Extroversion–Ambiversion–Introversion

Study: introverts tend to be more successful in academic environments. Extraverts may find thos same environments somewhat boring. (Eysenck, H. J. (1971). Readings in Extraversion-Introversion. New York: Wiley.)

Individuals who match their career with their natural preferences, in an environment that honors their introversion, ambiversion, or extraversion, are happier and healthier. (Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind. p 129. TX: KBA Publishing 2000.)

Extroverts are more prone to accidents (e.g., have more frequent automobile accidents). (Blitchington, Peter, PhD and Robert Cruise PhD. Understanding Your Temperament. p 11-14. MI: Andrews University Press, 1979)

Refer to Adapting and the Brain for additional information.

Refer to Practical Applications for additional information.

Refer to Substances and the Brain and to Dysfunctions of the Brain for additional information.

Two studies have linked ADHD with a deficiency of dopamine in the brain. This may be one reason for higher risk for substance abuse in people with ADHD as they attempt to self-medicate their brains. (Amen, Daniel, MD. The Brain in the News, Amen Clinic Newsletter. August, 2007.)

Conclusions from a groundbreaking study conducted by a team at the University of Central Florida indicate that some children (e.g., those diagnosed as ADHD) really DO need to move (fidget) in order to learn. The current educational model of sit down, be still, and be quiet does not work for these individuals. (Shrieves, Linda. Kids with ADHD need to fidget.)

A high level of norepinephrine (adrenaline) is often associated with high levels of brain arousal, shyness, low sensory thresholds, and blue eyes. Higher levels may be due to direct genetic influences or to stress-related activities (e.g., norepinephrine lowers the threshold of reaction in the amygdalae). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 40-45. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

There are three dimensions including extravert, introvert, and ambivert (between the two extremes). (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 418-440. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

The extroversion-introversion dimension is a derivation of gain. It is intrinsic, and determines the amount stimulation the person requires. Investigators include Galen, Hans Eysenck, Gordon Claridge, Emmanuel Kant, and Carl Young. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 58-59. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Study: gave lemon juice to babies to taste. Infants whose heart rate greatly increased in response are likely to act in an inhibited manner due to higher level of amplification (how strongly they experienced the taste). The strength of the amplification in the nervous system to outside events seems a basic characteristic that remains for life. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 40-41. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

The degree of extroversion in a person correlates directly with the extent of amygdalar activity. Happy, extroverted people show distinct activity in the amygdala when they encounter a happy face (extroverts and introverts respond about the same when encountering a fearful or angry face). (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 200-201. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Studies of basic emotional approach to life: Approachers seem to use the left hemisphere more than the right (e.g., left correlates with emotions like joy and pleasure that signal one to approach). The right hemisphere seems to be the site of protective emotions (e.g., anger and disgust) that signal one to move away. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 5, 39-40. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Babies vary markedly in their dispositions from the beginning, and a number of their characteristics remain stable over time including children’s basic orientation to emotion and arousal (e.g. sensitivity to stimulation). (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 128-130. NY: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

Extraverts have naturally low levels of arousal, so they tend to seek stimulation outside (e.g., high interest in parties, sex, and dangerous sports). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 54-57. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Sympathetic nervous system is the body’s arousal system (prepares body for action), as opposed to parasympathetic system or quiescent system (helps body to conserve energy). (Newberg, Andrew, MD, et al. Why God Won’t Go Away. p 38-40. NY: Ballantine Books, 2001.)

Study: introverts have more blood flow in the brain’s frontal lobes and in the anterior thalamus, both are areas that deal with internal processing, such as planning and problem solving. Extraverts have more blood flow in the anterior cingulate gyrus, temporal lobes, and posterior thalamus, areas involved in sensory and emotional experience. Thus,-extraversion and introversion appear to be related to individual differences in brain function. (Johnson, D. L., Wiebe, J. S., Gold, S. M., Andreasen, N. C. (1999). Cerebral blood flow and personality: A positron emission tomography study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 252–257.)

Lemon Juice Survey: People who are said to be extraverted are typically confident and outgoing. Scientists predicted and found that they produced less saliva after lemon juice was placed on their tongues. People who are said to be introverted are generally shy and quiet. Scientists predicted and found that they produced a lot of saliva after placing lemon juice on their tongues. This has been said to support Eysenck’s belief that introverts are characterized by higher levels of internal cortical activity (arousal) than extraverts. (Source)

Study: Extroverted males tend to prefer females with very large breasts. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004. p 232-233)

Study: introverts have more blood flow in the brain’s frontal lobes and in the anterior thalamus, both are areas that deal with internal processing, such as planning and problem solving. Extraverts have more blood flow in the anterior cingulate gyrus, temporal lobes, and posterior thalamus, areas involved in sensory and emotional experience. Thus, extraversion and introversion appear to be related to individual differences in brain function. (Johnson, D. L., Wiebe, J. S., Gold, S. M., Andreasen, N. C. (1999). Cerebral blood flow and personality: A positron emission tomography study. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 252–257.)

The terms Brain Lead or Dominance refer to an innate biochemical preference for processing information in an energy-efficient manner. (Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind. p 8-33, 88-103. TX: KBA Publishing 2000.)

Each person’s brain is unique and operates most efficiently when involved in activities it does best. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 214-216. NY:Harmony Books, 2001.)

Refer to Brain Lead and Lateralization for additional information.

Energy levels are usually closely aligned to the circadian rhythm (time of day). Introverts tend to have higher energy earlier in the day versus extroverts who have higher energy later in the day. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 370-372. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Study: extraverts tend to wear more decorative clothing, whereas introverts prefer practical, comfortable clothes. (Sharma, R. S. (1980). Clothing behavior, personality, and values: A correlational study. Psychological Studies25, 137–142.)

Extraverts tend to prefer warmer colors (e.g., red or orange). The lens of the eye adjusts to red shapes at a closer distance than with other colors, so they appear to jump out. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 704. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Competency and Preference are not the same. (Benziger, Katherine, PhD.Thriving in Mind: The Art and Science of Using Your Whole Brain. p 250-263. IL: KBA, 2009.)

Refer to Brain Lead and Lateralization for additional information.

Introverts are able to concentrate more intensely and for longer periods of time than extroverts. Introverts are easier to train. Mental fatigue builds up more quickly in extroverts and their attention tends to flag. Unless given frequent breaks, they will not do as well as introverts on tests that require concentration. Perhaps due to a shorter attention span, extroverts are more prone to accidents (e.g., have more frequent automobile accidents). The upside is that extroverts are less likely to be worriers. (Blitchington, Peter, PhD and Robert Cruise PhD. Understanding Your Temperament. p 11-14. MI: Andrews University Press, 1979)

More introverted people will probably be at their creative best in the mornings, while more extraverted people will probably be at their creative best in the evenings. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 600. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Extraverted youths are more likely to engage in behaviors described as delinquent. (Ryckman, Richard M. Theories of Personality. Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth, 2007).

About 70% of people have a balanced need for both introverted and extraverted activities. About 30% are natural extremists, attracted to and suited for specialized jobs that allow for this additional dimension of psychophysiology. (Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind. p 97. TX: KBA Publishing, 2000.)

According to Carl Jung, there are innate differences in the human personality, including extraverts (e.g., outer directed and more action-oriented) and introverts (e.g., inner-directed and more contemplative). (Dossey, Larry. MD. Healing Words. p 125-130. NY: HarperPaperbacks, 1993.)

A tendency toward cautiousness or boldness is due to inherited neurochemistry. At one end of a continuum are children characterized by regularity, high adaptability. At the other end, children who are irritable, slow to adapt, and withdraw at exposure to new people or situations. Children in the middle a have a mild positive or negative response to new stimuli. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 130-145. NY: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

For high gainers, (e.g., extraverts or extroverts)), the world is loud; for low gainers, (e.g., introverts) it is subdued. Some people respond to a low level of input by becoming very active and requiring a lot of stimulation. People are all “set” somewhere between extreme high and extreme low gain. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 5, 40, 52-53. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Studies: some children explored without hesitation, others stayed much closer to their mothers and took longer before approaching new objects. A third group was intermediate for both clinging and exploring. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 704. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Energy levels are usually closely aligned to the circadian rhythm (time of day). Introverts tend to have higher energy earlier in the day versus extroverts who have higher energy later in the day. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 370-372. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Refer to Energy and the Brain for additional information.

Study: introverts tend to be more successful in academic environments, which extraverts may find boring. (Eysenck, H. J. (1971). Readings in Extraversion-Introversion. New York: Wiley.)

Colin DeYoung and colleagues at the University of Minnesota completed brain-imaging studies on 116 volunteers. They found that the medial orbitofrontal cortex (a part of the brain involved with considering rewards that is just above and behind the eyes)( was significantly larger in study subjects who exhibited a lot of extraversion. The study also was able to correlate larger brain regions for a number of other traits: conscientiousness, which is associated with planning; neuroticism, a tendency to experience negative emotions that is associated with sensitivity to threat and punishment; and agreeableness, which relates to parts of the brain that allow us to understand each other's emotions, intentions, and mental states. Only openness/intellect didn't associate clearly with any of the predicted brain structures. (Source)

There are three dimensions including extravert, introvert, and ambivert (between the two extremes). (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 418-440. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Extraverts generally have a higher threshold for sensory stimulation and typically can take much more of the “maddening crowd” before they feel a need to be far from it. Extraverts generally like lots of eye contact; they prefer windows, open offices, and low walls. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 700-717. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

A learning environment stimulating enough for extroverts to learn may be too stimulating for their introverted pears. (Schmeck, Ronald R. Introverts and Extroverts Require Different Learning Environments. Educational Leadership. Vol. 40, No 5. p 54-55. February 1983.)

Extraverts are more rebellious because they form conditioned reflexes less easily (e.g., more difficult to train). They tend to talk more, have more eye contact, listen to loud jazz music, look at bright lights, creating their own disco effect, choose higher levels of noise in a learning situation and perform better in the presence of noise. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 54-57. NY:HarperCollins, 1995.)

The extroversion-introversion dimension is a derivation of gain. It is intrinsic, and determines the amount stimulation the person requires. Investigators include Galen, Hans Eysenck, Gordon Claridge, Emmanuel Kant, and Carl Young. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 58-59. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Humor model: people who are high in extraversion usually prefer nonsense and sexual humor; those who are low in extraversion (e.g., more toward introversion) tend to prefer incongruity resolution humor. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 169. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.

Extraverts have naturally low levels of arousal, so they tend to seek stimulation outside (e.g., high interest in parties, sex, and dangerous sports). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 54-57. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Extraverts are more rebellious because they form conditioned reflexes less easily. They are more difficult to train. Extroverts tend to talk more and have more eye contact. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 54-55. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Extraverts tend to prefer warmer colors (e.g., red or orange). The lens of the eye adjusts to red shapes at a closer distance than with other colors, so they appear to jump out. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 704. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Energy levels are usually closely aligned to the circadian rhythm (time of day). Introverts tend to have higher energy earlier in the day versus extroverts who have higher energy later in the day. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 370-372. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Mental fatigue builds up more quickly in extroverts and their attention tends to flag. Unless given frequent breaks, Extraverts will not do as well as introverts on tests that require concentration. Perhaps due to a shorter attention span, extroverts are more prone to accidents (e.g., have more frequent automobile accidents). The upside is that extroverts are less likely to be worriers. (Blitchington, Peter, PhD and Robert Cruise PhD. Understanding Your Temperament. p 11-14.MI: Andrews University Press, 1979)

Hans Eysenck’s The Biological Basis of Personality (1967). He began to establish the relationship between the reticular activating system (RAS) in the brain and the personality traits of extraversion and neuroticism. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 27. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Eysenck’s contributions connected increased activity in the reticular formation with introverts, and defining a second source of arousal or activation related to the emotional brain or limbic system. (Claridge, Gordon. Origins of Mental Illness. p 30-32, 46-50. MA: Malor Book, 1995.)

According to Blitchington and Cruise, creators of “The Temperament Inventory” (“scientifically researched, using a sample of over 4,500 people”), the four temperament approach is one of the best approaches to understanding one’s behavior. They point out that there are no better or worse temperaments, only different ones. And that since temperament is inherited, it is always with you. Your environment may change, but your temperament remains relatively stable. The basic four temperament theory has more scientific support than any other theory of personality and has been traced back to Hippocrates. It was also used by Aristotle. In more modern times, the man who should get the most credit for scientifically verifying the four temperament approach is Hans Eysenck. (Blitchington, Peter, PhD and Robert Cruise PhD. Understanding Your Temperament. p 1, 11, 15MI: Andrews University Press, 1979)

Extroverts are focused on the external world and tend to get their energy from others. Introverts are oriented inward. As they explore their inner universe of feelings and ideas, they become relaxed, rested, and renewed. People can actually wear them out. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. Why Him? Why Her? p 39-40. NY: Henry Holt, 2009)

Gain has to do with whether a person experiences the world as teeming with stimulation or whether excitement seems sparse. A person’s degree of gain depends on low-level brain-stem processes that amplify or silence the flow of information from the senses to the cerebral cortex. Norepinephrine lowers the threshold of reaction in the amygdalae. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 5, 40-45. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

The extroversion-introversion dimension is a derivation of gain. It is intrinsic, and determines the amount stimulation the person requires. Investigators include Galen, Hans Eysenck, Gordon Claridge, Emmanuel Kant, and Carl Young. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 58-59. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

One extreme form of low gain (extraversion) is sensation seeking. Sensation seekers want more of everything (e.g., sex, sexual partners, drugs, physically risky activities such as parachuting). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 57. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

The extroversion-introversion dimension is a derivation of gain. It is intrinsic, and determines the amount stimulation the person requires. Investigators include Galen, Hans Eysenck, Gordon Claridge, Emmanuel Kant, and Carl Young. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 58-59. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Extroversion or introversion may be an inherited dimension of personality. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 8-10. NY: Doubleday, 1987, 1989.)

Twin studies: there appears to be a genetic component related to extraversion and introversion. In the nature versus nurture controversy, shared family environment appears to be far less important than individual environmental factors that are not shared between siblings. (Auke Tellegen, David T Lykken, Thomas J. Bouchard, Jr., Kimberly J. Wilcox, Nancy L Segal, Stephen Rich (1988). Personality Similarity in Twins Reared Apart and Together, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 54, no. 6. 1031–1039.)

Studies: Extraverts tend to report higher levels of happiness (as compared with introverts). (Pavot, W., Diener, E., & Fujita, F. (1990). Extraversion and happiness. Personality and Individual Differences, 11, 1299–1306.)

For kinesthetic learners, physical movement is the mode of learning. Unfortunately children and adults who use kinesthesia as their primary source of learning are often labeled as hyperactive. (Koch, Liz. Whole brain learning is a new frontier for science. Santa Cruz Style, Mary 7, 2005.)

Study: Noradrenaline levels of children (after release from compound in Waco) were abnormally high, “a chemical signature of post traumatic stress disorder.” Traumatized children will be hypervigilant. As they grow older, hyperaroused children become ostracized. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 163-165. NY:The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

Excessive shame results in the child experiencing hypoarousal, the opposite of excitement and playfulness. A dampening of pleasure can foster low self-esteem. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 197-198. NY: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

The limbic system generates emotionality. Children display distinctive physiological characteristics that imply different innate thresholds in the limbic system to novel and challenging events. Some respond with fright to minor upsets, others ignore major challenges. Both shy and outgoing children seem to stay the same way from birth until at least their 8th birthday. Probably they stay that way all their lives. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 39. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

The same symptoms (e.g., pounding heart) are typically interpreted differently. Extraverts say they are thrilled, while shy/nervous people tend to say that something is wrong. (Bricklin, Mark, et al. Positive Living and Health. p 135-136. PA: Rodale Press, 1990.)

There are three dimensions including extravert, introvert, and ambivert (between the two extremes). (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 418-440. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

The extroversion-introversion dimension is a derivation of gain. It is intrinsic, and determines the amount stimulation the person requires. Investigators include Galen, Hans Eysenck, Gordon Claridge, Emmanuel Kant, and Carl Young. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 58-59. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Introverts are able to concentrate more intensely and for longer periods of time than extroverts. Introverts are easier to train. (Blitchington, Peter, PhD and Robert Cruise PhD. Understanding Your Temperament. p 11-14. MI: Andrews University Press, 1979)

A learning environment stimulating enough for extroverts to learn may be too stimulating for their introverted pears. (Schmeck, Ronald R. Introverts and Extroverts Require Different Learning Environments. Educational Leadership. Vol. 40, No 5. p 54-55. February 1983.)

Introversion is probably the trait with the strongest genetic influence. (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self. p 30. NY:Penguin Books 2002.)

Introverts generally like to be able to close the door and isolate themselves for extended periods of time. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 717. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Introverts try to avoid loud music, bright lights, noise in a learning situation, etc. Introverts perform better in quiet environments. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 54-55. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Energy levels are usually closely aligned to the circadian rhythm (time of day). Introverts tend to have higher energy earlier in the day versus extroverts who have higher energy later in the day. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 370-372. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Introverts usually do better in jobs that require close attention to detail and ability to concentrate. Extraverts do well in sales, public relations, the performing arts, and often politics. (Blitchington, Peter, PhD and Robert Cruise PhD.Understanding Your Temperament. p 11-14. MI: Andrews University Press, 1979)

People who live on islands tend to be less extraverted (more introverted) than those living on the mainland. Those whose ancestors had inhabited the island for twenty generations tended to be less extraverted than more recent arrivals. Individuals who emigrate from islands to the mainland tend to be more extraverted than people that stay on islands. Individuals who immigrated to islands tend to be more introverted (and less extraverted) than those who left. (Camperio Ciani, A. S., Capiluppi, C., Veronese, A., Sartori, G. (2006). The adaptive value of personality differences revealed by small island population dynamicsEuropean Journal of Personality21, 3–22.)

Design your job so that at least 50% of what you do uses your preference and satisfied your introverted-extraverted need for high, moderate, or low stimulation. (Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind. p 316. TX: KBA Publishing, 2000.)

Introverts usually do better in jobs that require close attention to detail and ability to concentrate. Extraverts do well in sales, public relations, the performing arts, and often politics. (Blitchington, Peter, PhD and Robert Cruise PhD. Understanding Your Temperament. p 11-14. MI: Andrews University Press, 1979)

Introverts tend to be more successful in academic environments, which Extraverts may find boring. (Eysenck, H. J. (1971). Readings in Extraversion-Introversion. New York: Wiley.)

For kinesthetic learners, physical movement is the mode of learning. Unfortunately children and adults who use kinesthesia as their primary source of learning are often labeled as hyperactive. (Koch, Liz. Whole brain learning is a new frontier for science. Santa Cruz Style, May 7, 2005.)

There is abundant evidence that laughter occurs much more often when people are engaged in social interactions with others than when they are alone. Among children as well as adults, those who are more extraverted tend to laugh more often than do introverts. (Martin, Rod A. White Papers. Do Children Laugh Much More Often than Adults Do?)

Refer to Laughter – Humor and the Brain for additional information.

Introverts tend to prefer low levels of noise in a learning situation, and perform better in quiet. Extroverts choose higher levels of noise in a learning situation and perform better in the presence of noise, while introverts perform better in quiet. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 57. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Extraverts are more likely to want to listen to music while studying than introverts. Music can interfere with complex tasks, and with verbal tasks (as opposed to simpler tasks and visual-spatial tasks). The music can compete for the student’s attention, vocal even more than instrumental. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 179-185, 489. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Introverted learners report higher tension during the first 2/3 of the day; extroverted learners report greater tension during the last 2/3 of the day. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 45. CA: The Brain Store, 2005.).

Meyers-Briggs: Extraverts find energy in things and people. They typically enjoy working in groups and learn by explaining to others. Introverts want to develop frameworks that integrate or connect the subject matter and like to “chunk” the material in order to learn it. (GSU Master Teacher Program: On Learning Styles.)

Refer to Learning and the Brain for additional information.

Lemon Juice Survey: People who are said to be extraverted are typically confident and outgoing. Scientists predicted and found that they produced less saliva after lemon juice was placed on their tongues. People who are said to be introverted are generally shy and quiet. Scientists predicted and found that they produced a lot of saliva after placing lemon juice on their tongues. This has been said to support Eysenck’s belief that introverts are characterized by higher levels of internal cortical activity (arousal) than extraverts. (Source)

Extroverts have a better short-term memory but also forget things more quickly, while introverts remember things for a longer period of time but have difficulty remembering things under stress (e.g., exams). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 54-55. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Introverts have better long-term memories; extroverts better short-term memories. Given information and tested immediately, extroverts will remember it better. Tested several hours or days later, introverts will remember the information better. are easier to train. Studies have shown that most criminals and lawbreakers are extremely extroverted. (Blitchington, Peter, PhD and Robert Cruise PhD. Understanding Your Temperament. p 11-14. MI: Andrews University Press, 1979)

Music can link the Dionysian state (extraversion or physical participation in the external world through feeling and sensation) and the Apollonian state (introversion or contemplation of ideas). (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 157-167. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Music is an art that can reconcile one to life and enhance it; music is rooted in the body, physically and emotionally based; music links extraversion and introversion. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 160-167. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Studies: instrumentalists, as compared to nonmusicians, tend to be more anxious and more introverted. Brass players tend to be more extraverted than other instrumentalists. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 186-189. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Extraverts are likely to prefer more upbeat, conventional, and energetic music than introverts. (Rentfrow, p. J., & Sam Gosling, PhD. The do re mi's of everyday life: The structure and personality correlates of music preference. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 1236–1256, 2003.)

Refer to Music and the Brain for additional information.

Introverts appear to dwell on the negative features of social situations; they recall less positive information about themselves and rate other less positively in social situations, and they are much more sensitive to punishment and negativity. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 54-57. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Children with high levels of noradrenaline react strongly to low levels of stimulation, and children with low levels of noradrenaline have low levels of arousal and so may require more stimulation. (Quartz, Steven R., PhD, and Terrence J. Sejnowski, PhD. Liars, Lovers, and Heroes. p 126. NY: HarperCollins Publishers Inc., 2002.)

Children who are easily overwhelmed have an excitable limbic physiology. Children who have very high norepinephrine levels are more reactive to extremely low doses of stimulation. Children with relatively lower rates of norepinephrine can proceed, undaunted by a reactive nervous system. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 130-145. NY: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

Norepinephrine lowers the threshold of reaction in the amygdalae. Children with higher levels of norepinephrine will have greater sympathetic reactivity (e.g., more shyness). There is probably an association between levels of norepinephrine and introversion. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 40-41. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Prenatal experience plays a role in shaping the internal guidance system’s neurochemistry (e.g., baby monkeys, whose mothers are exposed to a major stress while pregnant, show the signs of that stress in an inhibited temperament, reflected in altered levels of norepinephrine and dopamine). (Quartz, Steven R., PhD, and Terrence J. Sejnowski, PhD. Liars, Lovers, and Heroes. p 126. NY: HarperCollins Publishers Inc., 2002.)

Each brain is different (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 88-90. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

Introverts are more sensitive to barely detectable stimuli and have lower pain thresholds than do extraverts. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 54-55. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Pierce provdes a table outlining the dimensions of the Big Five Personality Model, especially as relates to extraverts, introverts, and ambiverts. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 430-432. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Study: Noradrenaline levels of children (after release from compound in Waco) were abnormally high, “a chemical signature of post traumatic stress disorder.” This is another way of describing hypervigilance, a push toward introversion due to extreme stress. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 163-165. NY: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

Introverts may approach prayer differently from extraverts. There may be a genetic basis for E-I differences (e.g., Introverts have a low threshold for stimulation in the amygdala). (Dossey, Larry. MD. Healing Words. p 129-133. NY: HarperPaperbacks, 1993.)

Extroverts do better under pressure. They need the high level of stimulation that such pressure provides to perform at their best (it would tip an introvert over the edge). Extroverts are more likely to continue acting in the face of punishment and frustration (e.g., less responsive to punishment than introverts). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 54-57. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Much of the energy influencing your decision to put off doing certain tasks comes from your natural dominance and your own internal desire to do the things that uplift and energize you, even if you have not known that they did this because: they use your preference, or they match your natural extraversion or introversion, or they do both. (Thriving in Mind. Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. p 133. TX: KBA Publishing, 2000.)

The symptoms of Prolonged Adaptive Stress Syndrome (PASS) that can occur after years of adapting or Falsifying Type, include: fatigue, hypervigilance, immune system alterations, memory impairment, altered brain chemistry, diminished frontal lob functions, discouragement and/or depression, and self-esteem problems. (Benziger, Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind: The Art and Science of Using Your Whole Brain. p 266-272. IL: KBA, 2009.)

In Hans Eysenck’s book, The Biological Basis of Personality (1967), he begins to establish the relationship between the RAS in the brain (molecular structure) and the personality trait of extraversion (molar behavior). (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 25-26, 726. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

The RAS controls the general level of arousal (e.g., one’s position on the extroversion-introversion continuum). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 51-52. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

The RAS is housed in the brainstem. Its functions are essential to the alert conscious state. (Guiffre, Kenneth. The Care and Feeding of Your Brain. Kenneth Guiffre, MD. p 22-23. NJ: Career Press, 1999.)

The reticular activating system is tuned differently in low gainers (extraverts) versus high gainers (introverts). In general the introvert’s RAS is set higher, making them more highly aroused to begin with, so they require less stimulation than extraverts. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 54-55. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Personality factors (e.g., introversion versus extraversion) are present in one’s psyche. They tend to be stable across a lifetime and are very resistant to change. (Dossey, Larry. MD. Healing Words. p 142-144. NY: HarperPaperbacks, 1993.)

Activity in the reticular formation stimulates the cortex into action. Without this there is no consciousness. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Exploring Consciousness. p 29, 115. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

The Reticular System, a set of nerve tracks in the brain stem, is already fairly mature at birth. The brain stem regulates heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, calmness versus anxiety, etc. (Diamond, Marian, PhD, and Janet Hopson. Magic Trees of the Mind. p 124-126. NY: A Dutton Book 1998.)

Low gainers (extraverts) fall asleep with a low dose of sedatives, and high gainers (introverts) require higher dosages. Extroverts, being low gainers, are less aroused than introverts. Introverts are chronically aroused and are more sensitive to stimuli at all levels. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 54-55. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

People cannot self-actualize unless and until they stop Falsifying Type. Self-actualization represents the joyous expression of the developed self and its gifts, which includes its preference and natural level of introversion or extraversion. (Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind. p 220-223. TX: KBA Publishing, 2000.)

Studies: Extraverts tend to report higher levels of self-esteem. (Swickert, R., Hittner, J. B., Kitos, N., & Cox-Fuenzalida, L. E. (2004). Direct or indirect, that is the question: A re-evaluation of extraversion's influence on self-esteem. Personality and Individual Differences, 36, 207–217.)

One extreme form of low gain (extraversion) is sensation seeking. Sensation seekers want more of everything (e.g., sex, sexual partners, drugs, physically risky activities such as parachuting). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 57. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

Harvard psychology professor Jerome Kagan has proved that readily measurable traits like the tendency to be startled by novel stimuli can be shown most readily in those infants who go on to develop into shy children and adults. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. p 132. NY: Scribner, 1997.)

Norepinephrine lowers the threshold of reaction in the amygdalae. Children with higher levels of norepinephrine have greater sympathetic reactivity. There appears to be an association between norepinephrine levels and the high-arousal characteristic of introversion, which may be linked to shyness as well. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 40-41. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

A temperament pattern known as behavioral inhibition (e.g., fearful, shy responses to people and events) is characteristic of about 20% of healthy 4-month-olds. This pattern tends to persist into adulthood. (Restak, Richard, MD. The Secret Life of the Brain. p 32. The DANA Press and Joseph Henry Press. Washington D.C.: The Dana Press and Joseph Henry Press, 2001.)

For most people, introversion and extraversion are remarkably stable. This dimension is intrinsic, and determines the amount of stimulation needed by the brain. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 58-59. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Introverted people prefer less stimulation. They are highly sensitive to input through the five senses; hence, they require relatively little sensation before they’re had enough. Moreover, they are easily distracted by the senses. Bright lights and loud noises can wear out introverted people. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 701. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Couples with differing needs for stimulation need to accept them, knowing that they don’t indicate anything personal. Just as people need to accept different requirements for salt on food, so they need to accept differences in the need for stimulation. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 58-59. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Studies: Baby monkeys whose mothers were exposed to a major stress while pregnant show the signs of that stress in their temperament, displaying an inhibited temperament reflected in altered levels of noradrenaline and dopamine. (Quartz, Steven R., PhD, and Terrence J. Sejnowski, PhD. Liars, Lovers, and Heroes. p 126. NY: HarperCollins Publishers Inc., 2002.)

Refer to Stress and the Brain for additional information.

Temperament, a subset of personality, is evident very early in life and is influenced by environmental experiences even before birth. Characteristics, while influenced by caregiving, are not caused by the quality of caregiving. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. p 128-130. NY: The Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997.)

Predispositions in temperament are some of the main roots of adult abilities (e.g., shy children differ from outgoing children in their limbic systems, which influence life-long differences in inhibition and arousal). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 40-47. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

The peripheral nervous systems of these two extremes in personality (extraversion and introversion) have different thresholds for sensations. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 701. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Extraverts are more rebellious because they form conditioned reflexes less easily. They are more difficult to train. Extroverts tend to talk more and have more eye contact. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 54-55. NY: HarperCollins, 1995.)

Discussed gross personality traits (e.g., extraversion) in relation to studies of monozygotic (MZ) twins and dizygotic (DZ) twins. MZ twins can develop complementary roles in order to establish their own sense of identity. (Claridge, Gordon. Origins of Mental Illness. p 68-70. MA: Malor Book, 1995.)

Observations and studies by C. J. Jung: A person who is extraverted (primary function) always has introversion as a secondary function. And vice versa. (Jung, C.J. (1921). Psychologischen Typen. Rascher Verlag, Zurich – translation H.G. Baynes, 1923.)

Extraverts decorate their offices more, keep their doors open, keep extra chairs nearby, and are more likely to put dishes of candy on their desks. These are attempts to invite co-workers and encourage interaction. Introverts, in contrast, decorate less and tend to arrange their workspace to discourage social interaction. (Gosling, Sam, PhD. Snoop – what your stuff says about you. New York: Basic Books, 2009.)

Study: introverts tend to be more successful in academic environments, which extraverts may find boring. (Eysenck, H. J. (1971). Readings in Extraversion-Introversion. New York: Wiley.)

Extroverts are less likely to be worriers. (Blitchington, Peter, PhD and Robert Cruise PhD. Understanding Your Temperament. p 11-14. MI: Andrews University Press, 1979)

enfrdeitptrues
Share this page via
Go to top
JSN Boot template designed by JoomlaShine.com