General Differences

Males tend to find it easier to concentrate on an abstract idea or theorem. They dissociate it from other distracting information in the same way they can more easily disentangle a hidden geometric figure from a larger pattern. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991, pp 90-92)

From the first fetal movement to mid-life, the male hormonal charge kicks males into higher activity levels than females. Young boys need action. To put them in crowded environments which demand long periods of passive silence violates everything that makes up a boy. In the early elementary years, it is common for teachers to reuest that parents get medication for their hyperactgive sons, when in most cases their activity needs are well within the normal range. (Joy, Donald, PhD. Unfinished Business. p 81-82. CA: Victor Books, 1989)

The resting female brain is as active as the activated male brain (e.g., more is going on in the female brain). It has a learning advantage as it is never at rest per se. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001, p 29)

Males have the protruding bulge in the neck (e.g., the outward projection of the expanding larynx that is stimulated by androgens). (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? How Men and Women Compare. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, p 13)

Uses adding machine and computer metaphors to portray intrinsic physiological differences between the male and female brains (e.g., female brain comes up with the answer but doesn’t state the process). Similar to printout-versus no printout concept. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Study of college students: Females stereotypically characterized by both sexes using words such as: poised, well-mannered, tactful, pleasant, sociable, modest, gentle affectionate, kind, nice, lovable. (Eakins, Barbara Westbrook, and R. Gene Eakins. Sex Differences in Human Communication. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.,1978, p 6)

Study of college students: Males stereotypically characterized by both sexes using words such as: easygoing, informal, frank, humorous, witty, thorough, deliberate, steady, logical, ambitious, courageous, aggressive, and dominant. (Eakins, Barbara Westbrook, and R. Gene Eakins. Sex Differences in Human Communication. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.,1978, p 6)

Typically female adultery was/is punished by death or payment of a heavy fine in a large proportion of societies. Adultery of the male has usually gone unpunished. (Montague, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. NY: Collier Books, 1952, 1974, pp 54-55)

Low systemizing and higher empathizing abilities help with making friends, understanding relationships, mothering, social mobility, and decoding a partner’s next move. (Baron-Cohen, Simon, Dr. The Essential Difference: The Truth About the Male and Female Brain. NY: Basic Books, 2003, pp 126-131)

High systemizing and lower empathizing abilities help with making/using tools, hunting, trading, attaining social dominance (e.g., striving for rank and power), and tolerating solitude. (Baron-Cohen, Simon, Dr. The Essential Difference: The Truth About the Male and Female Brain. NY: Basic Books, 2003, pp 118-126)

In general, girls do better than boys on tests involving aesthetic response to color, shape, and discrimination in pictures. (Montague, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. NY: Collier Books, 1952, 1974, pp 126-127)

Males initiate more than 90% of affairs; more than 80% are ended by the female. Sex = love for the female. Male brain can compartmentalize and separate love from sex. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004, pp 29-230)

Males are more aggressive than girls and woman in several contexts, and this is seen in many cultures. Studies have suggested greater aggression in fantasy, more verval insults, greater imitation of models acting aggressively, administration of painful timuli to others, and greater self-report of aggression. (Hines, Melissa, PhD. Brain Gender. p 16-18. NY:Oxford University Press, 2004.)

Male aggressive behavior may be linked with high androgen levels (e.g., testosterone). (Arnold, Caroline. Sex Hormones, Why males and females are different.NY: William Morrow & Company, 1981, p 115)

Male brain is wired for aggressiveness, activity, and defense; female brain is wired for support, encouragement, and exaltation (e.g., it is the rare male who can exalt his female partner by taking her name in marriage). (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Offensive aggression (competing with others for dominance) is markedly affected by male sex hormones and more typical of males. Females are just as capable as males of defensive aggression (protective of oneself and one’s family) and possible even more so. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989, pp 116-117)

Males tend to become more submissive as they age, females more assertive and dominant. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? How Men and Women Compare. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, p 18)

Males lose brain cells at rates up to three times faster with age (however, they have more brain cells to lose) than females. The significance is yet unknown. (Greenwood-Robinson, Maggie, PhD. 20/20 Thinking. NY: Avery, Putnam Special Markets, 2003, p 254)

Study: Women exhibit calmer deliberation and tend to be less emotional in air raids; men tend to work in a state of mental excitement (often consciously suppressed) that takes its toll over time. (Montague, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. NY: Collier Books, 1952, 1974, p 114)

The liver and stomach make an enzyme (alcohol dehydrogenase) designed to convert alcohol from its active form into a second chemical (acetaldehyde). A person who is drunk will remain intoxicated until the body converts much of the alcohol into acetaldehyde. Males and females both produce this enzyme but females have much less of it in their stomach. This places women at a disadvantage for alcohol consumption—they suffer drunkenness sooner than men will. (Hopkins, Gary, MD, Dr.p.H. and John V. Stevens, Jr., JD. Is Alcohol Really Good for You? Vibrant Life, Sep/Oct issue. MD: Review and Herald Publishing Association, 1998, p 18)

A woman’s liver produces less of an enzyme called alcohol dehydrogenase that breaks down alcohol. So alcohol stays in a woman’s body for longer. Smaller bodies can absorb less alcohol than large ones and on average, women are smaller than men. Women tend to have more body fat and less body water than men. This means that any alcohol a woman drinks becomes more concentrated in her body that it would be in a man of the same size. (Source)

Males under 40 are more likely than females to suffer from allergies and hiccups. (U.S.NEWS & WORLD REPORT. August 8, 1988, p 52)

The androgynous person is one who exhibits behaviors based on what is appropriate and effective rather than what is stereotypically masculine and/or feminine. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? How Men and Women Compare. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, p 22)

The anterior commissure, the second main neuron bridge between the two cerebral hemispheres, is 12% larger in the female brain. (See also Corpus Callosum.) (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. NY: Random House, 1999, pp 11-15)

The anterior commissure, the narrow strip among the nerve fibers that connect the hemispheres, is 10%-12% larger in the female brain and in the brains of homosexual males. (Blum, Deborah. Sex on the Brain. NY: Penguin Books, 1997, pp 45-47)

Female body produces antibodies more completely so women tend to have a lower incidence of viral/bacterial diseases. The X chromosome carries some of the genes that control immunity (e.g., females have 2 X chromosomes and males only one). (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, pp 24, 30, 102)

Study: Male “I’m sorry” means he has done something wrong. Female “I’m sorry” means she cares about how the person is feeling and doesn’t necessarily indicate culpability. (Gray, John, PhD. Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1992, pp 162-163)

Males tend to apologize only when they have decided to admit their fault and/or a lowered status. Females tend to apologize to smooth out small imbalances in relationships. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. NY: Random House, 1999, pp 30-35)

Survey in Psychology Today: the three things men notice first in a woman are her figure, her face, and how she is dressed. Females tended to notice how he is dressed, his eyes, and figure. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, p 29)

Three main areas of male-female differences:

  • Neural blood blow patterns
  • Specific structures in the brain
  • Brain chemistry

(Gurian, Michael, PhD., and Barbra Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. NY: Jossey-Bass, 2007, pp 26-29)

Female brain is less arousable than the male brain and responds differently to visual/auditory arousal stimuli. Study: levels were higher in males than females after viewing an erotic film. Influenced by testosterone, norephinephrine tends to rise with hyperactivity, euphoria, self-assertion, and aggressiveness. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983, pp 243-253)

Study: College students evaluated written articles. One group was told the articles were written by women, the other that they were written by men. Both sexes rated the articles attributed to male authors as more worthwhile. (Conway, Jim and Sally. Women In Midlife Crisis. IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 1971, p 205)

In science, music, and painting, women may emerge with abilities equal to those of men but possibly not in as great numbers, largely because the motivations and aspiration of most women will continue to be directed elsewhere. (Montagu, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. NY: Collier Books, 1952, 1974, p 3)

Females may not ask for help, assuming that others will intuitively know what they need. Males need to be asked specifically to help and may be resentful when expected to guess. (Gray, John, PhD. Men are from Mars, Women are from Venus. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1992, pp 245-246)

Males tend to become more mellow and less authoritative / domineering / aggressive / interested in conquering the world around them after mid-life. Females tend to become more aggressive / assertive, are less likely to conform, and are more likely to dominate. (Conway, Jim and Sally. Women In Midlife Crisis. IL: Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 1971, pp 357-358)

The general assumption underlying most communication seems to be that all people are male until proven female (e.g., doctor versus woman doctor, lawyer versus female lawyer). (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991, pp 111-112)

Studies: Males and females with larger right testicles or breasts tend to exhibit more typically masculine behavior; males and females with larger left testicles or breasts tend to exhibit more typically feminine behavior. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. Everyday Applications from Mind-Brain Research. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000, pp 215-221)

Refer to Children and the Brain for additional information.

Males: attraction can be purely physical. Females: tend to be attracted to wealth and position or skill. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, p 28)

FMRI studies of people in love. Male brain showed more activity in areas related to visual processing, especially of the face, than females. This may be one reason males fall in love faster. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. Why We Love. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004, pp 80-85)

Lists what men look for in a partner on first sight versus in a long-term partner…lists women’s top turn-ons and what they look for in a man. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004, pp 212, 232-245)

Women exceed men in auditory comprehension and are better in auditory memory. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, p 30)

Females tend to demonstrate greater auditory perception (centered in the left hemisphere) and make fewer errors in auditory tasks (e.g., talking on the phone, taking dictation, interviewing others, listening for machine malfunctions). (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000, pp 700-706)

Women’s immunity systems are so efficient that they sometimes attack their own tissues. Some autoimmune diseases seem to occur more frequently in women (e.g., lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, myasthenia gravis). (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, p 30)

Male awareness gradually builds a picture, sequentially relating one thing to another. Female awareness intuitively takes in the whole picture, and then gradually discovers parts within. (Gray, John, PhD. Men, Women and Relationships. OR: Beyond Words Publishing, Inc., 1990-1993, pp 59-60)

Women who are beauty-focused have egos as fragile about beauty as men do about success. (Farrell, Warren, PhD. Why Men are the Way They Are. NY: Berkley Book, 1986, 1988, p 271)

The beauty of the complexity of human beings is in the gender differences. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

The largest behavioral difference is related to higher innate levels of aggressiveness of males. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991, pp 7-8)

It has become possible to locate the precise brain regions responsible for male and female behaviors. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989, pp 35-36)

Of the more than 1400 people described in the Hebrew Bible, only about 115 are women. In at least 5 books of the Bible (depending on the translation) there are no references to women at all. (Shaevitz, Marjorie Hansen. The Confident Woman. NY: Harmony Books, 1999, pp 39-40)

In Chapter 5 of the Holy Bible (NIV) the label “man” and the Hebrew name “Adam” refer to both males and females collectively. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Lists a variety of impossible socialization/conditioning binds that place males in no-win situations (e.g., feeling, hero-image, companionship, child rearing, authority, breadwinner, success, career, integrity, sensuality). (Goldberg, Herb, PhD. The Hazards of Being Male. NY: Nash Publishing, 1976, pp 96-106)

Includes a list of female and male biological differences. (Tanenbaum, Joe. Male & Female Realities, Understanding the Opposite Sex. NV: Robert Erdmann Publishing, 1990, pp 47-49)

Hormones in birth-control pills “fool” the body into thinking it is pregnant. Consequently the ovary does not produce a new egg, as in a real pregnancy. (Arnold, Caroline. Sex Hormones, Why males and females are different. NY: William Morrow & Company, 1981, p 114)

Females tend to blame themselves first. Males tend to blame others first. (Gray, John, PhD. Men, Women and Relationships. OR: Beyond Words Publishing, Inc., 1990, 1993, p 103)

A man’s blood is thicker, clots faster, and contains 20% more red blood corpuscles. However, males manufacture blood less effectively (e.g., the female cardiovascular system is superior as a whole, females). Females have a better blood supply to the brain. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, pp 35-37)

Men’s blood is heavier and contains about 20% more red corpuscles. Men cannot manufacture blood as efficiently as women can. This makes surgery riskier for men. (Brothers, Joyce, PhD. What Every Woman Should Know About Men. NY: Ballantine Books, 1981, pp 21-25)

Males may become impulsive, become depressed or feel low, or get the jitters when experiencing a blood sugar low. Females may become withdrawn and distracted. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001, pp 86-88)

If unsure of their position males tend to “bluff.” Females rarely do this. When sure of their position, females will stand behind it even more strongly than males will. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, p 36)

Variations in androgens (male sex hormones) and estrogens (female sex hormones) can affect both body asymmetry and the degree/direction of gender differentiation in the brain:

Body asymmetry: Men and women with larger right testicles or breast tend to exhibit more typically masculine behavior (aggression, spatial ability, math proficiency); those with larger left testicles or breats tend to exhibit more typically feminine behavior (nurgurance, verbal ability). (Howard, Pierce J., PhD.The Owner's Manual for the Brain, Second Edition. p 5215-5221. GA: Bard Press, 2000)

The young adult human body is composed of approximately 60% water in males and 55% water in females. The lower water proportion of the average female body is due to higher fat content. Average body-water content tends to decrease in old age, as body-fat content increases. (Deahl, Thomas, D.M.D., PhD. Water, Thirst, & Dehydration. p 10. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Health Update. 2009.)

Females are better at reading facial expressions and nonfacial body clues. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. NY: Random House, 1999, pp 92-95)

Men’s bones are larger and arranged somewhat differently (e.g., broader shoulders, narrower pelvis. They can stride out with little wasted motion. A woman puts more movement into each step (e.g., wider pelvis) and displays a bit of jiggle/sway as she walks. (What Every Woman Should Know About Men. Brothers, Joyce, PhD. NY: Ballantine Books 1981, pp 22-25)

Study: in books/magazines written for children there were twice as many references to boy/girl as to child/children (words that do not designate sex), twice as many boys as girls, and seven times as many men as women. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991, pp 112-115)

Females account for more than 50% of contemporary American book authors. Women read more than men do. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. NY: Random House, 1999, pp 70-72)

See Children and the Brain for additional information.

All types of brain exceptionality (or abnormality), are more common in men than in women. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989, pp 107-108)

Study: males looked at beloved and showed more positive activity in brain areas associated with penile erection. Females showed more activity in septum and caudate nucleus (involved with motivation, attention, emotional processing, and recall of memories). (Fisher, Helen, PhD. Why We Love. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004, pp 111-115)

Analogy: the male brain turns on to do a task and then turns off; the female brain is always on. (Gurian, Michael. The Wonder of Boys. NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1996, pp 14-16)

The female brain tends to circulate more blood, maintain a little more overall charge, and run a little hotter. (Blum, Deborah. Sex on the Brain. NY: Penguin Books, 1997, pp 52-56)

A female brain has 15-20% more blood flow at any given time. This enables different parts of the female brain to work simultaneously in ways that doesn’t occur in the male brain. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, with Barbara Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. SF CA: Jossey-Bass, 2008, p xx)

Male brain changes more than female brain with aging. Free radical damage is a hazard to both. (Carper, Jean. Your Miracle Brain. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2000, pp 18-19)

Damage to the male brain depends more on the site of the lesion. Damage to the female brain depends more on the extent of damage. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989, pp 35-37)

Outlines a variety of brain gender differences in a 4-part table: portion of brain, function, similarities and differences, and impact (e.g., Corpus callosum is larger in females and helps females 2 oordinate two hemispheres more efficiently). (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001, pp 20-26)

Men and women are different because their brains are different. Differences involve the interplay between hormones and a male or female brain that comes pre-wired to react with specific hormones. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991, pp 2-8)

Women have 10% more neurons in one part of the temporal lobe and the cells are stacked closer together in the 2nd and 6th layers. (Brynie, Faith Hickman. 101 Questions Your Brain has Asked About Itself but Couldn’t Answer Until Now. CT: Millbrook Press, 1998, p 115)

On average the hypothalamic nucleus IHAH3 is 21.5 times larger in the male brain. The corpus callosum and the anterior commissure are relatively larger in the female brain. (Carter, Rita. Mapping the Mind. CA: University of California Press, 1998, p 71)

Variations in androgens (male sex hormones) and estrogens (female sex hormones) can affect both body asymmetry and the degree/direction of gender differentiation in the brain:

  • Excess androgen in female embryo (male-differentiated brain with male appearance and behavior). If there is no androgen, excessively female apperance and behvior as in Turner's syndrome.
  • Excess androgen in male embryo ("super" male, aggressive, hairy, etc)
  • Excess estrogen in male embryo (female-differentiated brain with male apperance and behavior)

Body asymmetry: Men and women with larger right testicles or breast tend to exhibit more typically masculine behavior (aggression, spatial ability, math proficiency); those with larger left testicles or breats tend to exhibit more typically feminine behavior (nurgurance, verbal ability). (Howard, Pierce J., PhD.The Owner's Manual for the Brain, Second Edition. p 5215-5221. GA: Bard Press, 2000)

There is no single brain switch that decides whether we are male or female, but probably separate levers controlling degrees of maleness and femaleness in different aspects of sex-role behavior. Mentions several important brain areas such as the hypothalamus. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989, pp 35-36)

During the 16th-26th weeks of gestation, if there is a Y chromosome present it will call for the mother’s androgens to give the developing brain a chemical bath and emplate it for maleness (e.g., alter the left hemisphere and the corpus callosum). (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Studies: males with female-differentiated brains have lower levels of testosterone; females with male-differentiated brains have higher levels of testosterone. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. Everyday Applications from Mind-Brain Research. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000, pp 215-218)

Many times a day the male brain enters a “rest state.” Because the female brain doesn’t shut off in this way, each gender approaches something as basic as a conversation quite differently. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, with Barbara Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. SF CA: Jossey-Bass, 2008, p xx)

Men tend to lose brain tissue earlier in the aging process and overall they lose more of it, particularly in the frontal and temporal lobes. Women tend to lose tissue in the hippocampus and parietal areas. (Carter, Rita. Mapping the Mind. CA: University of California Press, 1998, p 71)

Study: In ages 65-95 the male brain was found to shrink faster than the female brain. This does not necessarily equate with lower intellectual functions, which may depend less on total neurons and more on density of dendritic-synaptic connections. (Carper, Jean. Your Miracle Brain. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 2000, p 18)

Male brain averages 15% larger than the female brain. (Blum, Deborah. Sex on the Brain. NY: Penguin Books, 1997, pp 36-38)

Each of the genders possesses a brain proportionate to body size. When allowance has been made for the general size of each sex, in relation to total body size, the female brain is at least as large or larger that of the male. (Montague, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. NY: Collier Books, 1952, 1974, pp 64-65)

BBC’s test: What Sex Is Your Brain may be found at the following web site: (Gurian, Michael, PhD, with Barbara Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. SF CA: Jossey-Bass, 2008, p 7)

Some males have female-differentiated brains; some females possess male-differentiated brains; some people have a somewhat ambiguous brain-body differentiation. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. NY: Bard Press, 2000, pp 215-218)

High empathizing and lower systemizing abilities help with making friends, managing relationships, mothering, social mobility, and reading one’s partner. (Baron-Cohen, Simon, Dr. The Essential Difference: The Truth About the Male and Female Brain. NY: Basic Books, 2003, pp 171-186)

High systemizing and lower empathizing abilities help with making/using tools, hunting, trading, attaining social dominance (e.g., striving for rank and power), and tolerating solitude. (Baron-Cohen, Simon, Dr. The Essential Difference: The Truth About the Male and Female Brain. NY: Basic Books, 2003, pp 133-154)

Males and females are born with brains wired in different ways. These brain biases are accentuated and refined throughout life, especially when spurred on by the hormonal surge of adolescence. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991, pp 100-103)

Research has discovered more about how male versus female brain differentiation occurs. They altered female rat brains by giving estradiol, a testosterone derivative that triggers a mechanism by which certain genes in the brain are "unsilenced," allowing them to initiate the process of masculinization. This process involves a group of enzymes known as DNA methyltransferases or Dnmts that modify DNA to repress gene expression. Physically, these were female rats, but in their reproductive behavior, they were males. (Bridget M Nugent and Margaret M McCarthy, et al. “Brain feminization requires active repression of masculinization via DNA methylation.” Nature Neuroscience, 2015; DOI: 10.1038/nn.3988)

The wife is more likely to recognize that the relationship is in trouble. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. NY: Random House, 1999, pp 275-276)

One eclectic study showed that non-drinking males seem to prefer women with small breasts. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991, p 99)

Men breathe deeper than women do and less often (average of 16 breaths per minute). Women breathe more often and their breathing is more shallow (average 20-22 breaths per minute). (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? How Men and Women Compare. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, p 39)

Men need more oxygen because they do not breathe as often as women do, and they breathe more deeply. This also exposes them to risk because when air is polluted, males draw more of it into their lungs. (Brothers, Joyce, PhD. What Every Woman Should Know About Men. NY: Ballantine Books, 1981, pp 21-25)

A term used to describe the spectrum of brain development. Girls tend to lean toward a female brain and boys toward a male brain, but there are some bridge or bi-gender brains (e.g., nearly equal qualities of male and female brains). (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001, pp 15-17)

Some males and females have brains that are “hard-wired” toward the middle of the gender-brain spectrum. They have higher-than average amounts of the opposite gender’s brain characteristics. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, with Barbara Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. SF CA: Jossey-Bass, 2008, p 6)

Fat floats. Women are more buoyant in water due to higher levels of body fat. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? How Men and Women Compare. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, p 40)

Males prefer to get right down to business, females find it easier to deal in business if they develop a personal connection first. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004, p 39)

Females start up businesses at twice the rate of males (every 60 seconds) in the USA. There a 9.1 million businesses started by females and they generate $3.6 trillion annually. (Popcorn, Faith, and Lys Marigold. Eveolution. NY: Hyperion, 2000, p 7)

Males are called to discipleship only through their affective right hemisphere, not through logic. This may be one reason the four Bible Gospels contain so many stories. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Males are two times as likely (as females) to be involved in a car accident while talking on a cell phone (e.g., male brain is configured for monotasking versus female brain for multitasking). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004, pp 129-130)

Fewer female architects, scientists, mathematicians, and composers may be related to different cognitive strategies built into male versus female brains. There are more female musicians than composers. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991, pp 48-49)

Females are generally less willing to sacrifice family life for careers. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. NY: Random House, 1999, pp 47-48)

In their 20s and 30s the males tend to concentrate on career while women are more concerned with relationships. In the mid 30s and 40s, women begin to ponder their potential career contribution while males become more interested in relationships. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Women become more masculine at mid-life and tend to turn outward toward a career. At mid-life males may become less aggressive and tend to turn inward toward home and relationships. (Viorst, Judith. Necessary Losses. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1986, pp 277-278)

Most females can carry a tune better than males can. This may be due to their finer auditory memories. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, p 205)

Females have a lower center of gravity due to narrower shoulders and wider hips. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? How Men and Women Compare. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, p 46)

The cerebellum is larger in the female brain. (Montague, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. NY: Collier Books, 1952, 1974, pp 68-69)

If women don’t like something, even though it may be “working,” they tend to change it until it’s better than it was—or at least different. (Tanenbaum, Joe. Male & Female Realities, Understanding the Opposite Sex. NV: Robert Erdmann Publishing, 1990, pp 102-103)

Males initiate change based on previous calculations and allocation of energy needed to make the change. If someone else instigates the change, the man must first determine if it’s necessary, and if so, then will need to allocate energy accordingly (and he will likely feel less in control). (Tanenbaum, Joe. Male & Female Realities, Understanding the Opposite Sex. NV: Robert Erdmann Publishing, 1990, pp 92-96)

Male chauvinism consists primarily of classifying people by biological function as if this were a determining factor in entirely nonbiological activities and situations. (Korda, Michael. Male Chauvinism! How it works. NY: Ballantine Books, 1973, 1979, p 47)

Label came from Nicolas Chauvin who was a hero worshipper of Napoleon. It describes an inner hostility to women, which is strongest in males who are identified as male chauvinists. (Brothers, Joyce, PhD. What Every Woman Should Know About Men. NY: Ballantine Books 1981, pp 35-36, 107, 213)

Many women are unconscious male chauvinists. They have a simpleminded devotion to maleness (e.g., often want their firstborn to be a boy). (Brothers, Joyce, PhD. What Every Woman Should Know About Men. NY: Ballantine Books 1981, pp 44-45)

Males dominant at chess, perhaps due to general strategic thinking, and an advantage in seeing patterns and abstract relationships. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991, pp 16-17)

Mother with 1 or more children under age 5 average 17 hours a week on child care. Fathers 5 hours per week. Mothers with 1 or more children age 5 or over average 6 hours a week on child care. Fathers 2 hours per week. (Weiss, Daniel Evan. Great Divide: How Females and Males Really Differ. NY: Poseidon Press, 1991, p 28)

Most men look forward to having children but rarely have any idea of the enormous impact a baby will have on their way of life and marriage. Generally don’t enjoy being fathers as much as women enjoy being mothers. (Brothers, Joyce, PhD. What Every Woman Should Know About Men. NY: Ballantine Books 1981, p 56)

Children place an almost unbeatable stress on all marriages, not only the dual-career marriage. The idea that children strengthen marriage is a joke. (Brothers, Joyce, PhD. What Every Woman Should Know About Men. NY: Ballantine Books, 1981, pp 262-263)

Males and females are different biologically, but this does not force them to always behave differently. (Nicholson, John. Men and Woman: How Different are They? NY: Oxford University Press, 1984, p 27)

Some conditions have been traced to genes that usually occur only in the Y chromosome, and hence can be transmitted only by fathers to their sons. These include bark-like skin (ichthyosis hystrix gravior), dense hairy growth on the ears (hypertrichosis), nonpainful hard lesions of the hands and feet (keratoma dissipatum), and a form of webbing of the toes (fusion of the skin between the 2nd and 3rd toes). (Montague, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. NY: Collier Books, 1952, 1974, pp 80-81)

Two chromosomes differentiate human beings as female (XX) or male (XY). In some cases females may have an X or XXX pattern and males an XXY or XYY pattern. (Eakins, Barbara Westbrook, and R. Gene Eakins. Sex Differences in Human Communication. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Co.,1978, p 3)

Refer to Brain Development, Fetal for additional information.

Study: 75% of females are members of a church or synagogue; 46% attended in the last week. 63% of males are members of a church or synagogue; 38% attended in the last week. (Weiss, Daniel Evan. Great Divide: How Females and Males Really Differ. NY: Poseidon Press, 1991, pp 147-149)

More women than men attend church. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, p 49)

Quoting Carol Gilligan: “One can think of the oboe and the clarinet as different. Yet when they play together, there is a sound that’s not either one of them, but it doesn’t dissolve the identity of either instrument.” (Tavris, Carol. The Mismeasure of Women. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1992, p 80)

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