meningitis, bumping one’s head at age 4) can trigger sexual anomalies (e.g., transvestitism, loss of libido). These physical effects on the brain are not attributable to societal/familial issues, per se. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. p 32-34. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989.)

The brain areas of males and females related to sex differ. Genes create the basic template, primarily during gestation, that is acted upon by hormones. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 73. CA:University of California Press, 1998.)

The entire human brain is involved with sex, including nearly every type of brain activity. (Carter, Rita. Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 74. CA:University of California Press, 1998.)

East German scientist, Dr. Gunter Dorner, described three centers of development in the hypothalamus: sex center, mating center, and gender-role center. Dr. Dorner thinks that homosexuality might be able to be prevented with pre-natal injections of androgens. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex. p 114-116. NY:Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991.)

American scientist Dr. Milton Diamond described four stages of brain development in the hypothalamus: basic sexual, sexual identity, sexual choice, and sexual control centers. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex. p 114-116. NY:Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991.)

Individuals who are connected to an inner core of faith and hope show positive effects on brain power similar to those of people who meditate. Spirituality “is definitely useful in boosting brain efficiency.” (Guiffre, Kenneth, MD, with Theresa Foy DeGeronimo. The Care and Feeding of Your Brain. p 45, 236. NJ:Career Press, 1999.)

Research has discovered more about how male versus female brain differentiation occurs. They altered female rat brains by giving estradiol, a testosterone derivative that triggers a mechanism by which certain genes in the brain are "unsilenced," allowing them to initiate the process of masculinization. This process involves a group of enzymes known as DNA methyltransferases or Dnmts that modify DNA to repress gene expression. Physically, these were female rats, but in their reproductive behavior, they were males. (Bridget M Nugent and Margaret M McCarthy, et al. “Brain feminization requires active repression of masculinization via DNA methylation.” Nature Neuroscience, 2015; DOI: 10.1038/nn.3988)

Champagne contains a chemical that increases testosterone levels. This chemical is not found in other alcohol-containing beverages. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. p 236. NY:Broadway Books, 2004.)

Chocolate contains phenylethylamine, a chemical that can stimulate the love center in a female’s brain. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 236. NY:Broadway Books, 1998.)

Sometimes referred to as supermales, individuals with a double dose of Y chromosome (XYY) are often very tall and masculine looking, and are over-represented among prisoners who have committed violent and sexual crimes. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. p 75-76. England:Peter Owen Publishers, 1989.)

Males with a XYY chromosome pattern tend to be more impulsive, aggressive, and antisocial than other males. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 80-90. NY:Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

In two million marriages in the US, at least one spouse is gay, lesbian, or bisexual. When a husband or wife comes out of the closet, it is a profound crisis that cuts across race, socioeconomic class, religion, and age. (Buxton, Amity Pierce, PhD. The Other Side of the Closet—the Coming-Out Crisis for Straight Spouses and Families. p xiii-xv. NY:John Wiley and Sons, 1991. 1994.)

In our culture, young males are conditioned to challenge and conquer in the sexual arena. (Goldberg, Herb, PhD. The Hazards of Being Male. p 24. NY:Nash Publishing, 1976.)

Discusses CAH and the effect on the female fetus of high quantities of testosterone (e.g., more tomboyish, energetic, prefer boys as playmates). (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 118-122. NY:Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

Each human being could be placed on a continuum somewhere between superfeminine to hypermasculine. Placement depends on the amount and timing of hormones to which the fetus was subjected during pregnancy. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. p xviii-xix. NY:Random House, 1999.)

Males and females could be placed on a continuum, including females with male-differentiated brains, males with female-differentiated brains, and people with ambiguous brain-body differentiation. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 215-218. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Cybersex can be defined as consensual sex practiced by typing descriptions of sexual acts and exchanging a verbal dialogue via e-mail. Often masturbation is practiced while one is reading descriptions of imaginary sexual acts being performed. Sometimes it progresses to telephone sex and then real-time sex. It can be compared to phone sex except the communication is typewritten. (Greenfield, Daivid N., PhD. Virtual Addiction – Help for Netheads, Cyberfreaks, and Those Who Love Them. p 16-18, 100-110. CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc, 1999.)

The embryo will become female unless it has a “Y” chromosome that leads to the formation of testes that produce testosterone. If the testes fail to produce testosterone the result will be a genetically male child with female genitals. (Nicholson, John. Men and Woman: How Different are They? p 11-12. NY:Oxford University Press, 1984.)

Female is the default plan. Even if a Y chromosome is present, if male hormones do not alter template the fetus will be born looking like a female. (Fisher, Helen.The First Sex. p xviii-xix. NY:Random House, 1999.)

For the first 6 weeks following conception, all fetuses are essentially the same and indistinguishable. Describes changes to genetic male fetus beginning about 6 weeks and to genetic female fetus at about 12 weeks. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD.What’s the Difference? p 79. NY:William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

All fetuses start out female. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! p 41. CA:Jossey-Bass, 2001.)

The basic template for human brains and bodies is female. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 55-60, 171-172. NY:Broadway Books, 1998.

The natural template of the brain seems to be female. That is, the brain develops into a female pattern unless dosed with androgens during gestation. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex. p 24-26, 115. NY:Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991.)

The natural template of the brain seems to be female. That is, the brain develops into a female pattern unless dosed with androgens during gestation. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex. p 24-26, 115. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991.)

Once aroused, sexual desire can override many other systems. People often risk all manner of adverse consequences for an adulterous fling. Doing the right thing doesn’t always flow naturally from knowing what the right thing is to do. (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self. p 321-323. NY: Penguin Books, 2002.)

Most sexual deviants are males. Deviant females have typically shown high levels of male hormones. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 163-164. NY:Broadway Books, 1998.)

More males than females practice deviant behaviors (e.g., homosexual incest, pedophilia, homosexual sadism and masochism. There may be a relationship between Y chromosome and testosterone levels. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 86-89. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

The hormone DHEA is released during sexual activity. It can help to strengthen the immune system, build bones, and improve cognition. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 198-200. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

What is a sex difference? A characteristic that shows a sex difference is one that differs on the average for males and females of a given species. A human characteristic is considered to show a sesx difference if it differs for a group of boys or men in comparison to a group of girls or women. (Hines, Melissa, PhD. Brain Gender. p 3-6. NY:Oxford University Press, 2004.)

Sexual differentiation depends sex hormones affecting the sex chromosomes (XX or XY). This begins to influence our sexuality well before birth. The middle third of pregnancy is critical for sex differentiation in the human brain. (Wilson, Glenn.The Great Sex Divide. p 26-28. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989.

The action of sex hormones is responsible for sexual differentiation and gender-specific behaviors. If the testes of a genetically male don’t produce androgens or if the hormones cannot act on the developing tissues, the fetus will develop as a female. (Springer, Sally p., and Georg Deutsch. Left Brain, Right Brain. p 149-150. NY:W.H. Freeman and Co., 1997.)

Dr. Gunter Dorner has done work with human sexuality/homosexuality and hormonal levels during gestation. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 90-186. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

Sex involves practically every type of brain activity. Because of this, any type of brain dysfunction may trigger some type of sexual dysfunction. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

Behaviors that are at the surface level of human sexuality (e.g., frigidity, impotence, premature ejaculation) and can be changed. (Seligman, Martin E P., PhD. What You Can Change...and What You Can’t. p 4-6, 170-172. NY: Fawcett Books, 1993.)

Fathers can teach their sons some basics about sex, and appropriate behaviors when the boys feel sexually stimulated (e.g., privacy, person, penis). (Gurian, Michael. The Wonder of Boys. p 228-229. NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1996.)

Males tend to use sex to express physically what they can’t express emotionally (e.g., relieve tensions). They are more likely than females to fall asleep after sex as they need to recover. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 212-215. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Refer to Emotions and Feelings for additional information.

Endorphins are natural pain killers that are released in the brain/body during sexual activity. They can help relieve pain (e.g., whiplash, headache, arthritis). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 191-200. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Sexual energy and the search for love provokes males to a ore complete use of the full brain than any other pursuit. (Joy, Donald, PhD. Unfinished Business. p. 88-89. IL:Victor Books, 1989)

Refer to Energy and the Brain for additional information.

Both men and women experience erections (male penis, female clitoris) during sleep or upon waking. Testosterone levels are highest just before sunrise, with lowest levels occurring about 11pm. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? p 73-74. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

Males can find it difficult to speak, hear, or drive when they have an erection. Males use the right hemisphere during sex. Brain scans show the male is virtually deaf during sex due to his goal-oriented undistractability. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 73-74. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

An obsessional delusion with a strong sexual element that may be related to frontal lobe damage. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 74. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

Sensation seeking is a characteristic of extreme forms of extroversion (low gain). The brains of these individuals want more of everything; they seek a larger variety in sexual activities and a larger number of sexual partners (for both heterosexual and homosexual adults, males as well as females). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 57. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.

Generally males need at least 30 seconds of foreplay; many females need at least 30 minutes of foreplay before they are ready for sex. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 213-215. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Males tend to skip foreplay in favor of reaching the goal of orgasm. Females favor the pleasurable process of foreplay. Males may reach climax with 2-3 minutes of genital stimulation; females need an average of 18 minutes. (Gray, John, PhD. Men, Women and Relationships. p 95-96. OR: Beyond Words Publishing, Inc., 1990-1993.)

This book explains how that, when there is no sexual activity or romance involved, the brains of individuals may connect in close friendships regardless of gender or sexual orientation of the individuals involved. When this happens there is often an openness and depth of sharing of information that is not typically observed in romantic and/or sexual relationships. (De La Cruz, Melissa, and Tom Dolby, editors. NY: Plume, 2007, 2008.)

All over the world on all continents and in all cultures, brain differences exist between female brains and male brains. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, with Barbara Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. p xx. CA: Jossey-Bass, 2008.)

Female brain can multitrack (dealing with a number of pieces of information at one time) and can talk during sex. Male brain is organized for monotracking (e.g., focusing on one piece of information at a time), and must switch to their left hemisphere in order to talk during sex, which may cause them to lose their erection. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. p 8-10, 214-215, 261-262. NY:Broadway Books, 2004.)

The brain areas of males and females related to sex differ. Genes create the basic template, primarily during gestation, that is acted upon by hormones. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 73. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

For males, sex traditionally has been the primary proving ground for masculinity. For females, sex becomes something she can barter for “love.” In general, societal conditioning makes men and women a mismatch in bed. This polarization can actually influence them to become sexual enemies. (Goldberg, Herb, PhD. The New Male-Female Relationship. p 68-71. p 68-70. NY:Signet Books, 1983.)

Quality versus Quantity: Females have a higher threshold of sexual excitability, are more easily distracted during intercourse, and are often more deeply interested in sex as a human relationship. Males are more superficially interested in sex and tend to make up in quantitative activity what they fail to experience qualitatively. (Montague, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. p 97-99. NY: Collier Books, a division of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1952, 1974.)

Generally a man knows when he is open to having sex. If he’s open to it he usually wants it. A woman may be open to having sex but may need more time to decide if she really wants it. (Gray, John, PhD. Men, Women, and Relationships. p 91-92. OR: Beyond Words Publishing, Inc., 1990-1993.)

Males are totally focused and undistracted during sex. Females are still acutely aware of environmental sounds or changes. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 214-215. NY:Broadway Books, 1998.)

Mismatches can be based on conditioning. Conquest-Intimacy (e.g., females perceive sex in the context of love and intimacy; males in the context of challenge and lust). Mismatches can include Sensuality-Sexuality, Emotional-Intellectual, Goal versus Process, Actor-Reactor, and Animal-Madonna. (Goldberg, Herb, PhD. The New Male-Female Relationship. p 71-78. NY: Signet Books, 1983.)

The average woman has fewer sexual partners during her lifetime than the average man. Men are slightly more sexually active at every age. (Nicholson, John. Men and Woman: How Different are They? p 140-141. NY: Oxford University Press, 1984.)

Male sexual performance at age 19 is more compatible with a female in her late 30s or early 40s. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 191-200. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Sex Object or Success Object? To bolster his masculinity, males may treat their female partners as sex objects. Conversely, females may treat their male partners as a success object, perhaps to compensate for her fear of independence, aggression, and the direct expression of power. (Goldberg, Herb, PhD. The New Male-Female Relationship. p 38-39. NY: Signet Books, 1983.)

In sexual responsiveness, males are more readily aroused and more easily satisfied than women. The sexual response cycle of women runs at a slower rate than that of men. Average male and female arousal patterns are poorly synchronized. In fact, many females can be somewhat indifferent to sex for long periods of their life. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. p 88-93. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989

Sex Object or Success Object? To bolster his masculinity, males may treat their female partners as sex objects. Conversely, females may treat their male partners as a success object, perhaps to compensate for her fear of independence, aggression, and the direct expression of power. (Goldberg, Herb, PhD. The New Male-Female Relationship. p 38-39. NY:Signet Books, 1983.)

The female brain is less arousable than the male brain and responds differently to visual/auditory arousal stimuli. Study: levels were higher in males than females after viewing an erotic film. Influenced by testosterone, norephinephrine tends to rise with hyperactivity, euphoria, self-assertion, and aggressiveness. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 243-254. NY:Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

The largest pscyhological sex differences in humans are those in gender identity, the core gender identity of oneself as male or female and sexual orientation (erotic attraction to and interest in sexual partners of the same versus other gender). The vast majority of people have a core gender identity consistent with their genetic sex and a sexual orientation toward the the gender other than their own. This is not, however, true for everyone. In a small percentage of men their core gender identity is female; in a small percentage of women their core gender identity is male. (Hines, Melissa, PhD. Brain Gender. p 9-12. NY:Oxford University Press, 2004.)

The female brain is less arousable than the male brain and responds differently to visual/auditory arousal stimuli. Study: levels were higher in males than females after viewing an erotic film. Influenced by testosterone, norephinephrine tends to rise with hyperactivity, euphoria, self-assertion, and aggressiveness. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 243-254. NY:Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

Jealousy is likely to appear in a woman who places a relationship in a position of great importance, outweighing any other part of her life. Males who exhibit jealousy tend to think that males should have more sexual freedom than females. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? p 108-109. NY:William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

Magazines whose producers assumed females have interests comparable to those of males (e.g., nude male pinups) have not been a big success. Some manage to survive through sales to men. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. p 70-71. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989.)

By its structure the male brain is more focused than the female; the male brain is biased towards a more single-minded approach and less easily distracted. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. p 96-97. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991.)

Males are very physically orientated when it comes to sex while females are more cerebral. A female needs to be in the mood and happy with her partner. If she’s angry with her partner (from recent or remote events) she probably will not want to have sex. (Bost, Brent W., MD, FACOG. Hurried Woman Syndrome. p 120-121. NY: Vantage Press, 2001.)

Sexual perversions (e.g., foot fetishes) are an almost exclusively male phenomenon. (U.S.NEWS & WORLD REPORT. p 52. August 8, 1988.)

For males, sex has rules and parameters. It is a pleasant task, but it still has a beginning, middle, and end. To a woman sex is more about exploration, discovery, and adventure. (Tanenbaum, Joe. Male & Female Realities, Understanding the Opposite Sex. p 108-109. NV: Robert Erdmann Publishing, 1990.)

The hypothalamus in male transsexuals is the size of the hypothalamus in the female brain or smaller. Approximately 20% of transsexuals opt to undergo a sex-change operation. One in 3-5 attempts suicide. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 173-186. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Males tend to use sex to express physically what they can’t express emotionally (e.g., relieve tensions). They are more likely than females to fall asleep after sex as they need to recover. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 212-215. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Males who exhibit jealousy tend to think that males should have more sexual freedom than females. Jealousy is likely to appear in a woman who places a relationship in a position of great importance, outweighing any other part of her life. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? p 108-109. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

Genes have power to switch on and become dominant (penetrant). Huntington’s, 100% penetrant; Type 1 Diabetes, 30% penetrant; Gay gene, 50-70% penetrant (e.g., 10% of males carry gay gene). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 177-186. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

An approximate location of genes that may have an impact on sexual orientation in males is X928 region of the X chromosome. The pattern for females has not been established. The likelihood of this gene becoming penetrant is largely dependent on testosterone levels 6-8 weeks after conception. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 178-186. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Sometimes both male and female genitals are present in the body of a genetic male at birth. Sometimes the male appears female at birth and male genitals appear at puberty. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 171-172. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

The chemical environment of the fetus before birth (including variations due to maternal diet, drugs, and stress) can have profound effects on sexual development that have nothing to do with social roles or learning. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. p 32-34. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989.)

Y chromosome may trigger release of a substance called H-Y antigen that changes potential ovarian cells into testicles. Abnormalities can result if antigen is not produced or cells are insensitive to it. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 100-110. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

Sex is not the object. It is power, dominance, and nothing else. The purpose of sexual harassment is to put a woman in her place and make her feel inferior (so the harasser can feel superior). (Brothers, Joyce, PhD. What Every Woman Should Know About Men. p 130-132. NY: Ballantine Books 1981.)

Study: men likely to engage in sexual aggression may be unaware that they have a non-conscious association between sex and power. They may even believe that their behavior toward female subordinates is motivated by good intentions. (Wilson, Timothy D. Strangers to Ourselves – Discovering the Adaptive Unconscious. p 23. England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002.)

An infant whose external genitalia are ambiguous is genuinely intermediate in terms of gender, regardless of chromosome pattern. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. p 76-77. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989.)

Defines hermaphrodites as true bisexuals: one active ovary and one active testis. They could impregnate themselves, but are usually raised as either girls or as boys. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 90-186. NY:Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

A condition of pseudo-hermaphrodite, known as Machihembra (man-woman), has been found in a specific district of the Dominican Republic. Male pseudo-hermaphroditism is an inherited enzyme deficiency that causes genetic males to develop as females until puberty and then suddenly turn into males. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. p 77-78. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989.)

According to Professor Anne Fausto-Sterling, a biologist and gender theorist, if people ought to be classified in sexes at least five sexes rather than two, are needed. For some time medical investigators have recognized the concept of the intersexual body. But the standard medical literature uses the term intersex as a catch-all for three major subgroups with some mixture of male and female characteristics: the so-called true hermaphrodites (herms), who possess one testis and one ovary (the sperm- and egg-producing vessels, or gonads); the male pseudohermaphrodites (merms), who have testes and some aspects of the female genitalia but no ovaries; and the female pseudohermaphrodites (ferms), who have ovaries and some aspects of the male genitalia but lack testes.(Fausto-Sterling, Anne. The Five Sexes: Why Male and Female Are Not Enough. The Sciences March/April 1993, p. 20-24.)

Homophobia often involves multiple prejudices so it more accurately would be labeled homophobias. Such prejudices are not limited to heterosexuals. They can be found among homosexuals and repressed homosexuals, between gay men and lesbians. Homophobias could be described as sexism and as an uncomprehension or dislike of another type of sexuality. (Fone, Byrne. Homophobia--a History. p 6-9. NY: Picodor, 2000.)

Mirror neurons play a key7 role in sexual response and may play a role in homophobia. When people see sexually aroused genitals of thepreferred sex (e.g., opposite for heterosexuals, same for homosexuals), the brain's mirror neurons and reward centers fire. So when a heterosexual male sees two other men in sexual acts, he can't help but experience it in his mind's body, even if it is at a subconscious level. For the straight male, this is unappetizing and may make a live-and-let-live attitude more difficult to adopt. (Blakeslee, Sandra, and Matthew Blakeslee. The Body Has a Mind of Its Own. p 178-179. NY: Random House, 2008.)

Most homosexual orientation develops during gestation. Patterns tend to be firmly in place by age 5. Discusses lack of success of change therapies (e.g., push bisexuals to confine behaviors to opposite sex only, or enforce celibacy, or push the individuals to attempt suicide). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 171-186. NY:Broadway Books, 1998.)

The trauma of growing up gay in a world that is run primarily by straight men is deeply wounding in a unique and profound way. Straight men have other issues and struggles that are no less wounding, but they are quite different from those of a gay man. ( Downs, Alan, PhD. The Velvet Rage. Overcoming the Pain of Growing up Gay in a Straight Man’s World. p 5-6. NY:Da Capo Press, 2005. 2006.)

“Nobody in science now believes that sexual orientation is caused by events in adolescence ... Homosexuality is an early, probably prenatal, and irreversible preference.”  ―Author and Geneticist Matt Ridley. Summary of 14 studies that show brain and body differences between heterosexual and homosexual individuals (e.g., inner ear, finger lengths, finger ridges, startle reflex, maternal side, etc.). Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance. Religious Tolerance.org    http://www.religioustolerance.org/hom_caus4.htm

Refer to Sexual Orientation and the Brain for additional information.

 

Hormones impact both male and female brains. Different hormonal levels can result in female brains in male bodies and vice versa. Much of one’s sexual makeup relates to the hypothalamus where neurons that are involved in gender-specific sexual behavior are located. (Quartz, Steven R., PhD, and Terrence J. Sejnowski, PhD. Liars, Lovers, and Heroes. p 164-165. NY: HarperCollins Publishers Inc., 2002.)

The hormone DHEA is released during sexual activity. It can help to strengthen the immune system, build bones, and improve cognition. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 198-200. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Sexual preferences are partly determined by hormones before birth. Typically there are higher numbers of male homosexuals over lesbians (e.g., more opportunities for something to “go wrong” in the process of converting the standard female embryo into a sexually competent male). (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. p 80-81. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989.)

Variations in androgens (male sex hormones) and estrogens (female sex hormones) can affect both body asymmetry and the degree/direction of gender differentiation in the brain. Provides examples. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 215-221. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

There is an endocrine basis for homosexual preference if fetal development is interrupted and mother’s androgens are interfered with at the time of sexual differentiation in the brain. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Sex hormones create masculinization over time, so males can be more or less masculine. Females can be masculinized but not defeminized. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 104-117. NY:Arbor House Publishing, 1983.

Defines five layers related to human sexuality: Sexual identity, orientation, preference, role, and performance. Believes that the deeper the layer (e.g., core sexual identity) the more difficult it would be to achieve change. (Seligman, Martin E P., PhD. What You Can Change…and What You Can’t. p 148-173. NY: Fawcett Books, 1993.)

The preoptic anterior nucleus seems to regulate masculine brain functions (e.g., mounting in response to female signals). In humans this area of the hypothalamus is about twice as large in males as in females. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. p 35-36. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989.)

Homosexual males tend to have fewer neurons in the 3rd interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH-3) as compared to the straight male brain (but more than in the female brain). (Blum, Deborah. Sex on the Brain. p 42-48. NY: Penguin Books, 1997.)

The hypothalamus is the sex center. Less than an ounce in weight and about the size of a cherry, it is larger in the male brain than in the female brain or in the brains of homosexuals or transsexuals. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 190-200. NY:Broadway Books, 1998.

The third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus is of similar size in the brains of females and homosexual males; twice as large in heterosexual males. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 223-226. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Sexual identity is in place at time of birth and relates to hormonal processes that template the brain near the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. Other factors (e.g., child rearing, societal conditioning) likely do little except reinforce or disturb one’s core sexual identity. (Seligman, Martin E P., PhD. What You Can Change...and What You Can’t. p 148-173. NY:Fawcett Books, 1993.)

For most people, heterosexual impulses predominate, although all are bisexual to some degree. (Viorst, Judith. Necessary Losses. p 107-109. NY:Simon & Schuster, 1986.)

Provides a table and description of things that can be changed and those that can’t (e.g., Sexual identity is unchangeable, Sexual Orientation is probably unchangeable). (Seligman, Martin E P., PhD. What You Can Change...and What You Can’t. p 244-260. NY:Fawcett Books, 1993.)

Males and females could live more happily if they acknowledged their differences and built lives on twin pillars of distinct sexual identities. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex. p 8. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991.)

During prenatal development there is a restricted time frame during which the brain takes on male or female characteristics. Scientists had thought that once this window closed, it could not be reopened but researchers have found otherwise. DNA methyltransferases or Dnmt enzymes control expression of genes that play a role in inflammation and immunity, and also in the sexual differentiation of the brain. Microglia, inflammatory immune cells, also appear to play a role in masculinization, in part through their production of prostaglandins, a neurochemical normally associated with illness. The immune system is integral to the development of the brain but this study is the first to show that it is also important for establishment of sex differences in the brain. (Margaret McCarthy, PhD, and Bridget Nugent, PhD, et al. “Brain feminization requires active repression of masculinization via DNA methylation.” Nature Neuroscience, 2015; DOI: 10.1038/nn.3988)

Infatuation can be re-created by replicating exciting courtship routines that existed in a relationship during the infatuation stage. (Pease, Barbara and Allan.Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 238-239. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Study: attachment, lust, and infatuation. Each component is characterized by specific brain chemistry. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. p 226-230. NY:Broadway Books, 2004.)

Reports on studies: Troubled families are characterized by sexual infidelity. There are many other types of infidelity: an affair with work, hobby, outside interests, etc. (Hafen, Brent Q., et al. Mind/Body Health. p 343-348. MA:Simon & Schuster, 1996.)

Avoid underestimating the power of human sexuality and the Internet. A large number of Interent addicts may also be sex and relationship addicts, as well. The Internet can be so sexually alluring that it becomes an easy way to fulfill their sexual desires. As with many addictive behaviors, there is a clear need for an increase in sexually stimulating material to achieve the same degree of satisfaction. Cybersex encounters may move on to actual in-person encounters. Regardless, spending a significant amount of time with another person outside of your primary relationship may end up breaching intimacy parameters in your actual relationship. Easy access makes sexual addictgion more probable online than through other mediums. ( Greenfield, David N., PhD. Virtual Addiction. p 86-120. CA:New Harbinger Publications, Inc, 1999.)

Data suggest that there is a continuum of online sexual behavior that appears to be significantly higher for those who are addicted to the Internet. For example, when comparing Internet addicted versus nonaddicted percentages, there appears to be a progression of sexual behavior from online to real-time:

Online Behaviors
Nonaddicted Person
Addicted Person
Flirting
20%
57%
Explicit sex-talk
9%
38%
Masturbation
12%
37%
Online affair
14%
42%
Phone contact
18%
50%
Real-time sex
13%
31%

(Greenfield, David N., PhD. Virtual Addiction. p 179-180. CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc, 1999.)

Males who exhibit jealousy tend to think that males should have more sexual freedom than females. Jealousy is likely to appear in a woman who places a relationship in a position of great importance, outweighing any other part of her life. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? p 108-109. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

A condition in which a male is born with two X chromosomes, as well as the Y chromosome. Individuals tend to be unusually aggressive. (Tanenbaum, Joe. Male & Female Realities. p 134. NV: Robert Erdmann Publishing, 1990.)

A condition that results from an imbalance in hormonal secretions that causes a delay in physical maturation. Occurs in males only. They tend to be tall, lean, with breast enlargement, small or undeveloped testes, and limited sex drive (about 25% of have some mental defect). (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? p 112. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

Perhaps nearly half a million males in the United States have Klinefelter’s syndrome: a XXY chromosomal pattern, characterized by small testicles and lowered sexual drive, but normal male visual-spatial skills. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 70-80. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

A condition that can result from damage to the front portion of the temporal lobe and the amygdalae that lie below it. Symtompatically, the individual tries to stuff anything in the vicinity into his/her mouth and/or make love to it. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 75. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

A lesbian is defined as a female body with a masculinized brain. Rates approximate 1 lesbian for every 8-10 gay males. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 171-186. NY:Broadway Books, 1998.

For some lesbians, their hormone balance was probably more like that of males during fetal development (e.g., some lesbian women have unusually high testosterone levels). (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. p 75-76. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989.)

Lesbians tend to exhibit attributes associated with exposure to higher testosterone levels while in the womb. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 165-168. NY:Broadway Books, 1998.)

Testosterone is the key sexual hormone for both males and females. If females lose adrenal glands that produce and control the flow of testosterone their libido can fall (can often be restored by testosterone injections, which may also help with frigidity). (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex. p 103. NY:Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991.)

The male brain seeks variety. Study: males are generally more faithful to women who wear a variety of erotic lingerie than to women who prefer white cotton underwear. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 203-208. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Study: frequency of sexual intercourse (for men) and the enjoyment of sex (for women) is correlated with increased longevity. (Roizen, Michael F., MD. Real Age: Are You As Young As You Can Be? p 129. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2001.)

Refer to Emotions and Feelings for additional information.

Study: lust, infatuation, and attachment. Each component is characterized by specific brain chemistry. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. p 226-230. NY: Broadway Books, 2004.)

Discusses the inverse relationship between lust and attachment. It is dose dependent (e.g., increasing testosterone can decrease vasopressin and oxytocin, increasing vasopressin can decrease testosterone, increasing oxytocin in both males and females can decrease the impact of dopamine and norepinephrine). (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. p 90-100. NY: Random House, 1999.)

An inherited enzyme deficiency that causes genetic males to develop as females until puberty (e.g., specific district of the Dominican Republic). At puberty, androgen production suddenly increases and the individual turns into a typical male. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. p 77-79. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989.)

Dominican Republic Studies: there is a now-famous family system in Dominican Republic where babies who appear to be female at birth are raised as female children, and then develop male genitalia at puberty and start functioning as males. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 95-103. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

Dominican Republic Study: More than 60 children who had been raised as females developed male characteristics at puberty (age 12-14 years). Their brains knew all along and differentiated the children at puberty even though their anatomy had initially appeared to be female. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Sexual maniacs, so called, are typically males (they are seen in less than 1% of all females). Society talks more openly about sex now but female sex drives are likely the same as they’ve been for thousands of years. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. p 219. NY:Broadway Books, 2004.)

Masturbation is not sex and has nothing to do with virginity. (Gurian, Michael. The Wonder of Boys. p 229-231. NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1996.)

There are three basic mating circuits: lust, romantic love, and attachment. Types of love (e.g., eros, mania, ludus, storge, agape, pregma) can be described as different blends of these three circuits. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. Why We Love. p 94-100. NY:Henry Holt and Company, 2004.)

If a baby boy slips through gestation during a period of serious hormonal depletion, either from stress or from ovarian overproduction of estrogens, you might expect to find a baby with male genitals but with a brain that remains essentially female. (Joy, Donald, PhD. Unfinished Business. p 28-30. IL: Victor Books, 1989)

Refer to Sexual Orientation for additional information.

Female brain can multitrack (deal with a number of pieces of information at one time) and can talk during sex. Male brain is organized for monotracking (e.g., focus on one piece of information at a time), and must switch to left hemisphere to talk during sex (e.g., may lose erection). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. p 8-10, 214-215, 261-262. NY:Broadway Books, 2004.)

Study: levels were higher in males than females after participants viewed an erotic film. Influenced by testosterone, norephinephrine tends to rise with hyperactivity, euphoria, self-assertion, and aggressiveness. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 243-253. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

The vomeronasal organ (sex nose), which detects pheromones, the scent essential for mating, is the only sense with a direct link to the limbic system. Nonsexual smell organs reach the limbic system only after they’re passed through the higher centers. Thus, they are under greater control. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 712-713. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Females have better short-range peripheral vision. They tend to ogle more in public places (e.g., beach, swimming pool). Males usually turn their head to look at something visually attractive (e.g., attracted to curves, shapes, leg lengths). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 165-166. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Males: can go from zero to ejaculation in 2.5 minutes on the average. Females require an average of 13 minutes. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 203-204. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

A sexual orgasm represents a cardio-energetic power surge. Large amounts of “L” energy are exchanged between partners and the heart rate more than doubles. If body fluids are exchanged as well, even more info-energy may be transmitted with the exchanged cells’ memory. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. p 179-180. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005.)

Many women experience their strongest urge for physical sexual activity during ovulation (exception is the rare percentage of nymphomaniacs). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 199-201. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Did you know that physical contact (e.g., snuggling, kissing, sexual activity) with a partner causes oxytocin to be produced? The body learns to associate those behaviors with the partner and can produce oxytocin whenever near to the other. When the couple engages in pleasurable sex, their bodies produce dopamine and the individuals feel better. The ability for sex to result in a sense of love may be evidenced by individuals in an arranged marriage who eventually fall in love. (Source)

Did you know that the chemical responsible for the initial rush of passionate love acts very much like an amphetamine? PEA (phenylethylalanine) is produced early on in a relationship but lasts only months to a few years. Some become addicted to PEA and move from one relationship to another in hopes of reproducing that intense feeling of love (or lust)—although it cannot be sustained over the long-term. If the relationship continues, another chemical (oxytocin) takes over and promotes feelings of love, closeness, and bonding. (Source)

The average size of an adult male’s erect penis is about 6 inches long. (Gurian, Micahel. From Boys to Men. p 65-67. NY:Price Stern Sloan, Inc, 1999.)

The vomeronasal organ (sex nose), which detects pheromones, the scent essential for mating, is the only sense with a direct link to the limbic system. Nonsexual smell organs reach the limbic system only after they’re passed through the higher centers. Thus, they are under greater control. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 712-713. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Known as the master gland and directed by the hypothalamus, the pituitary controls the levels and cycling of sex hormones. (Brynie, Faith Hickman. 101 Questions Your Brain Has Asked About Itself But Couldn’t Answer, Until Now. p 19-20. CT:Millbrook Press, 1998.)

Pornography can be psychologically damaging to both males (e.g., can affect performance expectations) and females (e.g., can damage self-esteem). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. p 218-220. NY:Broadway Books, 2004.)

It is estimated that nine million people (e.g.,. about 15% of Internet users in the US) visit one of the top adult websites each month. "Mirror neurons" in the brain allow the viewers to put themselves into somebody else's shoes, automatically. You cannot turn off the mirror neuronsystem at will. When a person witnesses touch, this simulates the same type of touch in the person's mind. (Blakeslee, Sandra, and Matthew Blakeslee. The Body Has a Mind of Its Own. p 178-179. NY:Random House, 2008.)

Concentrating on a partner’s negative aspects reduces the likelihood that the brain will release chemicals that are needed for a sex drive. Conversely, thinking about a partner’s positive qualities and recalling previous exciting sexual experiences can trigger the brain to release chemicals the increase a sex drive. (Pease, Barbara, and Allan Pease. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 238-239. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

The brain is hard wired during gestation. Differences are most noticeable after puberty when the brain becomes fully activated as a result of being bathed in hormones. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 215-221. GA:Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Males often begin a relationship through sex and then evaluate possibility for the relationship. Females tend to go into a new relationship wanting romance and love, and sex comes as a consequence. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. p 240. NY:Broadway Books, 2004.)

Study: Rooster can copulate with hens more than 60 times in a specific mating. Will only mate with the same hen up to 5 times in one day, however. Bull = 7 times per day with the same cow; ram = 5 times per day with the same ewe; healthy males = 5 times per day with the same female. (Pease, Barbara and Allan.Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 201-203. NY:Broadway Books, 1998.)

It is a male with a fragile sense of self-esteem who tends to leer and ogle, pat and pinch, grab, squeeze, and threaten. These males are attempting to prove to themselves over and over again that they are strong and superior. (Brothers, Joyce, PhD. What Every Woman Should Know About Men. p 130-132. NY: Ballantine Books 1981.)

Females are stimulated sexually through their ears (e.g., want to hear sweet words); males through their eyes (e.g., erotic images, erotic lingerie). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 206-208. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Some experts distinguish sex characteristics at three different levels: Primary (e.g., reproduction, ova/sperm production). Secondary (e.g., anatomical size, bone structure, body hair distribution). Tertiary (e.g., posture, facial expression, leg position). (Eakins, Barbara Westbrook, and R. Gene Eakins. Sex Differences in Human Communication. p 4. Boston:Houghton Mifflin Company, 1978.)

For males, sex traditionally has been the primary proving ground for masculinity. For females, sex becomes something she can barter for “love.” In general, societal conditioning makes men and women a mismatch in bed. This polarization can actually influence them to become sexual enemies. (Goldberg, Herb, PhD. The New Male-Female Relationship. p 68-71. NY: Signet Books, 1983.)

Hormones released in the brain (e.g., testosterone) trigger a sex drive. In females this tends to happen in the presence of factors such as closeness, trust, and overall sense of well-being. In males it can be released at any time. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 195-200. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

The sexual drive likely centers in the hypothalamus. It spreads out to encompass a wide range of other brain areas in both the limbic area and the cortex. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 72. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

Male sex drive is focused and not easily distracted. Female sex drive heats slowly and takes longer to cool down. The male sex drive at age 40 is more compatible with the female sex drive in early 20s. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 191-200. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Women’s sex drive is influenced by several factors (e.g., physical, psychological, emotional). Situational stress tends to lower one’s level of libido. Women under pressure are much less likely to fantasize about sex than men. (Bost, Brent W., MD, FACOG. Hurried Woman Syndrome. p 101, 111. NY:Vantage Press, 2001.)

Males usually have high interest for most of life, although performance levels can fall with age. Teenage females can be interested but feel limited desire for sex, with greater desire in late 30s. Study of link between sex drive and intelligence: the cleverer a person is the less sex he/she tends to want or have. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 191-200. NY:Broadway Books, 1998.)

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