Music and the Brain

Music—an art form whose medium is a combination of sound and silence, melody and harmony, temp and meter, timbre and texture. For many people in many cultures the world over, and perhaps since the advent of human congress, music is an important part of life. Although music has been referred to as a universal language, there is still no single, intercultural, universal concept that defines what music might be. Perhaps some of its beauty lies in its personalization in the individual human brain.

dancing dogsMusic can be used to enhance brain development, communication, care, function, learning, memory, relationships, and so on. It can also cause problems for some brains depending on the type of music, its content, volume, and pitch.

I have loved music for as far back as I have conscious memory. My aunt said that when my mother learned she was going to have a child, she chose several specific activities that she conscientiously performed for the remainder of her pregnancy. These daily activities included thirty minutes of playing the piano and singing to her developing fetus. Perhaps my gestational exposure to music shaped my enjoyment of this medium.

Early in childhood I begged to learn to play the piano and finally began taking lessons when I turned four, which undoubtedly represented a sacrifice for my less-than-flush parents because they also purchased a spinet on which I could practice. Certainly, my life has been dramatically different from what it might have been had my parents not believed in the advantages of the study of music for their children. It turns out they were right and I remain indebted to both of them!

Use these Brain References to stimulate and validate your interest in the brain and music.

Absolute music involves abstract patterns of tones without any obvious relationship with the external world or with internal mental processes. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind, 177-178. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Refer to Adapting and the Brain for additional information.

Refer to Addiction and the Brain for additional information.

Slow music and music in minor keys tend to stimulate cortical and limbic alertness. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 184-186. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Studies: adults who stimulated their brain (e.g., reading, playing chess/bridge, listening to music) were 2-5 times less likely to develop Alzheimer’s. (Greenwood-Robinson, Maggie, PhD. 20/20 Thinking. p 218-219, 305. NY: Avery, Putnam Special Markets, 2003.)

Individuals with Alzheimer’s disease are still able to remember songs, especially the songs of young years. This is in spite of their losing massive amounts of other types of memory. (Lynch, Zack, PhD with Byron Laursen. The Neuro Revolution. How Brain Science is Changing Our World, p. 124-125. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.)

Refer to Dysfunctions of the Brain for additional information.

An expert remains task focused even under pressure of competition. An amateur becomes self-focused rather than task focused, which disrupts performance. Self-evaluation and self-consciousness interfere and result in choking under pressure. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 20-22. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

A condition wherein the individual has nearly complete tone deafness and cannot distinguish musical sounds from other sounds. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 95. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

A trained musician and a casual listener can have very different experiences when listening to the same musical selection; the brain of the trained musician is able to accomplish a more detailed analysis. (Miller, Lawrence, PhD. Inner Natures. Brain, Self & Personality. p 79-80. NY: Ballantine Books, 1990.)

Music tends to increase arousal (e.g., increased alertness, awareness, interest, excitement) in individuals who are interested in it and listen with concentration. To a minimum degree in sleep and a maximum degree when experiencing powerful emotions. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 24-26, 28. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Attack is one of two qualities associated with timbre (the other being flux). Attack refers to sounds made during the initial milliseconds after a note is sounded. According to Levitin, this brief first eyeblink or moment of sound is more like noise than music and appears to be critical to one’s ability to detect the timbre of an instrument. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 7-8. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Stanford MRI studies: “Music engages the areas of the brain involved with paying attention, making predictions and updating the event in memory. Peak brain activity (attention) occurred during transitional points between movements.” (Baker, Mitzi. Music Moves Brain to Pay Attention.)

A study at Stanford University School of Medicine found that music moves the brain to pay attention. It engages the areas of the brain involved with paying attention, making predictions, and updating the event in memory. Peak brain activity occurred during a short period of silence between musical movements—when seemingly nothing was happening. (Baker, Mitzi. Music Moves Brain to Pay Attention.)

Music can shift attitudes as well as feelings. (CA: Harper SF, 1999.)

When you memorize a piece, your fingers could fly until/unless you made a mistake and consciously tried to correct what you did wrong--and couldn't even remember what note was next. TYpically you're better off to start all over and hope your fingers make it past the rough patch on their own. Good teachers warn students to keep going if they make a mistake while playing in a recital. Keep that automatic playing automatic. The same is true in sports. (Gazzaniga, Michael S. Who's in Charge? p 78-79. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2011)

Baby girls listen more intently to music and pay better attention to people’s voices. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. p 60. NY: Random House, 1999.)

The basal ganglia appear to be involved with recalling the tempo of a song that was previously hears. It also appears to asist with generating and shaping rhythm, tempo, and meter. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 7-9. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Studies: Music can have direct physiological effects (e.g., can lower blood pressure, increase blood volume). (Bricklin, Mark, and Mark Golin, et al. Positive Living and Health. p 284-285. PA: Rodale Press, 1990.)

Much of what is now known about neural structures that are important to the musical experience and how the brain processes music, has been learned only in the past few years. For example, while speech and music share some neural circuitry, ech involves different and distinct brain structures. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 16-17. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Playing a musical instrument gives the brain a good workout. (Greenwood-Robinson, Maggie, PhD. 20/20 Thinking. p 247. NY: Avery, Putnam Special Markets, 2003.)

Music affects the thinking portion of the brain. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 182-183. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

Songs can help to coordinate functions between the hemispheres. The right hemisphere learns the melody while the left hemisphere learns the words. (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 162-163. CA: Touchstone Books, 1986.)

According to Dr. Stefan Koelsch (Harvard Medical School in Boston and the Max Planck Institute in Leipzig) the human brain is designed for music. (Website interview)

Playing by ear or improvising is a right-hemisphere process. Mechanical playing may be more of a left hemisphere process. (Joy, Donald M., PhD. Bonding. p 104. TX: Word Books, 1985.

The human brain is the most important musical instrument of all. (Keith Lockhart, Conductor of the Boston Pops orchestra. (Source)

Studies: The Corpus callosum is 10-15% thicker in musicians who started training before the age of 7 than in nonmusicians. Musical training can impact both how the brain works and how it is built (e.g., can enhance learning, memory, and intelligence). (Brynie, Faith Hickman. 101 Questions Your Brain Has Asked About Itself But Couldn’t Answer, Until Now. p 119-120. CT: Millbrook Press, 1998.)

Playing a musical instrument exercises coordination between eye and hand, and stimulates both the creative and logical parts of the brain. (Bricklin, Mark, et al.Positive Living and Health. p 402. PA: Rodale Press, 1990.)

Music comes from different portions in the brain. (Hempfling, Lee Kent. The Brain is a Wonderful Thing.)

Processing of music occurs in regions dispersed throughout the brain. Listening, performing, and composing music involves nearly every region of the brain so far identified and almost every neural subsystem. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 1-2. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

In the brains of trained musicians, the musical center (the brain area activated when playing or listening to music) is in the left hemisphere (as compared to the brains of amateur musicians that tend to have their musical center located in the right hemisphere). (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 24-26. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

The brain tends to process individual components of incoming sounds (e.g., pitch, melody, rhythm, location, loudness) and then reassembles them into a whole, including any emotional response. (Carter, Rita, ed. Mapping the Mind. p 147. CA: University of California, 1998.)

The left hemisphere decodes musical notation; the right hemisphere processes musical melodies. (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 26-27. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

Study: An emotional response to music (as distinct from appreciation of musical structure) derives from a different portion of the brain. Music appreciation requires use of both parts. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 38-40. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

The left posterior dorsolateral frontal cortex is activated when an individual is naming notes (sounds). It is activated spontaneously in those with perfect pitch. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 178-179. GA:Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Learning to play a musical instrument will change the brain. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 37-38. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

According to Dr. Stefan Koelsch (Harvard Medical School in Boston and the Max Planck Institute in Leipzig) the human brain is designed for music, and all people make music in one way or another. (Source)

Much of the processing music occurs outside of conscious awareness in the more primitive portions of the brain. The enjoyment people experience, however, involves the consolidation of information in the cerebrum. And for a huge percentage of the population, music provides one of life’s greatest and oldest delights. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 20-21. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Studies: both physical and mental responses to music involve changes in brain chemistry in several portions of the brain (e.g., cerebrum, limbic system, brain stem). (Bricklin, Mark, Mark Golin, et al. Positive Living and Health. p 284-286. Press, 1990.)

Study: music is primarily appreciated in the right hemisphere (e.g., sedate the left hemisphere and the person can sing but not speak). It originates from a human brain, not from the natural world. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 34-36, 51-52, 64. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Key: the brain tracks how many times a specific note is sounded, its length, and where it appears relative to other notes. Networks of neurons form abstract representations of musical structure and rules to identify the key.

Pitch: causes eardrum to vibrate at the same frequency. The vibration is analyzed by the inner ear and brain to determine the eardrum vibration, which is represented directly on the auditory cortex.

Harmony: Many vibrations related to one another as integer multiples occur on the eardrums simultaneously. They trigger synchronous neural firings in the auditory cortex.

Listening to music: Listening begins at the subcortical level in the cochlear nuclei, brain stem, and cerebellum. It progresses to the auditory cortex in both R and L hemispheres. Familiar music involves the hippocampus, cerebellum, and inferior frontal cortex of the frontal lobes.

Playing a musical instrument: With learning, the coordination becomes smooth and semi-conscious. This coordination involves the cerebellum and brainstem, plus the motor cortex of the parietal lobes and planning regions of the frontal lobes. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 7-9. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Study: With the help of music, individuals with brain damage may accomplish tasks that they could not otherwise master. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 106-197. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

The basic elements of sound include: loudness, pitch, contour, duration (rhythm), tempo, spatial location, reverberation, and timbre. (Levitin, Daniel J. This is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession. p. 14. NY: Plume/Penguin, 2007.)

Music contains eight basic components or building blocks. The brain transforms these building blocks into higher-level qualities including meter, harmony, and melody. The process of listening to music involves mental coordination of multiple characteristics of the music, or dimensions. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 1-4. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Most females can carry a tune better than males can (perhaps due to better auditory memories in females). (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? How Men and Women Compare. p 205. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

It can be dais definitely that there is no single music center in the brain. There are multiple brain regions involved in different aspects of the comprehension of music. This includes regions responsible for coordinating and merging information coming from various neural regions. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain.p 10-12. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

The cerebellum integrates muscles into motor programs and is involved when listening to or reading a musical score. This brain organ is larger in the brain of musicians as compared to nonmusicians. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 23-26, 181. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

Chanting can have profound neurophysiological effects. Defines two types of sound: discharge sounds that fatigue the listener, and charge sounds that provide tone and improve health (e.g., Gregorian chant, music of Mozart). (Tomatis, Alfred A, M.D.. Edited by Gilmore, Madaule, and Thompson with Tim Wilson. About the Tomatis Method. p 209-212. Toronto, Canada: The Listening Centre Press, 1989.)

The release of endogenous opioids (e.g., implicated in runner’s high and social bonding) likely causes the chills or shivers of pleasure experienced when one is listening to favorite music. A similar phenomenon may occur in the brains of animals. (Johnson, Steven. Mind Wide Open. p 160-162. NY: Scribner, 2004.)

By the age of five, most children in a culture have internalized rules about what chord progressions are allowable in their culture’s music. They can detect transgressions of these musical rules as easily as they can tell an imporoperly formed sentence in their culture’s language. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 67. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Claming music has been shown to sharpen cognitive skills. (Newberg, Andrew, MD, and Mark Robert Waldman. How God Changes Your Brain—Breakthrough Findings from a Leading Neuroscientist. p p 155-158. NY: Ballantine Books, 2009.)

A 2-year study of preschoolers by Rauscher (1997) showed that music training (specifically piano instruction) was far superior to training on how to use a computer for enhancing the abstract reasoning skills requisite for learning mathematics and science. Children who received piano lessons performed 34% higher on tests measuring spatial-temporal ability than the others. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p 6-7. NY: MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

The brain stem and the dorsal cochlear nucleus are able to distinguish between consonance (pleasing sounding note combinations) and dissonance ()unpleasant sounding nobe combinations). Human beings differ in what they fond consonant or dissonant and there is probably a neural basis for these preference. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 9-10. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Contour is a musical quality that relates to the pattern of a melody. It describes where a melody rises and falls. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 1-3. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Harvard Medical School and Boston College researchers have found that taking music lessons can strengthen connections between the two brain hemispheres in children, but only if they practice diligently. For the children who practiced at least 2.5 hours a week, a portion of the corpus callosum that connects movement-planning regions on the two sides of the brain grew about 25%. (Miller, Greg. Music Builds Bridges in the BrainScience NOW Daily News. April 2008.)

Country music ranks number one in type of music Americans listen to on the radio. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. p 60. NY: Random House, 1999.)

Music can be used as a means of sharpening one’s creative powers. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 179-182. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

Music uniquely enhances higher brain functions (e.g., is the soul of creativity) and can be used as a means of engaging the student and promoting individuality. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p 9. NY: MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

Refer to Creativity and the Brain for more information.

Music can be used for good or ill. By raising emotions and ensuring that they peak together, music can contribute to the loss of critical judgment and surrender to feelings of the moment. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 46-48. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Studies by Jamshed Bharucha, a professor in the Department of Psychology Tufts University: has been investigating what happens in the brain when people of different cultures hear various kinds of music. In preliminary findings yet to be published, he conducted fMRIs of American and Indian students while they listened to American and Indian classical and pop tunes. The results show completely different patterns in the brain scans, with a constellation of different brain regions operating for each of the two groups, even when listening to the same music. (Blanding, Michael. The Brain in the World – A Burgeoning Science Explores the Deep Imprint of Culture.)

Refer to Cultural Neuroscience and the Brain for additional information.

When a child is exposed to the music of only one culture, the brain may find it difficult to apprehend or to produce the nuances of music from other cultures. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p 1-2. NY: MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

Humans are born with the innate capacity to learn both the linguistic and musical distinctions of the culture into which they are born. And, as with language (e.g., at an early age lose the ability to hear the full range of world speech sounds), absorb a set of rules that forms the basis of their culture’s musical traditions. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 8-10. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Study of music processing/cross-cultural music comprehension using brain scans of American and German musicians while they listened to Western and Chinese music: found greater lateral frontal activity associated with listening to culturally familiar versus culturally unfamiliar music. In addition, one study reported greater activation of the precentral gyrus and supplementary motor area in response to Western music, suggesting that culturally-familiar music might be represented in both sensory and motor areas. However, culturally unfamiliar music led to enhanced activity in the right angular gyrus and the middle frontal gyrus, possibly because the processing of unfamiliar music requires higher attentional demands and higher loads on basic auditory processing. (Morrison, S. J., et al. fMRI investigation of cross-cultural music comprehension. Neuroimage 20, 378–384 (2003). Nan, Y., et al. Cross-cultural music phrase processing: an fMRI study. Hum. Brain Mapp. 29, 312–328. 2008. Perspectives, nature reviews, Neuroscience p 653, Vol 9. August 2008.)

Musicians are at risk for deafness due to loud music. Sixty percent of inductees into the rock and roll Hall of Fame have lost hearing due to loud music. Thirty-seven percent of rock musicians are partially deaf. Intense noise or chronic exposure to loud sound damages hair cells in the inner ear as well as in the inferior colliculus, the part of the brain where neurons carrying impulses from the hair cells make their first connection. Brain cells die from overstimulation and then astrocytes digest away the damaged synapses. (Fields, R. Douglas, PhD. The Other Brain. p 98-100. NY: Simon & Schuster, 2009.)

Hearing music in one’s imagination activated the auditory cortex almost as powerfully as in subjects who actually heard the music performed. This may be one reason Beethoven could still compose music even after becoming deaf. (Lynch, Zack, PhD., with Byron Laursen. The Neuro Revolution, p. 124-126. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.)

Loudness of sound is measured in decibels or dB. It refers to a ratio of two sound levels. The ratio between the loudest sound human brains can detect without damage to the sense of hearing and the softest sound detecible is a million to one. The range of loudness the human ear can detect is called the dynamic range. The threshold of human hearing is zero dB; jet engine is 135 dB. Even minute changes in loudness can have a powerful impact on the emotions communicated through music. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 9-10. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

A non-verbal art directly linked with physiological arousal that can be measured by scientific instruments. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 148-149. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Per Edgard Varese, music is organized sound. (Levitin, Daniel J. This is Your Brain on Music: The Science of a Human Obsession. p 14. NY: Plume/Penguin, 2007.)

The auditory nerves have more connections and are more widely distributed than those of any other nerves in the body. Most body functions are impacted by pulsations and harmonic combinations of musical tones. (Torres, Carol A., and Louis R. Torres. Notes on Music. p 17-18. OR: TorresLC Ministries, 2004.)

According to Plato, musical training is a more potent instrument than any other for education. The formal study of early childhood music in the United States probably began on the University of Iowa campus in the 1920’s and 1920’s with the Iowa Child Welfare Research Station Preschool Laboratory. They published research on rhythmic and vocal behaviors of 3-5 year olds. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p vii, xi. NY: MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

Lists effects of music such as conveying stories, creating goose bumps, prompting dance, making people happy/aggressive/sad, speeding people up or putting them to sleep, and influencing buying patterns in a supermarket. (Carter, Rita, ed. Mapping the Mind. PO 147. CA: University of California, 1998.)

Study: closer relation between hearing and emotional arousal than between seeing and emotional arousal (e.g., usually have music in motion pictures). (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 25-28. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Examples of effects:

  • Classical: when played softly in the background, enhances concentration and learning
  • Jazz: helps to set a romantic mood; encourages lingering over a meal, etc.
  • Loud with strong rhythm: energizing; encourages motion; promotes aerobics and dancing
  • Rock: increases energy; encourages movement
  • Soft and melodic: helps to reduce stress and promote relaxation; enhances mood; ideal for learning abstract concepts and studying
  • Waltz rhythms: soothing; helps to reduce stress; encourages slow movement and dancing

(Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 12-14. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

When asked about his theory of relativity Albert Einsten is reported to have said: "It occurred to me by intuition, and music was the driving force behind that intuition. My discovery was the result of musical perception." (Source)

Studies: music alters the brain’s electrical rhythms. The heart rate will synchronize with music, speeding up or slowing down accordingly. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD, and David Sobel, MD. Healthy Pleasures. p 58-60. MA Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1989.)

Study of chord sequences that resolved in a predicted way or in a surprising manner: musical syntax (e.g., structural processing) appears to be localized to the frontal lobes of both hemispheres in areas that overlap those that process speech syuntax (e.g., Broca’s area). This appears to be true regardless of whether the individual has been musically trained or not. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 16-17. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Instruments such as electromyography can trace increased in electrical activity of leg muscles while the person is listening to music (even when the person has been told to be still). (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 24-26. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

According to a report in the European Journal of Neuroscience, researchers have discovered biological evidence that musical training enhances an individual's ability to recognize emotion in sound. The study, funded by the National Science Foundation, found that the more years of musical experience musicians possessed and the earlier the age the individuals began their music studies the better able they were to process emotion in sound. Being able to accurately identify emotion quickly in sound is a skill that translates across many different arenas. (Source)

There is a distinction between music that is able to arouse human emotion and music that is sad/angry/fearful. A selection expressive of sadness might move a person but “it does not move us by making us sad.” (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 30. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Intense emotional experiences in response to music is associated with regions of the brain involved in reward, motivation, and arousal (e.g., ventral striatum including nucleus accumbens, amygdale, midbrain, portions of the frontal cortex). One study showed that nalaxone, a drug that interferes with dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens, is able to block the pleasure of listening to music. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 15-16. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Refer to Emotions and Feelings for additional information.

Endorphins can be released when a person listens to his/her favorite music. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 709. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Studies: The thrill of music may be related to the release of endorphins (powerful opiate-like chemicals produced in the brain that relieve pain and induce euphoria). I can sooth migraine headaches and distract children from the pain of needle injections. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD, and David Sobel, MD. Healthy Pleasures. p 58-60, 260-261. MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing, 1989.)

When music promotes pleasure, it triggers the release of endorphins similar to the high that long-distance runners experience. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p 11. NY: MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

Music is energy. It vibrates just as the cells in the brain/body vibrate. I can be a powerful source of energy. Provides examples of how to use different types of energy to fuel your life. (Gordon, Jon, M.A. Become an Energy Addict. p 7-8. GA: Longstreet Press, 2003.)

Become conscious of the energy level of the music you listen to. Music that has harsh, pounding vibrations with repetitive, loud sounds weakens you and lowers your energy level. Similarly, the lyrics of hate, pain, anguish, fear, and violence are low energies sending weakening messages to your subconscious. If you want to attract peace and lovek then listen to the highest musical vibrations and lyrics that reflect your desires. If you want to attract violence, then listen to the lyrics of violence and make violent music a part of your life. (Dyer, Wayne, PhD. The Power of Intention. p 73-80. CA: Hay House, Inc., 2004.)

Refer to Energy and the Brain for additional information.

Listening to enjoyable music activates portions of the frontal lobes and the limbic cortex in both hemispheres. Listening to music identified as unpleasant turns off these areas and activates the parahippocampal gyrus. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 182-184. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

For a huge percentage of the population, music provides one of life’s greatest and oldest delights. In all of its aspects (e.g., listening, performing, and composing), music involves a complex and subtle interplay between the outside world, one’s organs of perception, and multiple regions in the brain. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 20-21. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Expert performance requires developing an ability to break the experience into multiple components and work on each separately. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 16-18. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Estimates are that 10,000 hours of practice is required to achieve world-class level of mastery, in music as well as any field of endeavor. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 20-21. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Studies: instrumentalists (as compared to nonmusicians). Brass players tend to be more extraverted than other instrumentalists. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 186-189. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Music is an art that can reconcile one to life and enhance it; music is rooted in the body, physically and emotionally based; music links extraversion and introversion. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 160-167. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Extraverts are likely to prefer more upbeat, conventional, and energetic music than introverts. (Rentfrow, p. J., & Sam Gosling, PhD. The do re mi's of everyday life: The structure and personality correlates of music preference. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology84, 1236–1256, 2003.)

Music can link the Dionysian state (extraversion or physical participation in the external world through feeling and sensation) and the Apollonian state (introversion or contemplation of ideas). (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 157-167. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Refer to Extraversion-Ambiversion-Introversion for additional information.

Listening to music begins with processing in the brain stem, cerebellum, and cochlear nuclei. Processing then advances to the auditory cortices in both cerebral hemispheres. If the music is familiar, at least in style, processing also recruits the hippocampus and the inferior frontal cortex (e.g., lowest portions of the frontal lobes). If you keep time to the music with a finger or foot, your cerebellum’s timing circuits are brought into play. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 10-12. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

The fetus reacts with movements to both music and unstructured noise. Auditory perception may be earliest trigger for fetal recognition of an outside world. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 8-10. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Enrichment Program: Select a few musical pieces and play to the fetus, and they may calm the baby after birth (e.g., Air on a G String by J.S. Bach. Other examples include slow steady selections by Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Vivaldi). (Diamond, Marian, PhD, and Janet Hopson. Magic Trees of the Mind. p 97-99. NY: Dutton, 1998.)

Refer to Brain Development, Fetal for additional information.

Flux is one of two qualities associated with timbre (the other being attack.). Flux refers to the ways in which a sound changes once it has begun playing. In some instruments, the sound of the note changes dramatically after the note is initially sounded (e.g., timpani). Instruments sound different when playing notes in different portions of their range (e.g., a high C on a flute sounds very different foam a C played two or three octaves below). (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. 7-8. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Refer to Care of the Brain for additional information.

Refer to Nutrition and the Brain for additional information.

Refer to Forgiveness / Forgiving for additional information.

Studies of the neural underpinnings of music: Listening to music and focusing on its structure activates the pars orbitalis, part of Brodmann Area which is located in the left frontal cortex. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 16-17. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Typically, females are able to hear things better than males. (Gurian, Michael, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! p 30. CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001.)

Females have better hearing for high sounds and are more sensitive to loud noises. Males tend to prefer louder volume for both music and speech at every frequency. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. p 86-87. NY: Random House, 1999.)

Refer to Male-Female Differences for additional information.

The brain is molded by one’s genes to create and understand music much as it forms language. At 5 months of age children are aware of tiny shifts in musical pitch. By 8 months they can show surprise if a single note in a familiar tune is altered. (Carter, Rita, ed. Mapping the Mind. p 145. CA: University of California, 1998.)

Audio recording from inside the womb at the beginning of labor revealed that the sounds produced by the mother can be heard loudly. The musical characteristics of speech – its pitch contours, loudness variations, temp and rhythmic patterning – are well preserved. Early exposure to musical speech sounds may begin the process of learning to speak. After birth, the melodies of speech are also vital to communication between mother and infant. (Robinson, Ken, Sir, PhD. Out of Our Minds. p 130-131. NY: Capstone Publishing Ltd, 2001, 2011)

Most people are born with an average capacity to develop musical skills. There are always a smaller percentage of individuals who fall into the extremes of the typical Bell Curve of Distribution. At one end a minority are musically gifted—and some are extremely gifted (e.g., savants such as Mozart). At the opposite end are an equally small percentage who were born musically deficient (e.g., don’t have the capacity to learn musical skills, tone deaf). (Alper, Matthew. The God Part of the Brain, p. 180. IL: Sourcebooks, Inc, 2008.)

Humans learn a form of musical grammar. This parallels the way in which they learn to speak their own culture’s language. By middle childhood, it is already more difficult to become fluent in the musical tradition of another culture. It is still possible to learn to appreciate new genres of music in adulthood. However, the basic structural elements of one’s own culture’s music becomes incorporated into the wiring of the brain when you listen to music at the youngest ages. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 13-14. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Singing and dancing can be significant. These modalities can draw groups together, direct emotions of the group, and prepare them for joint action. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 19-22. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Listen to happy music, as you brain brain organizes sound into a range of emotions. This can be especially effective in helping your brain when you are dealing with a chronic or serious illness. (Newberg, Andrew, MD, and Mark Robert Waldman. How God Changes Your Brain—Breakthrough Findings from a Leading Neuroscientist. p 151-152. NY: Ballantine Books, 2009.)

Harp music has been used traditionally for calming and healing the mind. (Bricklin, Mark, Mark Golin, et al. Positive Living and Health. p 284-286. PA: Rodale Press, 1990.)

Most soothing music usually beats 70-80 tones per minute, replicating a natural healthy-heart rhythm. Music may also be heard by the heart. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. p 67-68. NY: Random House, Inc., 1998.)

Deaf people love music just as much as hearing people do. They just understand it differently. They can feel it. (Burgin, Rachel. Music and the Deaf. 2008.)

Human beings with normal hearing typically can hear sounds from 20 Hz (Hertz) to 20,000 Hz. However, at the extreme ends of this range, the sounds may be perceived more as noise than as musical sounds. The sound of an average human male speaking is abougt 110 Hz; an average human female speaking is about 220 Hz. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 4-5. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Music is believed to involve functions of the right hemisphere. In trained and experienced musicians, however, the left hemisphere appears to have taken over many of these music-related functions. (Miller, Lawrence, PhD. Inner Natures. Brain, Self & Personality. p 79-80. NY: Ballantine Books, 1990.)

Studying and playing any keyboard instrument (e.g., piano) that requires the use of both hands stimulates both cerebral hemispheres. (Joy, Donald M., PhD. Bonding. 104. TX: Word Books, 1985.)

Melodies are perceived better when listened to with the left ear (more connections with the Right Hemisphere). Verbal stimuli are perceived more accurately when heard with the right ear (more connections with the Left Hemisphere). (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 21-22. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

Music exercises both hemispheres: the words for the left hemisphere, the melody for the right. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 140. NY Doubleday, 1987, 1989.)

Normally human beings can switch easily between the two cerebral hemispheres. Describes how a composer can create separate instrumental lines on an orchestral score and then hear how everything sounds together. (Miller, Lawrence, PhD. Inner Natures. Brain, Self & Personality. p 79-80. NY: Ballantine Books, 1990.)

Harvard Medical School and Boston College researchers have found that taking music lessons can strengthen connections between the two hemispheres of the brain in children, but only if they practice diligently. For the children who practiced at least 2.5 hours a week, a region of the corpus callosum that connects movement-planning regions on the two sides of the brain grew about 25% relative to the size of the brain. (Source)

Jimmy Hendrix said that music could hypnotize people, at which point one could put information into their subconscious minds through preaching/talking. (Torres, Carol A., and Louis R. Torres. Notes on Music. p 8-12. OR: TorresLC Ministries, 2004.)

Refer to Human Brain for additional Information.

Most homosexual orientation develops during gestation. Patterns tend to be firmly in place by age 5. Discusses lack of success of change therapies (e.g., push bisexuals to confine behaviors to opposite sex only, or enforce celibacy, or push the individuals to attempt suicide). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 171-186. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

The trauma of growing up gay in a world that is run primarily by straight men is deeply wounding in a unique and profound way. Straight men have other issues and struggles that are no less wounding, but they are quite different from those of a gay man. (Downs, Alan, PhD. The Velvet Rage. Overcoming the Pain of Growing up Gay in a Straight Man’s World. p 5-6. NY: Da Capo Press, 2005. 2006.)

Refer to Sexual Orientation and the Brain for additional information.

Hymns are processed in the right cerebral hemisphere. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Hearing music in one’s imagination activated the auditory cortex almost as powerfully as in subjects who actually heard the music performed. This may be one reason Beethoven could still compose music even after becoming deaf. (Lynch, Zack, PhD., with Byron Laursen. The Neuro Revolution, p. 124-126. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.)

Music bypasses both verbal and pictoral phenomena. It can be understood immediately. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 139-142. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Music can influence the brain positively or negatively (e.g., rock with syncopated rhythm can bypass the frontal lobes and escape ability to reason). Reports research on exposure of mice brains to different types of music and their resulting ability to learn a maze. (Nedley, Neil, MD. Proof Positive. p 288-290. OK: Nedley, 1998, 1999.)

Children who learned to play musical instruments showed up to 36% improvement in visual-spatial skills (compared to those who received other types of stimulation such as computer lessons). (Amen, Daniel G., MD. Change Your Brain Change Your Life. p 206-208. NY: Times Books, 1998.)

Studies: A window for learning instruments exists between ages 3-10. After age 10 it can be more difficult to learn to play an instrument. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. P178-179. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Music is an art that can reconcile one to life and enhance it; music is rooted in the body, physically and emotionally based; music links extraversion and introversion. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 160-167. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Introverts try to avoid loud music, bright lights, noise in a learning situation, etc. Introverts perform better in quiet environments. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 54-55. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Studies: instrumentalists, as compared to nonmusicians, tend to be more anxious and more introverted. Brass players tend to be more extraverted than other instrumentalists. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 186-189. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Refer to Extraversion-Ambiversion-Introversion for additional information.

Music, a prelinguistic language, contains the main characteristics of speech (e.g., tonal pitch, timbre, intensity and rhythm). Music can help to prepare a child to listen to, integrate, and produce language sounds. (Tomatis, Alfred A, M.D., Edited by Timothy M. Gilmore, PhD, et al. About the Tomatis Method. p 70-80. Canada: The Listening Centre Press, 1989.)

The primarily difference between speech and music involves the velocity of frequency changes in milliseconds. Velocity in music is slower than in speech. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p 1-2. NY: MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

Studies by Flohr, Persellin, and Miller (1996 and 1993) concluded that young children exposed to music or receive music instruction had the ability to detect pitch variations in both music and language better than those children who had not learned music. Children who are not exposed to music at a young age are deprived (Edwin Gordon, 2003) of the optimal time for learning and development. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p 1-2. NY: MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

Both music and language are found in multiple areas of the brain. They cause the brain to coordinate in several different regions, whether you are creating with language or music or just listening. This makes it possible to lose function in some parts of the brain and yet hand onto key aspects of language and music in others. (Lynch, Zack, PhD, with Byron Laursen. The Neuro Revolution. How Brain Science is Changing Our World, p. 124-125. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.)

There is lateralization involved with music. The pattern of a melody, along with minute distinctions between tones that are near each other in pitch, has been attributed to the right hemisphere. The left hemisphere, on the other hand, is involved in labeling a song or performer with the correct name. It is also involved in tracking the progress of a musical theme including information about keys and scales and the overall sense that the music makes. Being trained in music seems to shift the location of processing from the right to the left hemisphere, at least to some degree. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 16-17. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Listening to music while studying can interfere with complex tasks and with verbal tasks (as opposed to simpler tasks and visual-spatial tasks). The music can compete for the student’s attention, vocal even more than instrumental. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. P179-185, 489. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Study: Music can enhance the learning environment (e.g., calm nervous systems, improve memory/cognition/ concentration/creativity) but it can be very different for different learners. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning. p 69. CA: The Brain Store Publishing, 2000.)

Listening to music as an exceedingly complex process. It involves translating sound waves into a meaningful pattern and recognizing and responding to the emotional content. (Greenfield, Susan, con. Ed. Brain Power, Working out the Human Mind. p 61. Great Britain: Element books Limited, 1999.)

Most people become expert listeners by the age of six, as they have internalized the grammar of their musical culture into mental schemas that enable them to form musical expectations. Musical expectations form the basis of one’s ability to enjoy and appreciate music. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 20-21. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

PET Scan studies: More right hemisphere activity when an untrained individual listens to music; more left hemisphere activity when a trained musician listens. (Bricklin, Mark, et al. Positive Living and Health. p 50-51. PA: Rodale Press, 1990.)

Extraverts are more likely to want to listen to music while studying than introverts. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 179-185, 489. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Music is a highly organized series of sounds composed of melody and rhythm that the ear and brain analyze. Singing (which is self-listening) or hearing music played can help children learn how to listen. (Tomatis, Alfred A, M.D., Edited by Timothy M. Gilmore, PhD, et al. About the Tomatis Method. p 70-71. Toronto, Canada: The Listening Centre Press, 1989.)

Even when just listening to music, professional musicians activate more neurons than nonmusicians. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 37-38. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

Dominant view of current scientific thinking and contemporary philosophy: the totality of human thoughts, feelings, beliefs, and experiences (including listening) are contained in patterns of electrochemical activity in the brain. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 10-11. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Music can relieve loneliness temporarily, It can impact relationships between listeners and performers. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 110-112. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

One of the eight components of music, loudness has to do with how much energy an instrument creates when played, how much air is displaces. According to Levitan, loudness exists only in the mind. It is measured in decibels (dB). Loudness can be an important cue to meter and rhythms, as the loudness of the notes determines how they group rhythmically. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 8-10. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

When listening to songs with hostile lyrics, even if presented in a humorous ways, you will feel more angry, aggressive, negative, and powerless. (Newberg, Andrew, MD, and Mark Robert Waldman. How God Changes Your Brain—Breakthrough Findings from a Leading Neuroscientist. p 140-141. NY: Ballantine Books, 2009.)

Studies: 27% increase in scores on fractions in second graders who took 3 hours of piano keyboard training per week for 4 months. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 178-181. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Studies have shown a causal relationship between early music training and development of neural circuitry that governs spatial intelligence. Music involves ratios, regularity, and patterns, all of which parallel math concepts. Music training generated neural connections use for abstract reasoning as well as for understanding mathematical concepts. Although music is view as a separate type of intelligence, high performance in music and math showed a significant correlation. Math and music were noted for their crossover talents for more than just coincidence. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p 8-10. NY: MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

Math and music have something in common: they are concerned with patterns of relationships that are primarily non-verbal. They both engage one’s feelings, but only music affects one’s emotions. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 180-185. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Studies by Mickela (1990) revealed that 66% of music students who applied to medical school were admitted, the highest percentage of all groups. Music students also scored higher on both verbal and math portions of the SAT than nonmusic students. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p 7. NY: MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

A melody can be described as an abstract prototype built on a specific combination of key, tempo, instruments, and other factors. It is an auditory object that maintains an invariant identify despite transformations (e.g., can be played louder or softer, or transformed to a different set of pitches and still be recognizable). A melody is defined by the interval between notes rather than the actual notes themselves). (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 5-7. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Prenatal hearing, learning, and behavioral responses to a melody played earlier in pregnancy, occurred before or at the beginning of the third trimester. After birth, behavioral responses were specific to the tone to which the fetus had been exposure during gestation. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p 2-3. NY: MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

The supplemental motor area (SMA) of the frontal cortex is involved with the planning of motor actions that are sequences of action done from memory (e.g., playing a memorized piano prelude). The pre-SMA is the area involved with acquiring new sequences. (Gazzaniga, Michael S. Who's In Charge? p 113. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2011)

By playing a musical instrument, individuals actively develop memory in a way non-musicians do not. (O’Brien, Mary, MD. Successful Aging. p 88-89. CA: Biomed General. 2007.)

All memories involve interactions among a group of neurons. When one fires, they all fire and create a specific pattern. The identification of a specific note of music involves a group of neighboring neurons firing together in the auditory cortex. (Carter, Rita, ed.Mapping the Mind. p 159. CA: University of California, 1998.)

Study: Listening to music being played has been shown to improve recall of past events for patients with dementia. (Greenwood-Robinson, Maggie, PhD. 20/20 Thinking. p 173-174. NY: Avery, Putnam Special Markets, 2003.

Memory can be enhanced through music. It can make it easier to recall words and sentences. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 174-176. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

fMRI studies: The dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) associates music and memories when people experience emotionally salient episodic memories that are triggered by familiar songs from their personal past. (Janata, Petr. The Neural Architecture of Music-Evoked Autobiographical Memories. Abstract.)

Quotes a music teacher: “If you can hear something inside then you can play it outside.” In order to make a fantasy you have to do mentally everything that needs to be done in order to actually do it in experience. (Bandler, Richard, and John Grinder.Reframing, Neuro-Linguistic Programming and the Transformation of Meaning. p 98-99. UT: Real People Press, 1982.)

Meter is a term used to describe how the beats of a piece of music are grouped together. Music across all cultures includes meter: patterns of strong and weak beats. Lyrics are often written to coordinate with the meter in distinctive and purposeful ways that add to the emotional impact of the song. The cerebellum, with its internal timer, enables human beings to synchronize foot-tapping to the meter of the song. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 7-9. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Listening to music (e.g., classical, easy listening) may be as effective or more effective when compared to biofeedback techniques. (Bricklin, Mark, et al. Positive Living and Health. p 233. PA: Rodale Press, 1990.)

Music is native to the human mind and present in all cultures on the planet. (Shreeve, James. Beyond the Brain. National Geographic, Vol. 207, No. 3, p 24-25. March, 2005.)

Musicians can become stressed and frustrated with mistakes, especially portions of a musical work that they find difficult to play accurately. Rather than tensing up and becoming worried, try replaying the passage and just be aware of notes that are inaccurate. List them in your mind. Placing yourself in an awareness mode encourages the conscious mind to listen to what is happening. This can increase the feedback the mind gives you. This can trigger positive changes, sometimes without great amounts of effort. (Green, Barry, with W. Timothy Gallwey. The Inner Game of Music, p. 47. NY: Doubleday, 1986.)

Memory can be enhanced through music. It has mnemonic power (e.g., words of songs can be recalled more accurately than most prose). (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 21-23. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Studies: listening to music can improve mood and reduce stress levels. For surgeons, listening to music can reduce fatigue and increase concentration, speed, and accuracy. (Edell, Dean, MD. Eat, Drink & Be Merry. p 128-129. NY: HarperCollins, 1999.)

Studies: higher pitch and fast music in major keys tend to affect mood positively. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 184-185. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Music can “move” human beings, affect them physically, and arouse them. This can involve tensing muscles, nodding in time, vocalizing, weeping, swaying, or other type of movement. Motion and emotion are inseparably linked. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 183-188. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Humans appear to be the only species that spontaneously move in response to music. This may be due to the interplay between the auditory system (hearing) and motor system (movement). Studies have shown that just thinking about tapping out a rhythm lights up portions of the brain’s motor system. Even when people listen to music without moving any portion of the body, there is activity in brain regions that control movement. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p 11. NY: MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

Study of college students who listened to 10 minutes of Mozart’s piano sonatas just prior to taking spatial reasoning tests: they scored higher than students who listened to relaxation tapes or other types of music. The effect lasted for 15 minutes. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 37. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)

The Mozart effect (listening to music composed by Mozart) has been found to positively impact musical training and spatial ability. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 179-185. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Listening to Mozart has been found to strengthen thinking and reasoning abilities. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 182-183. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

Study: individuals can sometimes make voluntary movements to the sound of music that cannot be accomplished without it. Music can promote order within the mind and bring order to muscular movement. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 33-35, 106-107. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

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