Brain Differences

Analogy: the male brain turns on to do a task and then turns off; the female brain is always on. (Gurian, Michael. The Wonder of Boys. NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1996, pp 14-16)

Many times a day the male brain enters a “rest state.” Because the female brain doesn’t shut off in this way, each gender approaches something as basic as a conversation quite differently. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, with Barbara Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. SF CA: Jossey-Bass, 2008, p xx)

Scans: women’s brains showed 90% activity during a resting state; men’s brains in a resting state showed at least 70% of its electrical activity was shut down. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. NY: Broadway Books, 1998. p 19-20)

Uses adding machine and computer metaphors to portray intrinsic physiological differences between the male and female brains (e.g., female brain comes up with the answer but doesn’t state the process). Similar to printout-versus no printout concept. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Female Brain: Low systemizing and higher empathizing abilities help with making friends, understanding relationships, mothering, social mobility, and decoding a partner’s next move. (Baron-Cohen, Simon, Dr. The Essential Difference: The Truth About the Male and Female Brain. NY: Basic Books, 2003, pp 126-131)

Male Brain: High systemizing and lower empathizing abilities help with making/using tools, hunting, trading, attaining social dominance (e.g., striving for rank and power), and tolerating solitude. (Baron-Cohen, Simon, Dr. The Essential Difference: The Truth About the Male and Female Brain. NY: Basic Books, 2003, pp 118-126)

Males initiate more than 90% of affairs; more than 80% are ended by the female. Sex = love for the female. Male brain can compartmentalize and separate love from sex. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004, pp 29-230)

Male brain changes more than female brain with aging. Free radical damage is a hazard to both. (Carper, Jean. Your Miracle Brain. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2000, pp 18-19)

The anterior commissure, the second main neuron bridge between the two cerebral hemispheres, is 12% larger in the female brain. (See also Corpus Callosum.) (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. NY: Random House, 1999, pp 11-15)

The anterior commissure, the narrow strip among the nerve fibers that connect the hemispheres, is 10%-12% larger in the female brain and in the brains of homosexual males. (Blum, Deborah. Sex on the Brain. NY: Penguin Books, 1997, pp 45-47)

Female brain is less arousable than the male brain and responds differently to visual/auditory arousal stimuli. Study: levels were higher in males than females after viewing an erotic film. Influenced by testosterone, norephinephrine tends to rise with hyperactivity, euphoria, self-assertion, and aggressiveness. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983, pp 243-253)

Females tend to demonstrate greater auditory perception (centered in the left hemisphere) and make fewer errors in auditory tasks (e.g., talking on the phone, taking dictation, interviewing others, listening for machine malfunctions). (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000, pp 700-706)

The female brain tends to circulate more blood, maintain a little more overall charge, and run a little hotter. (Blum, Deborah. Sex on the Brain. NY: Penguin Books, 1997, pp 52-56)

A female brain has 15-20% more blood flow at any given time. This enables different parts of the female brain to work simultaneously in ways that doesn’t occur in the male brain. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, with Barbara Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. SF CA: Jossey-Bass, 2008, p xx)

Men's brains are, on average, between 10 and 15 per cent larger than women's. In one recent study, neuroscientists compared the brains of 42 men and 58 women postmortem, and found that men's weighed an average of 1,378g (3lb), compared with 1,248g (2.75lb) for women. These size differences have been found repeatedly, but they emerge only when comparing large numbers of people, so some women's brains are larger than the average whereas some men's are smaller. These differences partly reflect the fact that men are generally bigger and taller than women, but they are not related to differences in intelligence. (http://www.theguardian.com/science/neurophilosophy/2013/oct/06/male-brain-versus-female-brain)

A term used to describe the spectrum of brain development. Girls tend to lean toward a female brain and boys toward a male brain, but there are some bridge or bi-gender brains (e.g., nearly equal qualities of male and female brains). (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001, pp 15-17)

Some males and females have brains that are “hard-wired” toward the middle of the gender-brain spectrum. They have higher-than average amounts of the opposite gender’s brain characteristics. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, with Barbara Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. SF CA: Jossey-Bass, 2008, p 6)

Males are called to discipleship only through their affective right hemisphere, not through logic. This may be one reason the four Bible Gospels contain so many stories. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Males are two times as likely (as females) to be involved in a car accident while talking on a cell phone (e.g., male brain is configured for monotasking). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004, pp 129-130)

Fewer female architects, scientists, mathematicians, and composers may be related to different cognitive strategies built into male versus female brains. There are more female musicians than composers. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991, pp 48-49)

Three main areas of male-female differences:

  • Specific structures in the brain
  • Brain chemistry
  • Neural blood flow patterns

(Gurian, Michael, PhD., and Barbra Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. NY: Jossey-Bass, 2007, pp 26-29)

Other things being equal, there is a negligible difference between males and females in cognitive capacities. (Montague, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. NY: Collier Books, 1952, 1974, p 153)

The male brain tends to focus on one thing at a time, to compartmentalize its attention. It is more linear, incremental in reasoning, and focused (e.g., step thinking), and less tolerant of ambiguity. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. NY: Random House, 1999, pp 5-7)

Males are able to dissociate family from work and lead two separate existences. Women tend to think of home, marriage, and family as integral parts of their entire lives. (Montague, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. NY: Collier Books, 1952, 1974, p 175)

Male brains separate and store information in compartmentalized fashion (e.g., sex and love are separate). Female brains do not (e.g., sex = love), and need to talk about problems to get them out of her mind. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. NY: Broadway Books, 1998, pp 76-78, 229-230)

Outlines a variety of brain gender differences in a 4-part table: portion of brain, function, similarities and differences, and impact (e.g., Corpus callosum is larger in females and helps females 2 oordinate two hemispheres more efficiently). (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001, pp 20-26)

Female brain has up to 30% more connections. Estrogen prompts nerve cells to grow more connections within the female brain and between the hemispheres. Males have fewer connecting fibers in the corpus callosum. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. NY: Broadway Books, 1998. p 50-53)

Differences involve the Corpus callosum, the bridge of nerves that connect the cerebral hemispheres. In males it is less dense (beginning in utero) and tends to shrink with age. In females the corpus callosum is left intact (during gestation) and does not shrink with age. (Greenwood-Robinson, Maggie, PhD. 20/20 Thinking. NY: Avery, Putnam Special Markets, 2003. p 251-252)
At least one section of the corpus callosum (near the rear) is thicker in the female brain, which allows females to use both sides of the cortex for speech. The bridge is more evenly cylindrical in males. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. NY: Random House, 1999. p 11-15, 60)

The corpus callosum in the male brain is about 10% thinner and carries about 30% fewer connections as compared to the female brain. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004. p 127-130)

The corpus callosum differs in the female brain. Studies: greater number of nerve fibers; larger spenium section; larger anterior commissure; larger massa intermedia that connects the two sides of the thalamus. (Baron-Cohen, Simon, Dr. The Essential Difference: The Truth About the Male and Female Brain. NY: Basic Books, 2003. p 107-109)

A much larger corpus callosum in the female brain can enable women to more easily reconcile conflicting interpretations sometimes offered by each hemisphere. (Johnson, Steven. Mind Wide Open. NY: Scribner, 2004. p 36-38)

The corpus callosum is wider and larger in the female brain as compared to the male brain. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983. p 62-64)
Refer to Cerebral Hemispheres (Brain Function) for additional information.

Gray matter, located in a quarter-inch layer at the surface of the brain, is basically responsible for intelligence. Blood flows faster through gray matter than through any other brain tissue. Females and left-handed people have more cortex or gray matter than males who are right-handed. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, p 86)

Damage to the male brain depends more on the site of the lesion. Damage to the female brain depends more on the extent of damage. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989, pp 35-37)

Females have more branches on their dendrites (finger-like projections on surface of neurons), which receive chemical messages from other neurons than do males. Males, on the other hand, have more spines on their dendrites, which also receive messages from other neurons. (Fury, Kathleen. "Excuse Me, There’s Branches on My Dendrites." (Magazine) August 1989. p 102)

Males tend to “flood” at a lower intensity of emotional negativity than their wives. They tend to secrete more adrenaline into their blood stream when flooded. Male stoicism may be a defense against emotional overwhelm. (Goleman, Daniel Jay, PhD. Emotional Intelligence. NY: Bantam Books, 1995. p 140-142)

The centers in a female brain for emotion and reason are better connected (than in the male brain) and she has lower testosterone levels, so can find it easier to evaluate a relationship with a male. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004. p 228-230)

Females who feel overwhelmed or are hurting emotionally tend to want to talk about it and don’t always “do” something about it. (Shaevitz, Marjorie Hansen. The Confident Woman. NY: Harmony Books, 1999. p 255-256)

The area of the brain associated with emotion is larger in women than it is in men. (Tanenbaum, Joe. Male & Female Realities, Understanding the Opposite Sex. NV: Robert Erdmann Publishing, 1990. p 130-131)

Emotion is located in two areas in the right hemisphere in the male brain and emotion can operate separately from other brain functions; it is located throughout both hemispheres in the female brain and can operate simultaneously with most other brain functions. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. NY: Broadway Books, 1998. p 134-135) (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.) (International Speakers Bureau)

In the female brain, the right hemisphere that controls emotions is better connected to the left side of the brain that controls verbal expression than in the male brain. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991. p 100-103)

Males tend to ask directly for what they want. They are more likely to be victims of emotional blackmail than perpetrators. Females are more likely to use emotional blackmail to get their way rather than directly asking for what they want. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004. p 72-76)

Study: the right hemisphere in women shows enhanced sensitivity to expressing feelings and reading emotional responses of others. Women do better at concealing emotions than men, if circumstances call for such dissimulation. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. NY: Harmony Books, 2001. p 82-84)

Males tend to laugh about a joke but find it more difficult to talk about an emotional event. Women are more likely to discuss an emotional event without the aid of jokes. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004. p 60-62)

Emotions are on the right side of this brain while speech is on the left. Females can express emotions in words more easily due to greater information exchange between the two hemispheres via a larger corpus callosum. It is more difficult for a man to express his emotions due to a smaller corpus Callosum. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991. p 48-49)

The female brain processes more emotive stimulants, through more senses, and more completely than does the male. It also verbalizes emotive information quickly. Boys can sometimes take hours to process emotively (and manage the same information as girls). (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001. p 30-

Studies: Both males and females tended to activate portions of the brain that register aspects of empathy when they saw someone in pain whom they liked and regarded as fair. Interestingly enough, studies showed that males found it easier to switch off their empathy for someone with whom they had no vested interest in remaining in a relationship, or who might be competitors of theirs, or who they judged to be out of line. (Baron-Cohen, Simon. The Science of Evil. NY: Basic Books, 2011, p. 34).

All types of brain exceptionality (or abnormality), are more common in men than in women. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989, pp 107-108)

Males with a more focused awareness prefer to concentrate on one thing at a time. Females with more open awareness tend to keep track of many things at once. (Gray, John, PhD. Men, Women and Relationships. OR: Beyond Words Publishing, Inc., 1990-1993. p 64-65)

The frontal lobes are larger and more globular in the female than they are in the male. (Montague, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. NY: Collier Books, a division of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1952, 1974. p 66-68)

There is no single brain switch that decides whether we are male or female, but probably separate levers controlling degrees of maleness and femaleness in different aspects of sex-role behavior. Mentions several important brain areas such as the hypothalamus. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989, pp 35-36)

In the brain, gender is less plastic that other aspects of brain function...in a large part we are hard wired to be who we are in terms of gender. After the first trimester of pregnancy, are sense of who we are (maleness or femaleness) is cemented into the brain. (Gurian, Michael, PhD., and Barbra Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. NY: Jossey-Bass, 2007. p 12, 23, 27)

Provides in list format information on brain gender differences (e.g., the part of the brain, function, similarities and differences, and impact). Excellent summary. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001. p 20-26)

During the 16th-26th weeks of gestation, if there is a Y chromosome present it will call for the mother’s androgens to give the developing brain a chemical bath and emplate it for maleness (e.g., alter the left hemisphere and the corpus callosum). (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Male brains tend to have a slightly higher proportion of white matter, whereas those of females have a higher proportion of grey matter in most parts of the cerebral cortex. Consequently, the cortex is slightly thicker in women's brains than in men's and, according to several studies, is slightly more convoluted as well. (http://www.theguardian.com/science/neurophilosophy/2013/oct/06/male-brain-versus-female-brain)

Males have 6.5 times more gray matter related to cognition and intelligence (gray matter processes information locally in the brain). Females have 10 times more white matter related to cognition and intelligence (white matter connects information between different brain processing centers). (Gurian, Michael, PhD., and Barbra Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. NY: Jossey-Bass, 2007. p 32-33)

Gray matter, located in a quarter-inch layer at the surface of the brain, is basically responsible for intelligence. Blood flows faster through gray matter than through any other brain tissue. By measuring the rate of blood flow, researchers determined that left-handers (male or female) and females have more gray matter than right-handed males. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? How Men and Women Compare. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985. p 86-87)

Males have about 4 billion more brain cells, but women have more gray matter and in terms of general intelligence, tested 3% higher than men. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. NY: Broadway Books, 1998. p 46-47)

Gray matter, located in a quarter-inch layer at the surface of the brain, is basically responsible for intelligence. Blood flows faster through gray matter than through any other brain tissue. By measuring the rate of blood flow, researchers determined that left-handers (male or female) and females have more gray matter than right-handed males. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? How Men and Women Compare. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985. p 86-87)

Males have about 4 billion more brain cells but women have more gray matter. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. NY: Broadway Books, 1998. p 46-47)

Girls and women are able to hear things better than boys and men. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001. p 30)

Females are better at hearing high sounds but are more sensitive to loud noises. Males tend to prefer music and spoken words at louder volume at every frequency, bass to treble. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. NY: Random House, 1999. p 86-87)

Females are more sensitive to loud sounds. (U.S.NEWS & WORLD REPORT. August 8, 1988, p 52)

Women’s brains are more sensitive to experimentally administered lights and sounds. Sensitivity to sound persists throughout life. Women can hear better than men but are less tolerant of loud noises and repetitive sounds. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985. p 37, 91, 175)

Females tend to use both hemispheres when doing complex mental tasks (generalized brain). Males often use only the hemisphere most obviously suited to the task (lateralized brain). (Carter, Rita. Mapping the Mind. CA: University of California Press, 1998. p 71)

The female brain is more generalized and is configured for multitasking. Since they use both hemispheres they can find it more difficult to recognize left from right. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps.NY: Broadway Books, 1998. p 50-53)

The female brain is more generalized. Information and other stimuli are received by both cerebral hemispheres at once, and both hemispheres work together on a problem. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? How Men and Women Compare. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985. p 38, 160)

The left hemisphere where language is organized develops more slowly in males. Perhaps this is why females excel in verbal activities until high school, when males catch up. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985. p 116)

The right hemisphere of a boy’s brain becomes specialized by age 6, whereas the same development can take up to age 13 in a girl. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985. p 187)

Males are better at performing two cognitive jobs at the same time as long as each depends primarily on a different hemisphere. Females are better at single cognitive jobs that require cooperation between the hemispheres. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983. p 63-66)

Their left hemisphere develops earlier. This gives females an edge in reading, writing, and verbal adeptness. Less hemisphere specialization can result in an increased perceptiveness about people (better at sensing the difference between what people say and what they mean), and a lowered vulnerability to loss of speech following left hemisphere strokes. (Brothers, Joyce, PhD. What Every Woman Should Know About Men. NY: Ballantine Books 1981. p 29-33)

There are sex differences in the size of individual brain structures. The hippocampus, a structure involved in memory formation, is on average larger in men than in women, as is the amygdala, which is also involved in memory, as well as emotions. (http://www.theguardian.com/science/neurophilosophy/2013/oct/06/male-brain-versus-female-brain)

The hippocampus in the male brain is generally less active during emotional and relational experiences in the workplace, and has less linkage with the word centers of the brain (e.g., males are less likely to talk about relational and emotional experiences. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, with Barbara Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. SF CA: Jossey-Bass, 2008. p xxi)

Men and women are different because their brains are different. Differences involve the interplay between hormones and a male or female brain that comes pre-wired to react with specific hormones. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991, pp 2-8)

Hormones have a dual effect on the brain: they control the way the neural networks are laid out during gestation, and at puberty switch on the network created earlier. Differences in human behavior depend on the interaction between hormones and the brain. (Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. First Carol Publishing Group Edition 1991. p 38)

On average the hypothalamic nucleus IHAH3 is 21.5 times larger in the male brain. The corpus callosum and the anterior commissure are relatively larger in the female brain. (Carter, Rita. Mapping the Mind. CA: University of California Press, 1998, p 71)

The hypothalamus in the brain releases a hormone that controls sex hormones in both men and women. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, p 53)

The third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus is of similar size in the brains of females and homosexual males; twice as large in heterosexual males. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for The Brain. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000. p 223-226)

The hypothalamus in the male brain is five times larger than it is in females. (Tanenbaum, Joe. Male & Female Realities. NV: Robert Erdmann Publishing, 1990. p 53)

The preoptic anterior nucleus seems to regulate functions such as mounting in response to female signals. In humans this area of the hypothalamus is about twice as large in males as in females. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide.England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989. p 35-36)

During prenatal development there is a restricted time frame during which the brain takes on male or female characteristics. Scientists had thought that once this window closed, it could not be reopened but researchers have found otherwise. DNA methyltransferases or Dnmt enzymes control expression of genes that play a role in inflammation and immunity, and also in the sexual differentiation of the brain. Microglia, inflammatory immune cells, also appear to play a role in masculinization, in part through their production of prostaglandins, a neurochemical normally associated with illness. The immune system is integral to the development of the brain but this study is the first to show that it is also important for establishment of sex differences in the brain. (McCarthy, Margaret, PhD, and Bridget Nugent, PhD, et al. “Brain feminization requires active repression of masculinization via DNA methylation.” Nature Neuroscience, 2015; DOI: 10.1038/nn.3988)

Women are much less susceptible to brain injuries than men because the male brain is so laterally specialized. (Tanenbaum, Joe. Male & Female Realities, Understanding the Opposite Sex. Nevada: Robert Erdmann Publishing, 1990. p 116)

Language lateralization appears to show a left hemisphere dominance in most people. In males and female, damage to the left hemisphere or disruption of its activity is more likely to impair speech or language than does similar damage or disruption to the right hemispehre. However, impairment appears to be less severe in females, presumably because of less dramatic lateralization of langugage to this single hemisphere. (Hines, Melissa, PhD. Brain Gender. p 17-19. NY:Oxford University Press, 2004.)

Affective and ejaculatory language involve the right cerebral hemisphere. Males who lose function in Broca’s area (in Frontal Left lobe) and conscious speech, may still retain right hemisphere affective speech (e.g., one syllable ejaculations, singing). (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Female brain functions (e.g., language ability) appear to be more evenly divided between both cerebral hemispheres. Similar functions are much more localized in the left hemisphere for males. After injury to the left hemisphere females are three times less likely to suffer language deficits. (U.S.NEWS & WORLD REPORT. August 8, 1988, p 52)

The male brain is more lateralized to the left hemisphere for language. The female brain tends to use both hemispheres for language. Females with left-hemisphere damage are less likely to develop language difficulties and/or tend to recover more quickly as compare to males. (Baron-Cohen, Simon, Dr. The Essential Difference: The Truth About the Male and Female Brain. NY: Basic Books, 2003. p 104-110)

The male brain is more lateralized (e.g., functions are accomplished in one hemisphere over the other). The female brain is more integrated and less lateralized (e.g., have access to areas in both hemispheres at the same time). (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. NY: Random House, 1999. p 11-15)

Due to a specialized brain, a male is often able to do two different things simultaneously (e.g., working on a piece of machinery and carrying on a conversation). Because information is processed in both hemispheres at the same time, a female can find it difficult to do more than one thing at a time. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985. p 206)

In the male brain one hemisphere tends to dominate for any given activity, whereas the two hemispheres of the female brain tend to function more equally. (Arnold, Caroline. Sex Hormones, Why males and females are different. NY: William Morrow & Company, 1981. p 70-71)

The hemispheres are more specialized in the male brain. Males tend to use the right hemisphere when dealing with spatial problems and the left for verbal problems. With his right hemisphere a man may be putting together the backyard swing while his left hemisphere is carrying on a conversation with his wife on an entirely different topic. (Brothers, Joyce, PhD. What Every Woman Should Know About Men. NY: Ballantine Books 1981. p 29-33)

Explains that the male brain is more lateralized than the female brain. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983. p 50-51)
Females tend to use both hemispheres when doing complex mental tasks (generalized brain). Males often use only the hemisphere most obviously suited to the task (lateralized brain). (Carter, Rita. Mapping the Mind. CA: University of California Press, 1998. p 71)

Males use only a portion of their brains for some types of mental activity. Females use both hemispheres. (Greenwood-Robinson, Maggie, PhD. 20/20 Thinking. NY: Avery, Putnam Special Markets, 2003. p 270-271)

Male brain is more lateralized than the female brain. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001. p 61)
The male brain is more specialized (e.g., lateralized). The female brain is more generalized and duplicates abilities in both hemispheres that tend to work together on a problem. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985. p 37-38)

A woman’s brain is less centralized and less localized than a man’s. (Tanenbaum, Joe. Male & Female Realities, Understanding the Opposite Sex. NV: Robert Erdmann Publishing, 1990. p 11-112)

Although the two hemispheres share performance of many functions, each also specializes in performing certain unique functions. Hemispheric lateralization seems to be less pronounced in females than in males. (Tortora, Gerard J. and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 10th Edition. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003. p 477)

Female brains are less lateralized than male brains. (Springer, Sally p., and Georg Deutsch. Left Brain, Right Brain. NY: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1997. p 148)

Male brains are differentiated from female brains in terms of the degree of specialization of the right hemisphere. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989. p 35-37)

Male brain is more lateralized and tends to shift further left or right depending upon the task. Those who have a more generalized thinking style (typical of women) perceive the whole scene rather than just the task at hand. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. NY: Ballantine Books, 1984. p 11)

Females excel in verbal skills and males excel in visual spatial skills and mathematical skills. Males are more lateralized. Females are more lateralized for non-verbal auditory processes but less lateralized for visual-spatial processes. (Baker, Mary Anne, ed. Sex Differences in Human Performance. NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1987, p 40-44)

The male brain is more specialized (e.g., lateralized). The female brain is more generalized and duplicates abilities on both sides...both sides of the brain work together on a problem. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985. p 37-38)

Male brain is more specialized, female brain is more global (generalized). (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)
The male brain is compartmentalized and specialized. It is singularly focused – monotracking. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004. p 127-130)

Men’s brains are more specialized. Information is filtered into one side or the other (e.g., brain receives spatial problems in the right side and verbal problems in the left side). (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? How Men and Women Compare. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985. p 38, 160)

The male brain is compartmentalized and specialized, configured to concentrate on one task at a time. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. NY: Broadway Books, 1998. p 52-56)

Male brain is more specialized and uses left side for verbal abilities, the right side for visual. The female brain is more generalized and tends to use both sides. The more “female” the brain is in functioning, the more diffused the brain functions. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991. p 42-44)

Casual sex doesn’t really work on a whole mind/body level. Neurochemical changes occur in both brains during sexual activity that encourage emotional/limbic bonding. One reason females are more often hurt when a casual affair ends is that the female limbic system is larger than the males and she is more likely to become limbically connected. (Amen, Daniel G., MD. Change Your Brain Change Your Life. NY: Times Books, 1998. p 39-42)

FMRI studies of people in love. Male brain showed more activity in areas related to visual processing, especially of the face, than females. This may be one reason males fall in love faster. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. Why We Love. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004, pp 80-85)

Study: males looked at beloved and showed more positive activity in brain areas associated with penile erection. Females showed more activity in septum and caudate nucleus (involved with motivation, attention, emotional processing, and recall of memories). (Fisher, Helen, PhD. Why We Love. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004, pp 111-115)

Talking and map reading can be done at the same time more easily by a male since each activity is controlled by different sides of the brain. In a female brain, the same activities are controlled by areas on both sides of the brain and the two activities can interfere with each other. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991. p 44-46)

Dr. Daniel Siegel is the founder of interpersonal neurobiology, a new field that studies the "social brain." The social brain includes a multitude of circuitry designed to interact with another person's brain. One key discovery was "mirror neurons." They activate in your brain what you see in another person, including emotions, movements, and even intentions. Studies by neuroscientist Tania Singer showed women tend to be more highly developed in the mirror neuron system, and so rely on it more than men do for signals of empathy. Men tend to have a burst of the mirror neuron system and then go into a problem-solving mode. (Goleman, Daniel Jay, PhD. The Brain and Emotional Intelligence: New Insights. p 54-65. MA: More Than Sound, 2011)

Research has discovered more about how male versus female brain differentiation occurs. They altered female rat brains by giving estradiol, a testosterone derivative that triggers a mechanism by which certain genes in the brain are "unsilenced," allowing them to initiate the process of masculinization. This process involves a group of enzymes known as DNA methyltransferases or Dnmts that modify DNA to repress gene expression. Physically, these were female rats, but in their reproductive behavior, they were males. (Bridget M Nugent and Margaret M McCarthy, et al. “Brain feminization requires active repression of masculinization via DNA methylation.” Nature Neuroscience, 2015; DOI: 10.1038/nn.3988)

Females: feeling special with a monogamous male dramatically effects chemicals in a female’s brain (e.g., orgasm is 4-5 times higher in a marital bed, and 2-3 times higher in a monogamous relationship). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004. p 223-225)

Female brain can multitrack (deal with a number of pieces of information at one time) and can talk during sex. Male brain is organized for monotracking (e.g., focus on one piece of information at a time), and must switch to left hemisphere to talk during sex (e.g., may lose erection). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004. p 8-10, 214-215, 261-262)

Women have 10% more neurons in one part of the temporal lobe and the cells are stacked closer together in the 2nd and 6th layers. (Brynie, Faith Hickman. 101 Questions Your Brain has Asked About Itself but Couldn’t Answer Until Now. CT: Millbrook Press, 1998, p 115)

The brain’s occipital and parietal lobes are less active in the male brain, which can impact his approach to conflict, communication, and negotiation. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, with Barbara Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. SF CA:Jossey-Bass, 2008. p xxi)

Occipital lobes appear to be of equal size in both genders. (Montague, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. NY: Collier Books, a division of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1952, 1974. p 68-69)

The brain is an organ of the nervous system plus an endocrine gland that produces neurohormones. Oxytocin is produced in the brain and then travels to the pituitary where it is secreted into the blood. (Arnold, Caroline. Sex Hormones, Why males and females are different. NY: William Morrow & Company, 1981. p 29)

This brain chemical is more constantly stimulated in females, contributing to quicker and immediate empathic responses to others’ pain and needs as compared to the male brain. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001. p 28-30)

The crying of a child stimulates secretion of oxytocin in the female brain to a far greater degree than in the male brain. Females tend to have immediate empathic responses to others’ pain. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001. p 28)

The parietal area (sensory-motor representation) occupies a larger area in the male brain than in the female brain. (Montague, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. NY: Collier Books, a division of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1952, 1974. p 68-69)

The brain’s parietal and occipital lobes are less active in the male brain, which can impact his approach to conflict, communication, and negotiation. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, with Barbara Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. SF CA: Jossey-Bass, 2008. p xxi)

The male brain is more likely to focus on the short term (e.g., trade investments 45% more often): the female brain tends to think long term (e.g., puts more money into retirement plans). (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. NY: Random House, 1999. p 19-20)

Studies using PET scans: males produce serotonin at a rate that is 52% higher than that produced by females. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000. p 334)

The male brain secretes less serotonin than the female, contributing to males being more impulsive in general, as well as fidgety. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001. p 28)

Serotonin is manufactured in the body from trypotphan, found in food high in carbohydrates (cereals). Serotonin can sexually stimulate females but apparently not males. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983. p 254-260)

Women synthesize brain serotonin at half the rate of men, which may help explain why women are more prone to depression. Serotonin circuits also grow weaker with age because neurons lose receptors needed to activate serotonin. (Carper, Jean. Your Miracle Brain. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 2000, p 10)

BBC’s test: What Sex Is Your Brain may be found at the following web site: (Gurian, Michael, PhD, with Barbara Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. SF CA: Jossey-Bass, 2008, p 7)

Men tend to lose brain tissue earlier in the aging process and overall they lose more of it, particularly in the frontal and temporal lobes. Women tend to lose tissue in the hippocampus and parietal areas. (Carter, Rita. Mapping the Mind. CA: University of California Press, 1998, p 71)

Study: In ages 65-95 the male brain was found to shrink faster than the female brain. This does not necessarily equate with lower intellectual functions, which may depend less on total neurons and more on density of dendritic-synaptic connections. (Carper, Jean. Your Miracle Brain. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 2000, p 18)

Male brain averages 15% larger than the female brain. (Blum, Deborah. Sex on the Brain. NY: Penguin Books, 1997, pp 36-38)

Each of the genders possesses a brain proportionate to body size. When allowance has been made for the general size of each sex, in relation to total body size, the female brain is at least as large or larger that of the male. (Montague, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. NY: Collier Books, 1952, 1974, pp 64-65)

Field Independence (ability to think for oneself) is developed by freedom to explore one’s environment and develop bodily abilities. Spatial-visual abilities skills are equal in boys and girls until about the age of eight, after which girls come under more physical restrictions. The skills gap is pronounced by adolescence and clearly relates to socialization, not inherent ability. (Steinem, Gloria. Revolution From Within. MA: Little, Brown, & Co., 1992. p 204-205)

Freedom to explore our environment and develop our bodily abilities is a link to intellectual development. Physical freedom in the earliest years develops spatial-visual skills that are important in match, many kinds of problem solving, and in what psychologists call field independence (the ability to think for oneself). Such skills are equal in boys and girls until about age eight, when girls typically begin to come under more physical restrictions. Boys who have been allowed less mastery of space will tend, like girls, to show signs of less developed spatial-visual abilities and field independence. Eskimo boys and girls, whose culture allows children of both sexes a high degree of autonomy, including going on long hunting trips, showed no sex difference in intellectual skills. (Steinem, Gloria. Revolution From Within. A Book of Self-Esteem. MA: Little, Brown, & Co., 1992. p 204-205)

Spatial skill located mainly in the right front hemisphere in men is not strong in most women. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. NY: Broadway Books, 1998. p 19-20)

Female brain has greater functioning in memory and sensory intake. The male brain has greater functioning in spatial tasks and abstract reasoning. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001. p 30)

Gay men perform more like females (than do heterosexual males) when dealing with some types of spatial tasks (e.g., embedded figures, rod and frame test, water-level test). (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989. p 103-104)

Women process information faster because of their brain structures. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? How Men and Women Compare. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985. p 160)

Female brain can come up with judgments more quickly in terms of picking up on character and personality. It can provide an almost instant readout. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Female brain that reads subtle body language signals easier (than the male brain does) may follow a movie story line more easily. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. NY: Broadway Books, 1998. p 76-78)

Affects four times as many males. About 1 child in 4 will stutter between ages 2-7 but 80% stop before they reach adulthood. May involve incorrect hearing. PET Scans show low brain activity in the left caudate nucleus (e.g., connects thoughts with words). The caudate is connected to the limbic system, which may explain why stress makes stuttering worse. (Brynie, Faith Hickman. 101 Questions Your Brain has Asked About Itself but Couldn’t Answer Until Now. CT: Millbrook Press, 1998. p 134)

For every female stutterer there are five male stutterers. (Montague, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. NY: Collier Books, a division of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1952, 1974. p 88-90)

Male stutterers outnumber female five to one. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, p 193)

May be related to slower brain myelinization of nerve fibers that coordinate the muscles used in speech. Myelinization in girls is advanced over that of boys in the first years of life, including the critical ages of 2-4 years when much stuttering begins. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991. p 94)

When working on the same tasks males and females tend to use different parts of the brain. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. NY: Broadway Books, 1998. p 50-53)

Female temporal lobes are more active than those in the male brain. Females may find it easier to translate what they hear and see into written words. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, with Barbara Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. SF CA: Jossey-Bass, 2008. p Xxi)

Women have 10% more neurons in one part of the temporal lobe and the cells are stacked closer together in the second and sixth layers (of the six layers of nerve cells that make up the temporal lobes). (Brynie, Faith Hickman.101 Questions Your Brain has Asked About Itself but Couldn’t Answer Until Now. CT: Millbrook Press, 1998. p 115)

Male brain is better at storing single-sentence information (even trivia) and may do better at standardized multiple-choice format. The female brain thinks more inductively and may be at a disadvantage in testing that requires very quick decision-making in a short time. Tends to do better in essay formats. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001. p 58-61)

Studies: males with female-differentiated brains have lower levels of testosterone; females with male-differentiated brains have higher levels of testosterone. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. Everyday Applications from Mind-Brain Research. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000, pp 215-218)

Females show less loss of function overall after trauma to either hemisphere, but some loss of verbal and visual-spatial function following damage to the left hemisphere. Males may be aphasic from anterior or posterior damage to left hemisphere, females only if damage is to the anterior area. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983. p 52-54)

95% of the population has one of three brain types: female brain type (empathizing), male brain type (systemizing), or balanced brain type (empathizing/systemizing). About 2.5% have the extreme male brain type and, presumably, about 2.5% have the extreme female brain type. (Baron-Cohen, Simon, Dr. The Essential Difference: The Truth About the Male and Female Brain. NY: Basic Books, 2003, pp 171-180)

Some males have female-differentiated brains; some females possess male-differentiated brains; some people have a somewhat ambiguous brain-body differentiation. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. NY: Bard Press, 2000, pp 215-218)

High empathizing and lower systemizing abilities help with making friends, managing relationships, mothering, social mobility, and reading one’s partner. (Baron-Cohen, Simon, Dr. The Essential Difference: The Truth About the Male and Female Brain. NY: Basic Books, 2003, pp 171-186)

High systemizing and lower empathizing abilities help with making/using tools, hunting, trading, attaining social dominance (e.g., striving for rank and power), and tolerating solitude. (Baron-Cohen, Simon, Dr. The Essential Difference: The Truth About the Male and Female Brain. NY: Basic Books, 2003, pp 133-154)

All over the world on all continents and in all cultures, brain differences exist between female brain and male brains. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, with Barbara Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. SF CA:Jossey-Bass, 2008. p xx)

Males are more sensitive to bright light, and can detect more subtle differences in light. (U.S. NEWS & WORLD REPORT. August 8, 1988. p 52)

The superior colliculus in the midbrain controls the muscles that direct the eyeball, and affects which images are permitted to fall on the retina and hence to be seen (e.g., a cuckolded spouse may fail to see what everyone else sees, because emotional belief in the partner’s faithfulness is so strong that the eyeballs are directed to look away from the incriminating behavior obvious to everyone else). (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY: Scribner, 1997. p 146-149)

Males have a form of tunnel vision, females have a wider peripheral vision (e.g. may find objects more easily in a refrigerator). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004. p 80)

Females tend to have sharper peripheral vision, and increased sensitivity to body postures and gestures. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. NY: Random House, 1999. p 30-35)

Women’s brains have a greater variety of cones in the retina and wider peripheral vision (e.g., up to almost 180 degrees). Men’s brains have tunnel vision for seeing clearly and accurately directly in front of them (a narrower field) and over greater distances almost like binoculars (e.g., have difficulty finding things in fridges, cupboards, and drawers). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. NY: Broadway Books, 1998. p 20-25)

For static acuity, males have been reported as having better vision. Females are found on the average to have both more exophoria (divergency) and more esophoria (convergence) than males. (Baker, Mary Anne, ed. Sex Differences in Human Performance. NY: John Wiley & Sons, 1987. p 11)

Males have a larger visual cortex. They respond more quickly to things they see. This may help to explain why males are attracted more to a female’s looks than to her personality, at least initially. (Greenwood-Robinson, Maggie, PhD. 20/20 Thinking. NY: Avery, Putnam Special Markets, 2003. p 252-253)

Males tend to demonstrate better visual perception and discrimination (centered in the right hemisphere) and make fewer errors in visual tasks (e.g., proofreading, visual scanning, looking for malfunction indicators in machinery). (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000. p 700-706)

The difference in visual-spatial ability is particular marked in countries where women play a very submissive role (e.g., parts of India), whereas it is nonexistent in other parts of the world (e.g., amongst Eskimos). Eskimo men are no better than women at visual-spatial tasks and Eskimo women are not at all submissive to men. (Nicholson, John. Men and Women: How Different are They? NY: Oxford University Press, 1984. p 83)

About 25% of women are actually superior to the average man in visual-spatial ability. (Nicholson, John. Men and Women: How Different are They? NY: Oxford University Press, 1984. p 3, 6, 77)

Males still hold an undisputed edge for visual-spatial ability. The male advantage begins to show up around the age of 8 and persists into old age. (U.S.NEWS & WORLD REPORT. August 8, 1988. p 54)

Males have better visual-spatial abilities. (Greenwood-Robinson, Maggie, PhD. 20/20 Thinking. NY: Avery, Putnam Special Markets, 2003. p 252-253)

Men, on average, tend to be better than women on certain spatial tasks, such as drawing maps of places they have been and rotating imagined geometric images in their minds’ eye. (Fury, Kathleen. Excuse Me, There’s Branches on My Dendrites. Working Women (Magazine) August 1989. p 102)

Study of children’s visual-spatial abilities: Eskimo children (whose culture allows both boys and girls a high degree of autonomy, including going on long hunting grips) showed no sex difference in intellectual skills. In the Temne culture in Africa where females are more restricted (see field independence) there is a familiar male intellectual edge. (Steinem, Gloria. Revolution From Within. MA: Little, Brown, & Co., 1992. p 204-205)

Historically the basic architecture of the brain, and its fundamental workings, were thought to be the same for both sexes. Increasingly, though, those assumptions are being challenged. Research is revealing that male and female brains are built from markedly different genetic blueprints, which create numerous anatomical differences. There are also differences in the circuitry that wires them up and the chemicals that transmit messages between neurons. All this is pointing towards the conclusion that there is not just one kind of human brain, but two. (https://www.newscientist.com/article/mg19926651-600-brains-apart-the-real-difference-between-the-sexes/  2008)

The female brain is wired to be more global and intuitive (e.g., may come with an answer more quickly than a male brain does) but they cannot readily tell how they arrived at their answer (e.g., no “readout”). When they come up with an answer, males can also tell how they arrived at the conclusions (e.g., instant readout). (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family.)

Males and females are born with brains wired in different ways. These brain biases are accentuated and refined throughout life, especially when spurred on by the hormonal surge of adolescence. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991, pp 100-103)

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