Epigenetics (Cellular Memory)

A study has shown that childhood abuse (defined in this study as "sexual contact, severe physical abuse and/or severe neglect") leads to epigenetic modifications of glucocorticoid receptor expression, which play a role in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activity. Maternal care influences hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) function in the rat through epigenetic programming of glucocorticoid receptor expression. In humans, childhood abuse alters HPA stress responses and increases the risk of suicide. These findings translate previous results from rat to humans and suggest a common effect of parental care on the epigenetic regulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor expression. (Source)

Prenatal stress can have a lasting detrimental impact on psychological health. In a recent study investigating correlations among maternal in pregnancy and methylation in teenagers and their mothers, it has been found that children of women who were abused during pregnancy were significantly more likely than others to have methylated glucocorticoid-receptor genes, which in turn change the response to stress, leading to a higher susceptibility to anxiety. As these sustained epigenetic modifications are established in utero, we consider this to be a plausible mechanism by which prenatal stress may program adult psychosocial function. Prenatal stress is known to alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis regulatory function later in life. Specifically gestational marital discord is associated with psychopathology of the offspring. (Source)

Epigenetic plasticity can lead to an array of chronic diseases in older age if adverse nutritional and environmental circumstances are present during fetal and neonatal periods of development. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. p 158-159. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005.)

Reshaping of the DNA scaffolding that supports and controls the expression of genes in the brain may play a major role in the alcohol withdrawal symptoms, particularly anxiety, that make it so difficult for alcoholics to stop using alcohol. These "epigenetic" changes are minor chemical modifications of chromatin, dense bundles of DNA and proteins called histones. (PHYSORG.COM. Brain DNA "'remodeled" in alcoholism. Article abstract.)

Cellular memories stored when one is in an altered state may only be recalled in a similar altered state (e.g., under influence of drugs such as caffeine, nicotine, alcohol, cocaine). (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion (audio cassettes). NY: Sound Ideas, 1997.)

The brain’s adaptation to chronic fear and anger can trigger permanent changes in hormone levels, which may be picked up by the genes and passed on, (e.g., generations may become successively more aggressive). Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 167-168. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

The brain’s adaptation to chronic fear and anger can trigger permanent changes in hormone levels, which may be picked up by the genes and passed on, (e.g., generations may become successively more aggressive). (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 167-168. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

Arsenic has been linked to epigenetic changes, heritable changes in gene expression that occur without changes in DNA sequence. These include DNA methylation, histone modification, and RNA interference. Studies investigating arsenic as an epigenetic factor is expected to assist in developing precise biomarkers of exposure and susceptibility. (Baccarelli, A.; Bollati, V. "Epigenetics and environmental chemicals". Current opinion in Pediatrics 21 (2): 243–251. (2009) doi:10.1097/MOP.0b013e32832925cc. PMC 3035853PMID 19663042.)

Many of your attitudes, perceptions, and emotional responses are deeply ingrained in your cellular patterning. Your nerve cells store and retain accumulated memories of past and present emotionally charged events. (Childre, Doc and Howard Martin. The HeartMathSolution. CA: Harper SF, 1999, pp 201-202)

Activation of the maternal Igf2 gene during egg formation or very early in development causes Beckwith-Wiedemann Syndrome (BWS). While children with BWS have a variety of symptoms, the most common and obvious feature is overgrowth. Babies with BWS are born larger than 95% of their peers. They also have an increased risk of cancer, especially during childhood. BWS occurs once in about 15,000 births. However, in babies that were conceived in the laboratory with the help of artificial reproductive technology (ART), the rate of BWS may be as high as 1 in 4,000. This and other evidence of imprinting errors is prompting some to call for further investigation into the safety of common ART laboratory procedures. (Source)

Chicken nervous-tissue cell transplants into quails and vice versa resulted in the transfer of cellular memories that constitute the habits of one species to another (e.g., quail cackles, chicken sings). (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, pp 107-108)

Molecular interactions, such as enzymes and neuropeptides, are involved in cellular memory. There is a subtle energy involved in the way these substances do their work (Bohm). Every body event, whether the workings of enzymes, neuropeptides, hormones, blood, or skin, is an info-energetic event. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. NY: Broadway Books, 1998, p 52)

The human brain is under tremendous genetic control, with refinemenets being made by epigenentic factors (nongenetic factors that cause the organisms's genes to behave differently) and activity-dependent learning. (Gazzaniga, Michael S. Who's in Charge? p 38-39. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2011)

According to David P. Rakel, MD, director of integrative medicine at the University of Wisconsin, School of Medicine and Public health, even if your family has a history of cancer, there are things you can do to bathe that gene in a way to keep it from expressing itself. This means your genes may produce healthy tissue instead of tissue that is diseased or cancerous. Your lifestyle choices can override your genetic code and effectively reduce or even eliminate your chance of repeating your family’s history of poor health.... We have the choice to bathe our genes with joy, happiness, exercise, and nutritious foods, or we can bath them with anger, lack of hope, unforgiveness, junk food, and a sedentary lifestyle.... (LaBrec, Adelle. How to Reprogram Your DNA for Optimum Health. Pg 15-16. CA:Think-Outside-the-Book Publishing, 2014)

According to Kurzweil News, Jay Bradner, a physician and chemical biologist at the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute in Boston (see his presentation on TED), believes that cancer may be defeated through control of epigenetics or cellular memory. “With all the things cancer is trying to do to kill our patient, how does it remember it is cancer?” Bradner says that the answer lies in epigenetics, the programs that manage the genome. Findings over the past ten years have strongly implicated dysregulation of epigenetic instructions in cancer, where growth-driving genes express like crazy, while genes that keep cell division in check are silenced. Bradner believes that it will be possible to create a drug that can rewrite those epigenetic instructions so that cancer cells forget what they are and cease their deadly proliferation. Dr. Jay Bradner has a presentation on TED. (Source)

Cancer cells have a “memory for their own tune.” Ultimately cancer may be a severe form of cellular disharmony (e.g., cells have forgotten how to play with the rest of the group). (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, p 102)

When DNA mutates a cell may become prone to developing cancer. Some studies now suggest that when epigenetic marks are disturbed,cells may also become more vulnerable to cancer, because essential genes are shut off and genes that should be shut off are turned on. What makes both kinds of changes particularly dangerous is that they are passed down from a cell to all its descendants. (Zimmer, Carl. Now, the Rest of the Genome. NYT, 2008. Article)

Direct attention to your heart. Retrieve memories of past peaceful states, and store memories of the present contemplative and more blissful moments as new cellular memories. Then send balanced “L” energy out to your environment. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. NY: Random House, Inc., 1998, pp 156-157)

Genes serve as molecular blueprints used in the construction of cells, tissues, and organs. The “environment” is the contractor (if you will) who reads, engages, and brings those blueprints into reality. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, p 15)

Memories have been instilled in all your cells. If you receive someone else’s cells, you receive the memories encoded in those cells,too. (Chopra, Deepak, MD. Ageless Body, Timeless Mind. NY: Harmony Books, 1993, pp 22-25)

Memories are made in individual cells. It consists of an association between a group of neurons such that when one fires, they all fire, creating a specific pattern. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. CA: University of California Press, 1999, p 159)

A cell’s life is controlled by the physical and energetic environment and not by its genes. Genes are simply molecular blueprints used in the construction of cells, tissues, and organs. The environment serves as a "contractor" who reads and engages those genetic blueprints and is ultimately responsible for the character of a cell’s life. It is a single cell’s "awareness" of the environment—not its genes—that sets into motion the mechanisms of life. Epigenetics, the study of the molecular mechanisms by which environment controls gene activity, is today one of the most active areas of scientific research. When cells have a healthy environment they tend to thrive but when the environment is less than optimal, the cells falter. When the environment is adjusted the "sick cells" may revitalize. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. P 15, 26, 49. CA: Mountain of Love/Elite Books, 2005.)

Proteins interact with chromosomal elements, termed Cellular Memory Modules (CMMs). The switching of such CMMs to an active state during (during larval stages in this experiment) in contrast to embryonic stages, may require specific trans-activators. (Maurange,Cédric and Renato Paro. Cellular memory module conveys epigenetic inheritance of hedgehog expression during Drosophila wing imaginal disc development. 2002. Abstract.)

A chromosome consists of a single molecule of DNA associated with several regulatory proteins. A chromosome contains thousands of hereditary units known as genes, which control most aspects of cellular structure and function. (Tortora, Gerard J. and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003, p 61)

Chromosomes reside in the nucleus of the cell. Half of chromosomal contents is DNA, half is made of regulatory proteins (that act as a covering sleeve). Only when the genes are uncovered can their information be“read.” (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books,2005, pp 68-70)

Epigenetics not only may create transmissible memories to biological offspring but also can alter the way the genes themselves are expressed. NIDA Notes recently reported on studies by Dr. Fair M. Vassoler and colleagues at the University of Pennsylvania and Dr. Ghazaleh Sadri-Vakili at Massachusetts General Hospital. Researchers found that male rats’ cocaine exposure affects their offspring’s drug responses. “The 'sires’ cocaine exposure induced epigenetic alterations to one or more of their genes, and the sires transmitted the alterations to their offspring via their sperm. Epigenetic alterations change the expression of a gene without changing the underlying DNA sequence. The gene produces the same protein as it did before alteration, but in greater or lesser quantities than before.” (Source)

Studies at UC San Francisco: Addiction is caused by more than the pharmacological effects of a given drug, Drug addiction is a life-long disease. Although drug-taking behaviors may be absent, the ‘memory’ makes relapse not only possible but likely. (Science News. Cocaine Addiction Linked To Voluntary Drug Use And Cellular Memory, Study Shows. 2008. Article)

Metaphorically, Dr. Lipton compares the outer layer of the cell (epigene) to a computer chip: DNA represents your genetic hardware; epigenes represent your software. Epigenes convey information about environmental factors that influence the behavior and physiology of the cell. Because molecular pathways connect the mind and body, retraining your thinking can change your body. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Hay House, 2008. https://www.brucelipton.com/about)

Once two systems come in energetic contact, they are connected forever by the infinite cellular memory of their connection. Our experiences with parents and others close to us remain within us. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. NY: Broadway Books, 1998, p 143)

Studies at McGill U by Dr. Moshe Szyf: Epigenetics may revolutionize medicine and it also could change the way you think about daily decisions (e.g., whether or not to order fries with a meal, or to go for a walk, or to stay in front of the television). You aren’t eating and exercising for yourself, but for your lineage. (McIlroy, Anne. Code 2. Saturday’s Globe and Mail, March 11, 2006. Article.)

Epigenetics impact whether a gene is switched on (activated) or switched off. They also control how factors including nutrition, stress, lifestyle, and mindset affect your genes, as well as influencing the genes of your descendants. (LaBrec, Adelle. How to Reprogram Your DNA for Optimum Health. CA:Think-Outside-the-Book Publishing, 2014)

The term Epigenetics means outside conventional genetics. It was coined by the developmental biologist Conrad H. Waddington (1905 – 1975). Waddington treated Drosophilia pupa with heat and observed altered wing-vein patterns. This altered phenotype persisted in the population long after the stimulus (heat) was removed, suggesting that exposure to an environmental factor during a critical developmental window could produce a phentotype-change that could last for a lifetime and that could be manifested in subsequent generations. He referred to this phenomenon as “Genetic Assimilation” or “Epigenetics” in modern terminology. It provides a framework to explain the source of variations in individual organisms and also explains what makes cells, tissue, and organs different albeit the identical nature of the genetic information in every cell in the body. (Page 174)

All memory is encoded at the cellular level. (McClaskey, Thomas R. D.C., C.H.T., B.C.E.T.S Decoding Traumatic Memory Patterns at the Cellular Level. 1998. Article.)

The science of epigenetics, (meaning control above genetics)studies the molecular mechanisms by which environment controls gene activity.It has established that a variety of environmental influences (e.g., nutrition,stress, emotions) can modify genes without changing their basic blueprint and this modification can be passed on to future generations. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, pp 67-68)

The capacity of living tissue cells to memorize and recall characteristics of the body from which they originated. (D’ Alberto, Attilio, BSc (Hons). Cellular Memory and ZangFu TheoryArticle.)

Cellular memory is a form of energy. As with matter, energy is not destroyed so information stored at the cellular level is retained indefinitely. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. NY: Random House,Inc., 1998, p 231)

Japanese studies: The long-term maintenance of a particular pattern of gene expression through many rounds of cell division or even after cell division. (Hirose, Susumu. Crucial Roles for Chromatin Dynamics in Cellular Memory. 2007. Abstract.)

The traditional view that gene and environment interactions control disease susceptibility can now be expanded to include epigenetic reprogramming as a key determinant of origins of human disease. Epigenetic reprogramming is the process by which an organism’s genotype interacts with the environment to produce its phenotype and provides a framework for explaining individual variations and the uniqueness of cells, tissues, or organs despite identical genetic information. The rapid introduction of synthetic chemicals, medical interventions, environmental pollutants, and lifestyle choices, may result in conflict with the programmed adaptive changes made during early development, and explain the alarming increases in some diseases. The recent identification of a significant number of epigenetically regulated genes in various model systems has prepared the field to take on the challenge of characterizing distinct epigenomes related to various diseases. Improvements in human health could then be redirected from curative care to personalized, preventive medicine based, in part, on epigenetic markings etched in the “margins” of one’s genetic make-up. (Source)

Transgenerational epidgenetic imprints on mate preference: Environmental contamination by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDC) can have epigenetic effects (by DNA methylation) on the germ line and promote disease across subsequent generations. In natural populations, both sexes (of rats) may encounter affected as well as unaffected individuals during the breeding season and any diminution in attractiveness could compromise reproductive success. Researchers examined mate preference in male and female rats whose progenitors had been treated with the antiandrogenic fungicide vinclozolin. The effect was found to be sex-specific: females three generations removed from the exposure discriminate and prefer males who do not have a history of exposure. (Similarly epigenetically imprinted males did not exhibit such a preference). The observations suggest that the consequences of EDCs are not just transgenerational but can be “transpopulational,” because in many mammalian species, males are the dispersing sex. (Source)

Divorce patterns often run in families. There may be some inherited physiologoical tendency that contributes to increased susceptibilty to restlessness and divorce. This could include overstimulated receptor sites, and/or a reduced production of oxytocin, vasopressin / testosterone. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. p 272. NY: Random House, 1999.)

Studies at the University of Alabama in Birmingham: long-term memories may be stored and preserved by the addition of chemical caps called methyl groups onto our DNA, a process called DNA methylation. The cellular memory is passed on even when the cells are replaced.It appears that short-term memories form in the hippocampus and slowly turn into long-term memories in the cortex. (Powell, Devin. Memories may be Stored on your DNA. New Scientist, 2008. Article.)

It appears that the “double helix” of DNA is not the only source for heredity. DNA contains millions of proteins and other molecules that determine which genes can produce transcripts and which cannot. New cells can inherit those molecules. This means that there is a second channel through which heredity can flow. (Zimmer, Carl. NYT Science. November 2008. Article.)

Strong emotions that are not processed thoroughly are stored at the cellular level. At night stored information is released into consciousness as a dream. Re-experiencing the emotions through dreaming can be healing (e.g., integrate the information for growth, take actions to forgive and let go). (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY: Scribner, 1997, p 290)

Emotional experiences become imprinted in your brain cells and memory and form patterns that influence your behavior. Strong negative emotional states are more likely to be remembered that positive ones. (Childre, Doc and Howard Martin. The HeartMath Solution. CA: Harper SF, 1999, pp 137-138, 203)

Studies of white blood cells separated from the rest of the body: there is a reaction in the separated cells (when the donor experiences specific emotions such as anger or fear) even if miles apart. (Sylvia, Claire,with William Novak. A Change of Heart. NY: Little, Brown and Company, 199, pp 224-226)

Emotions are stored in the body so they must be addressed in the body (e.g., massage). (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audio cassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000)

Strong emotions that are not processed thoroughly are stored at the cellular level. At night stored information is released into consciousness as a dream. Re-experiencing the emotions through dreaming can be healing (e.g., integrate the information for growth, take actions to forgive and let go). (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY: Scribner, 1997, p 290)

Refer to Emotions and Feelings for additional information.

Molecular interactions are involved in cellular memory.There is subtle energy involved in the way these substances do their work. Every body event, whether the workings of enzymes, neuropeptides, hormones,blood, or skin, is an info-energetic event. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. NY: Broadway Books, 1998, p 52)

Refer to Energy and the Brain for additional information.

Scientific discoveries illuminate the emerging field of epigenetics: single nutrients,toxins, behaviors or environmental exposures of any sort can silence or activate a gene without altering its genetic code in any way. (Duke University Medical Center, October, 2005. Article)

Studies at the University of Cambridge have revealed the mechanism of epigenetic programming. Epigenetics is a system that turns human genes on or off. The process works by chemical tags, epigenetic marks that attach to DNA and tell a cell to either use or ignore a specific gene. For example, historical incidents of famine have resulted in health effects on the children and grandchildren of individuals who had restricted diets, possible due to inheritance of epigenetic marks caused by a restricted diet. Jamie Hackett, lead researcher, stated: “Our research demonstrates how genes could retain some memory of their past experiences.” Azim Surani, principle investigator, said: “The study provides opportunities to address whether germ cells can acquire new epigenetic marks through environmental or dietary influences on parents that may evade erasure and be transmitted to subsequent generations, with potentially undesirable consequences.” (Source)

Epigenetic Marks can pass from parent to offspring in a way that completely bypasses egg or sperm, thus avoiding the epigenetic purging that happens during early development. There is no doubt that epigenetic inheritance occurs in plants and fungi, and a good case for epigenetic inheritance in invertebrates. There is now some evidence that this may also be occurring in mammals. When a female is pregnant, three generations are at once exposed to the same environment conditions (e.g., diet, toxins, hormones). The pregnant female is the first generation, the fetus is the second generation, and the reproductive cells are the third generation. An epigenetic effect that continues into the fourth generation could be inherited and not due to direct exposure. (Source)

As an embryo matures, epigenetic marks in different cells are altered. The final pattern of epigenetic marks laid down, clings to the cells.When cells divide, their descendants carry the same set of marks. In at least some cases, these new epigenetic patterns may be passed down to future generations. (Zimmer, Carl. NYT Science. Now, the Rest of the Genome. 2008. Article.)

All of the molecules that hang onto DNA, collectively known as epigenetic marks, are essential for cells to take their final form in the body. As an embryo matures, epigenetic marks in different cells are altered,and as a result they develop into different tissues. Once the final pattern of epigenetic marks is laid down, it clings stubbornly to cells. When cells divide, their descendants carry the same set of marks. (Zimmer, Carl. NYT Science. Now, the Rest of the Genome. 2008. Article.)

Scientists know much less about the “epigenome” than the genome. (Zimmer, Carl. NYT Science. Now, the Rest of the Genome. 2008. Article.)

“Epigenetics has always been all the weird and wonderful things that can’t be explained by genetics.” Denise Barlow (Vienna, Austria).

“DNA is just a tape carrying information… Epigenetics is about the tape player.” Bryan Turner (Birmingham, UK)

“The hard disk(on a computer) is like DNA, and then the programs are like the epigenome.” Jörn Walter (Saarland, Germany) (Epigenome Network of Excellence. Article.)

At the heart of this new field of epigenetics is a simple but contentious idea — that genes have a 'memory.' That the lives of your grandparents — the air they breathed, the food they ate, even the things they saw — can directly affect you, decades later, despite your never experiencing these things yourself. (BBC, Ghost In Your Genes.)

Recently, scientists have become convinced that there is a form of inheritance, called epigenetic inheritance, in which the behavior of genes in offspring is affected by the life experience of parents. Furthermore, these epigenetic changes can, at least for a small minority of genes, extend beyond immediate offspring to further generations, although (at this point) the effects do not appear to last indefinitely. There is also the possibility that epigenetic inheritance is implicated in the passing down of certain cultural, personality or even psychiatric traits. Refer to Ireland and Cromwell, and to Slavery. (Hunter, Phillip. What Genes Remember.)

Epigenetics is one of the most scientifically important, and legally and ethically significant, cutting-edge subjects of scientific discovery. Epigenetics link environmental and genetic influences on the traits and characteristics of an individual, and new discoveries reveal that a large range of environmental, dietary, behavioral, and medical experiences can significantly affect the future development and health of an individual and their offspring.

Epigenetics adds another layer of complexity to individual variability. (Rothstein, Mark A., Yu Cai, and Gary E. Marchant. The Ghost in Our Genes: Legal and Ethical Implications of Epigenetics.)

Epigenetics is now recognised to have a major role in regulating the function of genes in humans, leading to individuals with the same genotype having different phenotypes. There is now strong evidence that these effects on gene function are influenced by experience such as nutrition, drugs, and sensory stimuli. In genetics, a major focus for many years has been how messenger RNA carries the genetic information from DNA to places in the cell where proteins are made. The messenger RNA rounds up the amino acid units to make the proteins. Now this field has changed because we now know that cells are full of small RNAs (microRNAs) that do not code for protein synthesis but are directly involved in gene function and protein synthesis. MicroRNAs may carry genetic information for the next generation independently of DNA by hitching a lift in the sex cells. This has opened up the concept that there could be inheritance of characteristics acquired during acquired during an individual’s lifetime that are not due to gene mutation. (Mustard, J. Fraser, MD. Early Childhood Development: How does experience in early life affect brain development? 2008. p. 14.)

The field of epigenetics has emerged to bridge the gap between nature and nurture. In the 21st century you will most commonly find epigenetics defined as “the study of heritable changes in genome function that occur without a change in DNA sequence.” (Epigenome Network of ExcellenceArticle.)

Epigenetics links the fields of genetics and developmental biology. It refers to the fundamental biological process by which organisms with two or more different cell types establish patterns of differential gene expression that are stable through cell division. Findings are challenging the text-book view of the cell cycle. (Laird Lab. Article.)

Epigenetics is the study of epigenetic inheritance: the transmission of information from a cell / multi-celled organism to its descendants without that information being encoded in the nucleotide sequence of the DNA. (Epigenetic Inheritance. Article.)

Epigenetics is a term in biology used today to refer to features (e.g.,DNA modifications, chromatin) that are stable over time in rounds of cell division but do not involve changes in the underlying DNA sequence of the organism. (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Article.)

Epigenetic plasticity can lead to an array of chronic diseases in older age if adverse nutritional and environmental circumstance sare present during fetal and neonatal periods of development. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, pp 158-159)

Epigenetics is the term that describes the study of heritable changes in genome function that occur without a change in DNA sequence. This includes; the study of how patterns of gene expression are passed from one cell to its descendants.Biological complexity depends less on gene number, and more on how those genes are used (expressed), which is largely due to epigenetic mechanisms. (The Epigenome Network of Excellence. Article.)

The concordance rate for reading problems in identical twins is less than 100%. This implies that epigenetic and environmental factors must be also involved. (Byrnes, James p., PhD. Minds, Brains, and Learning. NY: The Guilford Press, 2001, p 138)

The term surfaced 100 years ago on the printed page: gene function can be altered by more than just changes in sequence. Today, a wide variety of illnesses, behaviors, and other health indicators already have some level of evidence linking them with epigenetic mechanisms (e.g., cancers; cognitive dysfunctions; reproductive, autoimmune, and neurobehavioral illnesses). (Environmental Health Perspectives. Article.)

The science of epigenetics, (meaning control above genetics)studies the molecular mechanisms by which environment controls gene activity.It has established that a variety of environmental influences (e.g., nutrition,stress, emotions) can modify genes without changing their basic blueprint and this modification can be passed on to future generations. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, pp 67-68)

Genetic mechanisms alone cannot explain how some cellular traits are propagated. Rapid advances in the field of epigenetics are now revealing a molecular basis for how heritable information other than DNA sequence can influence gene function.(Nature. International Weekly Journal of Science. Nature Insight: Epigenetics, Vol. 447, No.7143, pp 396-440)

Conrad Waddington (1905-1975) is often credited with coining the term epigenetics in 1942. Epigenetics appears in the literature as far back as the mid 19th century, although the conceptual origins date back to Aristotle (384-322 BC), who believed in epigenesist. (Epigenome Network of ExcellenceArticle.)

A 7-year old child has nightmares about being killed after receiving the heart of a child who was murdered. A lawyer from Milwaukee began craving Snickers after he received the heart of a 14-year-old boy who loved Snickers. (Health. Shocking Examples of Cellular Memory. 2006. Article.)

Our experiences, positive and negative, register a memory in cell tissue as well as in the energy field. Neuropepetides, the chemicals triggered by emotions, are thoughts converted into matter... your mind is in every cell of your body. (Myss, Caroline, PhD. Anatomy of the Spirit. CA: Three Rivers Press, 1997, p 35)

Studies of family ritual: Teens who ate a meal with an adult in their family an average of 5 days a week (versus 3) tended to smoke, drink, and abuse drugs less, and be more optimistic and motivated in school. There maybe a subtle love energy at work in the form of cardio-energetic parenting.Families share cellular memories in every ritual. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, pp 163-164)

The brain’s adaptation to chronic fear and anger can trigger permanent changes in hormone levels, which may be picked up by the genes and passed on, (e.g., generations may become successively more aggressive). Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 167-168. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

The nonconscious mind develops ways of interpreting information from the environment. Specific ideas, perceptions, and impressions can become chronic due to frequent use. (Wilson, Timothy D. Strangers to Ourselves. England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002, p 37)

Who you are as a person is a combination of genetics and epigenetics. While genetic studies inheritance via genes and chromosomes, epigenetics studies how the environment (internal and external) can alter the way in which genetic traits are expressed (how the genes are activated or turned off). Epigenetic alterations do not change the DNA sequence itself. So if the DNA is not altered, mistakes made in the expression or suppression of genetic expression may be reversible. (Allis, C. David, PhD. “Beyond the double helix: why your DNA isn’t the whole story.” (https://youtu.be/jP06AEYnkGo)

Genes are not like robot actors who always say the same lines in the exact same way. It turns out that they interact with their surroundings and can say different things depending on whom they are talking to. This obliterates the long-standing metaphor of genes as blueprints with elaborate predesigned instructions for eye color, thumb size, mathematical quickness, musical sensitivity, etc. Now we can come up with a more accurate metaphor. Rather than finished blueprints, genes—all 22,000 of them—are more like volume knobs and switches. Think of a giant control board inside every cell of your body. Many of those knobs and switches can be turned up/down/on/off at any time—by another gene or by any miniscule environmental input. This flipping and turning takes place constantly. It begins a moment a child is conceived and doesn’t stop until she takes her last breath. Rather than giving us hardwired instructions on how a trait must be expressed, this process of gene-environment interaction drives a unique developmental path for every unique individual. (Shenk, David. The Genius in All of Us. P 16. NY:Doubleday, 2010)

In recent years, molecular biology has shown that the genome is far more fluid and responsive to the environment than previously supposed.It has also shown that information can be transmitted to descendants in ways other than through the base sequence of DNA. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, p 72)

Approximately 25,000 human genes are the cell’s hereditary units that control cellular structure and that direct cellular activities. They are arranged in single file along chromosomes. There is a total of 46chromosomes in each cell, 23 contributed from each parent. (Tortora, Gerard J.and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003, p 6283)

DNA is studded with millions of proteins and other molecules, which determine which genes can produce transcripts and which cannot. New cells inherit those molecules along with DNA. In other words, heredity can flow through a second channel. All of the molecules that hang onto DNA, collectively known as epigenetic marks, are essential for cells to take their final form in the body. As an embryo matures, epigenetic marks indifferent cells are altered, and as a result they develop into different tissues. Once the final pattern of epigenetic marks is laid down, it clings stubbornly to cells. When cells divide, their descendants carry the same set of marks. (Zimmer, Carl. NYT Science. Now, the Rest of the Genome. 2008. Article.)

While mutated genes are unlikely to revert back to normalcy, epigenetics indicates that at least some defective genetic programming likely can be corrected. How you communicate with your genes will influence how they will express themselves. Dr. Lipman recommends bathing them inside and out in the healthiest environment possible: eat nourishing organic food; avoid exposure to chemicals and toxins; exercise regularly; make restful sleep a priority; and seek out loving relationships. (Lipman, Frank, MD. Total Renewal. NY:Tarcher Publishing, 2004. Also, Lipman, Frank, MD, and Danielle Claro. The New Health Rules. OK:Artisan Publishers, 2015.)

Most people are familiar with the term Genome that refers to your complete set of genetic information encoded within 23 pairs of chromosomes in the cell nucleus. Once thought to primarily determine your development, scientists have identified three additional layers that have a profound impact on how your genes express themselves and how your brain and body develop and function. These layers are:

  • Epigenome: the complex array of matter surrounding your genes
  • Microbiome: the trillions of bacteria in your body
  • Virome: trillions of viruses that far outnumber both your body’s cells and microbes

(Enriques, Juan, and Steve Gullans, PhD. Evolving Ourselves. Pg 101-103. NY:Current-Penguin Group, 2015)

Quoting from the 1995 book by Eva Jablonka and biologist Marion Lamb (Epigenetic Inheritance and Evolution—the Lamarckian Dimension): In recent years, molecular biology has shown that the genome is far more fluid and responsive to the environment than previously supposed. It has also shown that information can be transmitted to descendants in ways other than through the base sequence of DNA. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. p 72. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005.)

Some primitive memory is stored at the sensory level beginning during late gestation. They are cellular memories because they are unconscious, preverbal, and are often held and expressed in specific parts of the body. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997, p 42)

Heredity can involve much more than genes and chromosomes. Molecules clinging to DNA can produce striking differences between two organisms with the same genes. And those molecules can be inherited along with DNA.” (Zimmer, Carl. NYT Science. November 2008. Article.)

When people hold hands they exchange “L” energy and create cellular memories. This is stronger when two people are walking and holding right hand to left than when holding right-to-right as in shaking hands. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, pp 163-164)

Studies of identical (monozygotic) twins: they are epigenetically indistinguishable during the early period of life, but they showed in adult life major differences in the distribution of 5-methylcytocism DNA and histone acetylation. Approximately one-third of the twins had epigenetic differences in DNA methylation and histone acetylation. This work demonstrated that different phenotypes can be found in individuals with the same genotype. In one identical twin study, it was found that there could be a 20-30% variance in behaviour in adult life. (Mustard, J. Fraser, MD. Early Childhood Development: How does experience in early life affect brain development? 2008. p. 15.)

Imprinting, required for normal development, is unique to mammals and flowering plants. In mammals, about 1% of genes are imprinted. For most genes, humans inherit two working copies: one from each biological parent. But with imprinted genes, you inherit only one working copy. Depending on the gene, either the copy from mom or the copy from dad is epigenetically silenced. Silencing usually happens through the addition of methyl groups during egg or sperm formation. Imprinted genes are especially sensitive to environmental signals. Because imprinted genes have only a single active copy and no back-up, any epigenetic changes or "epimutations" will have a greater impact on gene expression. Environmental signals can also affect the imprinting process itself. Imprinting happens during egg and sperm formation, when epigenetic tags are added to silence specific genes. Diet, hormones and toxins can all affect this process, impacting the expression of genes in the next generation. (Source)

Some non-genetic (epigenetic) variations are inherited both within cell lineages and from one generation of organisms to the next. (Jablonka, Eva, and biologist Marion Lamb. Epigenetic Inheritance and Evoluation-the Lamarckian Dimension. USA: Oxford University Press, 2002, p 160)

Recently, scientists have become convinced that there is a form of inheritance, called epigenetic inheritance, in which the behavior of genes in offspring is affected by the life experience of parents. Furthermore, these epigenetic changes can, at least for a small minority of genes, extend beyond immediate offspring to further generations, although (at this point) the effects do not appear to last indefinitely. There is also the possibility that epigenetic inheritance is implicated in the passing down of certain cultural, personality or even psychiatric traits. For instance, historical "insults," such as Oliver Cromwell's brutal reconquest of Ireland in 1649, have led to an "embedding" of attitudes within the affected communities that persist for generations. (Hunter, Phillip. What Genes Remember.)

Behavioral Kinesiology (the study of muscles and their movements) played a part in revealing how closely connected the mind is with the body. The mind “thinks” with the body itself. (Hawkins, David R., MD, PhD. Power versus Force. CA: Hay House, Inc.,1995, 2002, pp 1-3, 41-43)

Single cells learn through environmental experiences,create cellular memories, and pass them on to their offspring. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, p 38)

Swedish research: grandchildren of both genders descended from paternal grandfathers who experienced some malnutrition during the slow growth period (e.g., years 9-12 prior to puberty for boys) were likely to live longer than average. Correspondingly, grandchildren were likely to die younger if their grandfathers experienced an abundance of food during slow growth. The suggestion that grandchildren are better off if their grandparents go hungry during their formative slow growth period might seem counter-intuitive, but it does have some resonance with research on the benefits of temporary shortages of food during an individual's lifetime. Although research on the benefits of fasting has not been conducted directly on humans, various studies have shown that mice and rats subjected to intermittent fasting live 10 to 15 per cent longer, and are more resistant to a number of diseases relating to metabolism, such as diabetes. (Hunter, Phillip. What Genes Remember.)

Diane Ackerman: you carry a permanent cellular memory of your mother’s heart beat. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. NY: Broadway Books, 1998, pp 66-67)

All memory is encoded at the cellular level. (McClaskey, Thomas R. D.C., C.H.T., B.C.E.T.S Decoding Traumatic Memory Patterns at the Cellular Level. 1998. Website.)

Refer to Memory and the Brain for additional information.

Memories are stored not only in the brain but also at the receptor level throughout the psychosomatic network. Memory processes are emotion-driven and unconscious but can sometimes be brought to conscious awareness. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY: Scribner, 1997, p 143)

Your cellular imprints that are left within you are not erased. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, p 181)

All cells store information-energetic memories, and the heart is the central organ that constantly pulsates this energy from,between, and to other organs and cells. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. NY: Broadway Books, 1998, p 14)

Memories are made in individual cells. It consists of an association between a group of neurons such that when one fires, they all fire, creating a specific pattern. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. CA: University of California Press, 1999, p 159)

Every experience in life is recorded in the body’s nervous system, especially recollections of fearful times. (Schaeffer, Brenda. Is It Love Or Is It Addiction? CA: Harper & Row, 1987, p 22)

Molecular interactions, such as enzymes and neuropeptides,are involved in cellular memory. There is a subtle energy involved in the way these substances do their work (Bohm). Every body event, whether the workings of enzymes, neuropeptides, hormones, blood, or skin, is an info-energetic event. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. NY: Broadway Books, 1998, p 52)

Some knowledge is genetically determined and inborn (e.g., babies everwhere know the same stuff at the same age no matter what they have been exposed to). For example:

  1. At 3.5 months, they will look longer at objects that aren't conforming to a set of rules
  2. They expect an object to keep the same shape if it passes behind a screen and reemerges.
  3. They expect an object not to move on its own unless something contacts it, and to be solid and not to pass through another object.
  4. They expect objects to be permanent and not to disappear when blocked from view.

(Gazzaniga, Michael S. Who's In Charge? p 20-22. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2009)

Genes (nature) and the environment (nurture) cooperate as you grow and develop. But genes require input from the environment to work properly. Quoting Gilbert Gottlieb, eminent neuroscientist. (Dweck, Carol S., PhD. Mindset. Mindset. p 4-6. NY: Ballantine Books, 2006.)

Studies by Randy Jirtle, PhD. We can no longer argue whether genes or environment has a greater impact on our health and development,because both are inextricably linked. ("Epigenetics" Means What We Eat, How We Live and Love, Alters How Our Genes BehaveArticle.)

The current view of the brain is that its large-scale plan is genetic. But specific connections at the local level are acgtivity-dependent and a function of epigenetic factors and expereience. Both nature and nurture are important. (Gazzaniga, Michael S. Who's In Charge? p 20-21. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2009)

Strong emotional stimuli release hormones and neurotransmitters. They help to embed that emotional memory in your neural circuitry. (Childre, Doc and Howard Martin. The HeartMath Solution. CA: Harper SF, 1999, pp 202-203)

Cellular memory, while not conscious (e.g., I had corn-on-the-cob for lunch), is powerful. It influences the flow of information substances throughout the brain and body. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. (Audio cassettes). NY: Sound Ideas, 1997.)

Studies of white blood cells separated from the rest of the body: there is a reaction in the separated cells (when the donor experiences specific emotions such as anger or fear) even if miles apart. (Sylvia, Claire, with William Novak. A Change of Heart. NY: Little, Brown and Company, 1997, pp 224-226)

Within the nucleus are found chromosomes. Each consists of a single molecule of DNA associated with several regulatory proteins. The genes are strung along the chromosomes. (Tortora, GerardJ. and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003, p 61)

A computer chip and a cell membrane are both liquid crystal semiconductors with gates and channels. Both are programmable. The cell nucleus is a “hard drive” containing DNA programs, etc. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, pp 90-92)

What you eat and drink, can affect not only your own health but that of your descendants. A new field of study, "Nutrigenomics," studies the effect of foods on gene expression. Food "talks" to your genes and they express themselves (activate or turn off) based on those conversations. Foods not only carry information to your genes, but their instructions may increase or decrease your risk for specific diseases. These nutritional signals may affect processes that include cholesterol levels, hormone regulation, aging, and weight fluctuations. Your biological system may respond to processed foods as to foreign invaders rather than as food, which initiates an inflammatory response. This type of chronic inflammation is now a recognized precursor to a variety of serious illnesses. (Larec, Adelle. How to Reprogram Your DNA for Optimum Health. Pg 40-41. CA:Think-Outside-the-Book Publishing, 2014)

Studies by Dr. David Martin, Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute. According to holistic health author Mike Adams, Martin's research indicates that women who take nutritional supplements and eat superfoods,positively influence the health of a number of future generations. (Frazer, Jessica. Nutritional supplements shown to impact health for multiple generations of offspring. News Target, Nov, 2006. Article.)

Study by Schwartz and Russek (1997-1998): the recipient’s rejection process of a transplanted organ may reflect not only rejection of the material organ (the cellular component) but also rejection of the donated cellular memory (the information and energy stored within the transplanted donor cells). (D'Alberto, Attilio, BSc (Hons). Cellular Memory and ZangFu Theory. Article.)

Many studies going back to the 1950s have found that parental levels of education or income affect their children’s brains. Now a new study at Boston Children’s Hospital, published in the journal Developmental Science, has found that how a mother perceives herself in comparison to other mothers may also impact her child’s brain development. Specifically, the mother’s perceived level of social status consistently predicted levels of two things in the children’s brains: the stress hormone cortisol and activation in some of the brain’s memory areas. Margaret Sheridan PhD of the Labs of Cognitive Neuroscience and the study’s first author said: "Our results indicate that a mother's perception of her social status 'lives' biologically in her children." (Source)

Crews: A team of reproductive biologists at the University of Austin ran a study on sexual behavior in animals. They exposed the animals to a common fungicide commonly used by grape growers. One group continued to receive a normal diet without the chemical. They exposed the other group to the pesticide, separated the females from the males with a wire mesh barrier, and then observed them to see if they continued to mate normally. The females were less sexually interested in males who’d been exposed. And what was even more interesting was that for three generations the females tended to ignore the exposed animals and their offspring. The females’ response to the healthy males was unchanged. The females could tell something was wrong with the exposed males, even though they couldn’t see it. The researchers speculated that the pesticide may have turned off or damaged the gene that helps males win females over. They speculated that the same problem may be showing up in humans.

Problems in a condition such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, are an expression of traumatically encoded information at the cellular level. All of the information associated with the trauma is encoded at the cellular level. Through therapist if the cellular memory is connected with normal cognitive function the traumatic memory may be able to be therapeutically reframed. (McClaskey, D.C., C.H.T.,B.C.E.T.S., Thomas R. Decoding Traumatic Memory Patterns at the Cellular Level. American Academy of Experts in Traumatic Stress. 2006. Article.)

Cellular memory, while not conscious (e.g., I had corn-on-the-cob for lunch), is powerful. It influences the flow of information substances throughout the brain and body. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. (Audio cassettes).NY: Sound Ideas, 1997)

An individual normally has one active copy of an imprinted gene. Improper imprinting can result in an individual having two active copies or two inactive copies. This can lead to severe developmental abnormalities, cancer and other problems. Two very different disorders, Prader-Willi syndrome and Angelman syndrome are both linked to the same imprinted region of chromosome 15. Some of the genes in this region are silenced in the egg, and at least one gene is silenced in the sperm. So someone who inherits a defect on chromosome 15 is missing different active genes, depending on whether the chromosome came from the female or the male parent. Prader-Willi syndrome happens when the male’s copy is missing, or when there are two maternal copies. Angelman syndrome occurs when the female copy is defective or missing or when there are two paternal copies. (Source)

Pre-birth life in the womb profoundly influences a child’s long-term health and behavior. Womb conditions are equally, if not more important, than one’s genes in determining how the person performs mentally and physically during life. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, pp 155-156)

There is mounting evidence for a theory of cellular memory that extends back into the prenatal period. Specific parts of the body seem able to hold and express these memory patterns behaviorally (rather than verbally). (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997, p 83)

Strong emotional stimuli release hormones and neurotransmitters that help to embed that emotional memory in your neural circuitry. You tend to remember things in relation to how important they are to you and are more likely to recall strong negative emotional states than positive ones. (Childre, Doc and Howard Martin. The HeartMath Solution. CA: Harper SF, 1999, pp 202-203)

Exercise: mentally focus on your heart. It can help you regulate your emotions. Picture taking disturbed feelings into the heart and soaking them there. This won’t necessarily make the issue disappear, but it can take the density out of your cellular memory and reduce its power. (Childre, Doc and Howard Martin. The HeartMath Solution. CA: Harper SF, 1999, pp 193-194)

Half of a cell’s nucleus is DNA, the other half involves regulatory proteins that form a type of “sleeve” over the DNA. These protein scan be modified by the environment. Epigenetic “dials” can create more than2,000 variations of proteins from the same gene blueprint, which can alter the gene’s impact. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, pp 67-70)

2008: the journal Science has given top honors to research that produced"made-to-order" cell lines by reprogramming cells from ill patients.A cell’s developmental "memory" could be wiped out by inserting just four genes, and then reprogrammed—induced to assume new identities. (Science’s breakthrough of the year: Cellular reprogramming. 2008. Article.)

There are signs that your behaviour may program sections of your children's DNA, and that how you live may affect your grandchildren's genes. In mice there is proof some of these changes can be passed down from generation to generation,…there are signs that this may be the same for humans...introduces concept of responsibility into genetics. (McIlroy, Anne. Code 2. Saturday's Globe and Mail, March11, 2006. Article.)

Some primitive memory is stored at the sensory level beginning during late gestation. They are cellular memories because they are unconscious, preverbal, and are often held and expressed in specific parts of the body. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997, p 42)

Orgasm represents a cardio-energetic power surge. Large amounts of “L” energy are exchanged between partners and the heart rate more than doubles. If body fluids are exchanged as well, even more info-energy may be transmitted with the exchanged cells’ memory. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, pp 179-180)

There is also the possibility that epigenetic inheritance is implicated in the passing down of certain cultural, personality or even psychiatric traits. For instance, historical "insults," such as Oliver Cromwell's brutal reconquest of Ireland in 1649, have led to an "embedding" of attitudes within the affected communities that persist for generations. Could it be that historical traumas, such as transatlantic slavery, leave some kind of genetic mark on the descendants of their victims? (Hunter, Phillip. What Genes Remember.)

Jasienska (2009) argues that epigenetic effects of slavery in the 18th and the 19th century partly explain the lower average birth weight among African- Americans in the US. (Lundborg, Petter and Anders Stenberg. Nature, nurture and socioeconomic policy—What can we learn from molecular genetics?)

Studies by a team of researchers in Japan: When the amoeba Physarum polycephalum was subjected to a series of shocks at regular intervals, it was able to learn the pattern and change its behavior in anticipation of the next shock to come. Previously, this type of behavior was only associated with a brain or neuronal activity. (Ball, Phillip. Cellular memory hints at the origins of intelligence. 2008. Article.)

Researchers at Rockerfeller University have found that acute stress leaves epigenetic marks on the hippocampus. One single 30-minute episode of acute stress caused a rapid chemical change in DNA packaging proteins called histones in the rat hippocampus, a brain region known to be especially susceptible to the effects of stress in both rodents and humans. The chemical change, called methylation, can either increase or decrease the expression of genes that are packaged by the histones, depending on the location of the methylation. (Source)

In 1942, Conrad Waddington coined the term Epigenetics to describe this idea that an organism's experience may cause its genes to behave (or express themselves) differently. (Hunter, Phillip. What Genes Remember.)

All thoughts first enter your system as energy. Each conscious thought (and many unconscious ones) generate a physiological response. Those that carry emotional, mental, psychological, or spiritual energy produce biological responses that are then stored in your cellular memory. Your biography is woven into your biological system. According to energy medicine, human beings are all living history books. (Myss, Caroline, PhD. Anatomy of the Spirit. CA: Three Rivers Press, 1997. All.)

The Science of Epigenetics has made it clear that organisms pass on hereditary information in two ways: through genes and through epigenetic mechanisms (the contribution of nurture) in human behavior. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, pp 68-70)

When the DNA strand copies itself when a cell divides, the methyl groups on the parent DNA strand are copied onto the new daughter DNA strand. There is now a growing body of evidence in animals, plants, and humans that epigenetic effects induced by many types of stimuli and interventions including nutrition, endocrine disrupting chemicals, maternal care, and maternal stress can be inherited transgenerationally and affect subsequent generations. (18 Catherine Gallou-Kabani et al., Nutri-epigenomics: Lifelong Remodelling of our Epigenomes by Nutritional and Metabolic Factors and Beyond, 45 CLIN. CHEM. LAB. MED. 321, 323 (2007).

Humans have recognized that traits of the parents are often seen in offspring. This insight led to the practical application of selective breeding of plants and animals, eventually leading to domestication, but did not address the central question of inheritance: how are these traits conserved between generations, and what causes variation? Cellular mechanisms may allow for co-transmission of some epigenetic marks. Emerging studies are finding patterns of epigenetic conservation across generations. (Source)

Subtle effects on some transplant recipient’s consciousness and personality is thought to be due to the infor-energetic cellular memories that come with the transplanted heart. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. NY: Random House,Inc., 1998, pp 72-73)

The Fifth Force or “L” energetic intelligence, nonlocal and invisible, may be involved when donated cells seem to “remember” where they came from. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. NY: Broadway Books, 1998, pp l40-44)

Every cell has a “mind.” Tissue cells moved from one body to another carry memories with them that can impact the second body (e.g., kidney transplant patients often report new food preferences). (Sylvia, Claire, with William Novak. A Change of Heart. NY: Little, Brown and Company, 1997, pp 211-221)

A heart transplant recipient’s surprisingly accurate dreams about her donor, alteration in food tastes, and many other changes offer clues about the possibilities of cellular memories. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. NY: Broadway Books,1998, p 11)

Transplant recipients (e.g., heart, liver, kidney) can begin to participate in cellular memories from the donor, released when the tissues were placed inside another body. (Chopra, Deepak,MD. Ageless Body, Timeless Mind. NY: Harmony Books, 1993, pp 22-24)

The accuracy of memories that often accompany transplants is beyond coincidence or chance. (Lipton,Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, pp 190-192)

Study by Schwartz and Russek (1997, 1998a, 1998b): There is evidence that the recipient's rejection process of a transplanted organ, may reflect not only rejection of the material organ (the cellular component), but also rejection of the donated cellular memory (the information and energy stored within the transplanted donor cells). (D' Alberto, Attilio. Cellular Memory and ZangFu Theory. Article.)

A heart transplant recipient’s surprisingly accurate dreams about her donor, alteration in food tastes, and many other changes offer clues about the possibilities of cellular memories. (Pearsall, Paul, PhD. The Heart’s Code. NY: Broadway Books, 1998, p 11)

Half of a cell’s nucleus is DNA, the other half involves regulatory proteins that form a type of “sleeve” over the DNA. These protein scan be modified by the environment. Epigenetic “dials” can create more than2,000 variations of proteins from the same gene blueprint, which can alter the gene’s impact. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD. The Biology of Belief. CA: Mountain of Love / Elite Books, 2005, pp 67-70)

Old traumas stored in the body as cellular memory may be sensed as a color, or look like shapes or images especially if the trauma was experienced prior to the development of language. Cellular memories may also be generated vicariously (e.g., observing abuse of others). (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion (audio cassettes) NY: Sound Ideas, 1997)

The pain of the woman’s childhood is imprinted on her cells. Until and unless she deals with her past, her feelings will tend to be out of proportion to the events that trigger them. (Roth, Geneen. When Food is Love. NY: Penguin Group, 1991, 1992, p 157)

Studies of identical (monozygotic) twins: they are epigenetically indistinguishable during the early period of life, but they showed in adult life major differences in the distribution of 5-methylcytocism DNA and histone acetylation. Approximately one-third of the twins had epigenetic differences in DNA methylation and histone acetylation. This work demonstrated that different phenotypes can be found in individuals with the same genotype. In one identical twin study, it was found that there could be a 20-30% variance in behaviour in adult life. (Mustard, J. Fraser, MD. Early Childhood Development: How does experience in early life affect brain development? 2008. p. 15.)

The largest twin study to date on epigenetic profiles –summarized in print. (News from The Scientist. How Epigenetics Affects Twins. 2005, 6(1):20050707-02. Article.)

Refer to Visualizing and the Brain for additional information,

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