Cerebral Hemispheres

At any given time there will be more activity in one hemisphere compared to the other. Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 21. CA: The Brain Store, 2005.

The right hemisphere is more in touch with the emotional feeling centers in the limbic system. It likely generates alpha brain waves. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 324-325, 335-336. NY: Doubleday, 1987, 1989.)

Each hemisphere consists of four lobes: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital. (Springer, Sally p., and Georg Deutsch. Left Brain, Right Brain. p 10-14. NY: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1997.)

Each cerebral hemisphere is divided into 4 lobes named after the bones that cover them: frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital. (Tortora, Gerard J. and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 10th Edition. p 469. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.)

The cerebrum (two hemispheres) is composed of primary areas called lobes: the occipital, frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 25-26. CA: The Brain Store, 2005.)

The two hemispheres are somewhat distinct in structure, neurochemistry, and processing. There is a great deal of laterality. (Siegel, Daniel J., MD. The Developing Mind. p 177-180. NY: The Guilford Press, 1999.)

There are asymmetries between the hemispheres (e.g., Broca’s area and Wernicke’s areas in the left hemisphere). (Marcus, Gary, PhD. The Birth of the Mind. p 130-131. NY: Basic Books, 2004.)

In most people, the left and right hemispheres tend to dominate in different cognitive functions, just as people engage the world differently with their left and right hands. (Fields, R. Douglas, PhD. The Other Brain. p 4-5. NY: Simon & Schuster, 2009.

Many imaging studies may show only small real hemispheric asymmetries in function because the brain has a tendency to show symmetrical increases in activity even though the task is really initiated by one side much more than the other. (Springer, Sally p., and Georg Deutsch. Left Brain, Right Brain. p 72-73. NY: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1997.)

We still do not properly understand why the brain divides tasks in the way we observe in most people. (Greenfield, Susan, Con. Ed. Brain Power, Working out the Human Mind. p 53. The Ivy Press Limited, 1999.)

The hemispheres remain in balance when encountering images of positive or emotionally neutral scenes. The balance of activity shifts toward the right hemisphere when the image is one of horror, carnage, suffering, death, or injury—and it can become overwhelmed and dysfunctional. Watching images of disaster has a more powerful effect on one’s mental stability than reading about the disaster. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 71-74. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

All types of thinking utilize both hemispheres at the same time. The well-functioning brain is able to mix/match abilities for any learning situation. (Healy, Jane M., PhD.Endangered Minds. p 124-126. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1990.)

Perceptual causality is a right hemisphere function (direct perception that some action occurred as a result of physical contact). Newton observed an apple fall down from a tree but no observable interaction caused it. Causal inference is a left hemisphere function (the application of logical rules and conceptual knowledge to interpretation of events). Newton applied this and inferred that “gravity” caused the apple to go down when it left the tree. (Gazzaniga, Michael S. Who's In Charge? p 54-55. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2009)

According to Dr. Zull, the biggest differences in brain function (after right-left hemispheric differences), involve the front and back cortical systems of the cerebrum. The cerebral cortex has four major functions and if any of those are missing, you are missing a nervous system. The four major functions are: 1) Sensing,  2) Moving [motor], Integrating [two types]. Of these, integrating is one of the most crucial aspects of how brains learn and involves the interplay of the front and back cortex regions of the brain. The frontal cortex is involved in creating ideas, transforming ideas into actions, and then taking action, while the back cortex is involved with information, data, and memories. (Zull, James E., PhD. The Art of Changing the Brain: Enriching the Practice of Teaching by Exploring the Biology of Learning. VA: Stylus Publishing, 2002.)

Imagine that you have a gray glove on your left hand and a white one on the right. There are, in fact, slight differences in color between the two cerebral hemispheres. The left side has more gray matter; the right more white (contains more myelination since it houses the essential intuitive, feeling, reactive skills). (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 6. NY: Ballantine Books, 1984.)

Typically there is instant communication between hemispheres, although each perceives events and records information independently. This provides an illusion of unity. Déjà vu may result when there is a brief delay in transmission of information. (Bragdon, Allen D., and David Gamon, PhD. Brains that Work a Little Bit Differently. p 52-56. NY: Barnes and Noble Books, 2000.)

The Anterior Commissure and the Corpus Callosum connect the two cerebral hemispheres. They are also connected to a common brain stem, however, so both hemispheres sleep and wake at the same time. There appears to be only one integrated spatial attention system, however. This set of processes allow the selection of some stimuli over others and attention cannot be distributed to two spatially disparate locations. This means that the right brain cannot watch traffic while the left brain is reading text messages or while the left brain is decoding speech sounds. (Gazzaniga, Michael S. Who's In Charge? p 54-55. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2009)

Using your brain structure, your dominance also determines which of your non-preferred modes you are most likely to use. Two of your less efficient modes are more available to you because they are located next to your preference and are connected to it by substantial neuronal bridges. Where such bridges exist, communication between modes and consequently iterative thinking is faster and easier. It is these two non-preferred modes, connected to your preference that you can use as auxiliaries.

Mutually Available Modes

Bridges Connecting Them

Frontal Left and Frontal Right

Corpus callosum

Basal Left and Basal Right

Corpus callosum

Frontal Left and Basal Left

Conduit between Broca’s and Wernicke’s

Frontal Right and Basal Right

Conduit between two unnamed, similarly located areas, in right hemisphere

Frontal Left and the Basal Right

Not connected

Frontal Right and the Basal Left

Not connected

Your third non-preferred mode, the one that is not next to your preference and is not connected to it by a bridge built of neurons, is your natural weakness. It is as inefficient as your other non-preferred modes and is located diagonally across the brain from your preference.  As no diagonal bridges exist in the brain, getting from your preference to this non-preferred mode is difficult. And, communication between this mode and your preference is significantly more work.  It is this third non-preferred mode, the one that is not connected to your preference, that you cannot readily use as an auxiliary and that you must ultimately accept as your weakest mode or inferior function. (Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind – The Art and Science of Using Your Whole Brain. p. 55. IL: KBA The Human Resource Technology Company, 2006.)

Both hemispheres can guide the facial and upper arm proximal muscles. Each hemisphere has control over the hand's distal muscles (e.g., left hemisphere controls the right hand and right hemisphere controls the left hand). The left hemisphere predominantly control the facial mujscles on the right and the right hemsiphere controls those on the left. (Gazzaniga, Michael S. Who's In Charge? p 55-58. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2009)

Three bundles of axonic fibers called commissures connect the two hemispheres: the corpus callosum, the hippocampal commissure, and the anterior commissure. (Herrmann, Ned. The Creative Brain. p 35. NC: Ned Herrmann Group, 1993.)

The two hemispheres exchange information through axons by three important communication tracts: corpus callosum, anterior commisure, and posterior commisure. (Tortora, Gerard J., and Sandra R. Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 10th Edition. p 469. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.)

The corpus callosum is thicker in right-brain-dominant people. Likely it will also be found to be thicker in the brains of creative minds. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD.The Owner's Manual for the Brain, Second Edition. p 599. GA: Bard Press, 2000)

Several studies have shown that homosexual men have an increased prevalence of non-right-handedness and atypical patterns of hemispheric functional asymmetry. Non-right-handedness in men has been associated with increased size of the corpus callosum (CC), particularly of the isthmus, which is the posterior region of the callosal body connecting parietotemporal cortical regions. (Witelson, Sandra F., et al. Corpus Callosum Anatomy in Right-Handed Homosexual and Heterosexual Men. Archives of Sexual Behavior. Volume 37, Number 6(2008), 857-863, DOI: 10.1007/s10508-007-9276-y)

Patterns of hemispheric specialization are affected by the corpus callosum, one of the bridges that connects the two hemispheres. It is up to 23% thicker in the female-differentiated brain relative to brain size. Apparently the key to differentiation lies in your mother's hormone levels during pregnancy. The male-differentiated brain has a thicker right cerebral cortex and a thinner corpus callosum relative to brain weight; the female-differentiated brain has a thicker left cerebral cortex and a corpus callosum that is thicker relative to brain weight. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD.The Owner's Manual for the Brain, Second Edition. p 217-222. GA: Bard Press, 2000)

Female brain has up to 30% more connections. Estrogen prompts nerve cells to grow more connections within the female brain and between the hemispheres. Males have fewer connecting fibers in the corpus callosum. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. NY: Broadway Books, 1998. p 50-53)

Differences involve the Corpus callosum, the bridge of nerves that connect the cerebral hemispheres. In males it is less dense (beginning in utero) and tends to shrink with age. In females the corpus callosum is left intact (during gestation) and does not shrink with age. (Greenwood-Robinson, Maggie, PhD. 20/20 Thinking. NY: Avery, Putnam Special Markets, 2003. p 251-252)

At least one section of the corpus callosum (near the rear) is thicker in the female brain, which allows females to use both sides of the cortex for speech. The bridge is more evenly cylindrical in males. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex.NY: Random House, 1999. p 11-15, 60)

The corpus callosum in the male brain is about 10% thinner and carries about 30% fewer connections as compared to the female brain. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004. p 127-130)

The corpus callosum differs in the female brain. Studies: greater number of nerve fibers; larger spenium section; larger anterior commissure; larger massa intermedia that connects the two sides of the thalamus. (Baron-Cohen, Simon, Dr. The Essential Difference: The Truth About the Male and Female Brain. NY: Basic Books, 2003. p 107-109)

A much larger corpus callosum in the female brain can enable women to more easily reconcile conflicting interpretations sometimes offered by each hemisphere. (Johnson, Steven. Mind Wide Open. NY: Scribner, 2004. p 36-38)

The corpus callosum is wider and larger in the female brain as compared to the male brain. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983. p 62-64)

Both hemispheres can guide the facial and upper arm proximal muscles. The separate hemispheres have control over the hand’s distal muscles, however: L hemisphere controls the right hand, R hemisphere control the left hand. (Gazzaniga, Michael S.Who's In Charge? p 56-57. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2011)

Cross-over exercises: Movement activities provide opportunities to cross the body’s mid-line. Doing so requires left and right hemispheres to communicate across the corpus callosum. This hemispheric integration is essential to the ability to read and write. (Pica, Rae. 10 Reasons to Promote Emergent Literacy through Movement & Active Learning.

The hemispheres alternate cycles of efficiency every 90-100 minutes (from high spatial-low verbal, to high verbal-low spatial). Learners switch from right- to left-brain dominant sixteen times throughout the day. Students need 5-10 minute breaks every 90 minutes. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 42-44. CA: The Brain Store, 2005.

PET Scan studies: right hemisphere is more activated when the learner is feeling depressed or stressed. Left Hemisphere is more engaged when learner is experiencing a healthy optimism about life and the future. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). CA: The Brain Store, 2005.)

The hemispheres remain in balance when encountering images of positive or emotionally neutral scenes. The balance of activity shifts toward the right hemisphere when the image is one of horror, carnage, suffering, death, or injury—and it can become overwhelmed and dysfunctional. Watching images of disaster has a more powerful effect on one’s mental stability than reading about the disaster. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 71-74. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Anomalous dominance has been observed in about 3% of the population in his studies (e.g., dominant eye differs from dominant hand). Is sometimes also referred to as mixed dominance. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Evidence of hemispheric dominance has been around since 1976 (Science News, Volume 109, #14, p 219, issued on April 3, 1967). For example:

Left Hemisphere:

Right Hemisphere:

Speech, verbal
Logical, mathematical
Linear and detailed
Controlled
Intellectual
Dominant
Worldly
Active
Analytical
Reading, writing, naming
Sequential ordering
Perception of significant order
Complex motor sequences
Routines

Spatial, musical
Holistic (wholistic)
Artistic and symbolic Simultaneous
Emotional
Intuitive and creative
Minor (quiet)
Spiritual
Receptive
Synthetic, Gestalt
Facial recognition
Simultaneous comprehension
Perception of abstract patterns
Recognition of complex figures

(Herrmann, Ned. The Whole Brain Business Book. p 10-14. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.)

The right hemisphere is more in touch with the emotional feeling centers in the limbic system. It likely generates alpha brain waves. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 324-325, 335-336. NY: Doubleday, 1987, 1989.)

The new understanding about the cerebral hemispheres is more specific to the topography of the brain (e.g., left front, middle, or rear; right front, middle, or rear.)(Goleman, Daniel. The Brain and Emotional Intelligence: New Insights. p 23. MA:More Than Sound, 2011)   Genetic factors may be more important in determining right (as compared with left) hemisphere functioning of the brain. The left hemisphere is more associated with language, has greater potential plasticity, and is more readily modified by environmental forces. (Claridge, Gordon. Origins of Mental Illness. p 84-86. MA: Malor Book, 1995.)

Although the two hemispheres share performance of many functions, each also specializes in performing certain unique functions (termed hemispheric lateralization). Lateralization seems to be less pronounced in females than in males. (Tortora, Gerard J. and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology. p 476. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.)

Brain function by gender shows some specialization (differentiation) and may relate in part to testosterone levels as well as the relative size of the corpus callosum. For example:

Emotion:
Men in the right hemisphere
Women in both hemisheres

Language mechanics:
Men in the front and back of left hemisphere
Women in the front of left hemisphere

Visual-spatial perception:
Men in right hemisphere
Women in right and left hemisheres

Vocabulary:
Men in front and back of left hemisphere
Women in front and back of both hemisheres

(Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner's Manual for the Brain, Second Edition. p 217-222. GA: Bard Press, 2000)

Refer to Gender Differences and the Brain for additional information.

Hitchcock’s surprising and usually humorous endings rely heavily on leading the viewer through the logical, left-brain facts of the situation and then suddenly revealing the paradoxical, right-brain side of the story. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Prescilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 106. NY: Ballentine Books, 1984.)

Human beings have the potential to develop a sense of humor and each is born with the capacity to laugh. (Padus, Emrika, et al. The Complete Guide to Your Emotions & Your Health. p 546-547PA: Rodale Press, 1992.)

Damage to the right frontal lobe of the cerebrum can decrease one’s ability to appreciate humor. This can, in turn, reduce one’s tendency to smile or laugh in response to a joke. (Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 93-94. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Humor and laughter are processed via a complex pathway of brain activity. Three main components: sections of the frontal lobe near the forehead to “get” the humor; the supplementary motor area for smiling / laughing muscle movements; nucleus accumbens to elicit happiness felt after a funny experience. (Humor, Laughter, and the Brain. Brain Briefings, December 2001. http://www.sfn.org/index.cfm?pagename=brainBriefings_humorLaughterAndTheBrain)

Study 2003, Reiss and colleagues: the brain's mesolimbic reward center, which is responsible for the rewarding feelings that follow such events as monetary gain or cocaine use, is also activated by humor. (http://www.news-medical.net/?id=14460.)

MRI study of brains of 16 healthy adults: used to detect areas of the brain that were activated when the subject found a cartoon funny. In addition to activating areas of the brain involved in language processing, humor also stimulated regions of the brain known as reward centers, such as the amygdala, which releases dopamine. (WebMD Medical News. Humor Activates Reward Center of the Brain. http://www.webmd.com/balance/news/20031203/funny-thing-about-humor-brain)

Study using EEG topographical brain mapping of an individual hearing a joke: left hemisphere began to process the words. Then the frontal lobe center of emotionality was activated. 120 milliseconds later the right hemisphere began processing the pattern. A few milliseconds later the occipital lobe showed increased activity. Delta waves increased, the brain got the joke, and laughter erupted. (Dunn, Joseph R., PhD, Ed. New Discoveries in Psychoneuroimmunology. p 6-7.(interview with Dr. Lee S. Berk).Humor & Health Letter, Vol III. No 6, Nov/Dec 1994, MS: Dunn.)

When using or experiencing positive humor and mirthful laughter, the whole brain is involved, not just one side, and there's more coordination between both sides. (O’Donnell, Sinara Stull. Laugh More at Work To Ease Office Stress.
http://www.careerjournal.com/myc/climbing/20011206-odonnell.html)

fMRI Studies of brain activities activates in two types of humor. High-level visual areas were activated during visual humor and classic language areas were activated during language-dependent humor. (Watson, Karli K., et al. Brain Activation during Sight Gags and Language-Dependent Humor. 
http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/bhj149v1)

Both hemispheres are needed to produce a fully rounded sense of humor. The left brain creates the feeling of amusement and so is quite happy to laugh at more or less anything when prompted to do so. The right hemisphere “gets” the joke by registering the dislocation in logic that is a hallmark of most formal humor. Meaning emerges from the pulling together of all the threads of the joke, including context, assumptions, and knowledge of personal prejudices. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 17. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

The two hemispheres understand humor in two different ways. It takes a whole brain to appreciate a joke fully. The left is literal in its interpretations of the joke and is especially drawn to wordplay (e.g., the bigger the summer vacation, the harder the fall). The right is more alert to subtleties and nuances. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 105. NY:Ballantine Books, 1984.)

Humor processing (getting the joke and laughing) appears to involve parts of the frontal lobes and a component of the pleasure pathway, the anterior cortex of the hypothalamus. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 92-94. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Various portions of the brain work together to experience humor and laughter. Left hemisphere sets up the joke. Right hemisphere is involved in getting the joke. (Dossey, Larry, MD. Healing Beyond the Body. p 133-149. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc., 2001.)

The left cerebral hemisphere creates the feeling of amusement and laughs when prompted. The right hemisphere “gets” the joke. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 36-38. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

Refer to Laughter - Humor and the Brain for additional information.

Those with dominance in the right hemisphere are usually easily hypnotized and sometimes are even affected when someone else is the subject. (Whole Brain Thinking. Jacquelyn Wonder & Priscilla Donovan. p 116. Ballentine Books, 1984.)

A component of Wernicke’s area (the cortical area associated with language input) known as the planum temporale, is larger on the left side than the ride side of humans. In the left hemisphere of the human brain it is also microscopically unique: the cortical minicolumns are wider and the spaces between them are greater. (Gazzaniga, Michael S. Who's In Charge? p 34-36. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2009)

Laughter stimulates both sides of the brain to enhance learning. It eases muscle tension and psychological stress, which keeps the brain alert and allows people to retain more information. (Humor and Laughter: Health Benefits and Online Sources.)

Under acute stress, the two hemispheres of the brain become disconnected. Laughter improves creativity and problem-solving, and activates the limbic system in the brain, connecting the right and left sides. It helps you do more whole brain work. (O’Donnell, Sinara Stull. Laugh More at Work To Ease Office Stress.

Refer to Learning and the Brain for additional information.

The left hemisphere is made of neatly stacked vertical columns. THis allows clear differentiation of separate mental functions, but less integration of those functions. It has far fewer connections within itself and in the rest of the brain. (Goleman, Daniel Jay, PhD. The Brain and Emotional Intelleigence: New Insights. p 23. MA: More Than Sounds, 2011)

Left hemisphere is specialized in language, speech, verbal IQ, and intelligent behaviors including problem solving. The left hemisphere generates voluntary facial expressions and predominantly controls facial muscles on the right. It is better than the right hemisphere at making inferences. Present a box of candy to the left hemispehre and it can make all sort of interences. (Gazzaniga, Michael S. Who's In Charge? p 49-58, 62-63. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2011)

Left hemisphere: analytical, interested in component parts, detects features, sequential and serial processing, temporal, verbal. (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 26. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

Left hemisphere is more verbal, right hemisphere is more spatial. Melodies, sonar signals, and environmental sounds are better perceived when presented to the left ear (with connections to the Right Hemisphere). Verbal stimuli was better perceived when presented to the right visual field and ear (with connections to the Left Hemisphere). (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. 18-20. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

The left hemisphere lights up at the thought of achieving a meaningful goal. Left prefrontal activity is also associatged with something bigger than just a single targer ((e.g., a sense of purpose in life, grand goals that give life meaning). (Goleman, David. The Brain and Emotional Intelligence: New Insights. p 40-43. MA: More Than Sound, 2011)

The left hemisphere: controls muscles on right side of body, numerical and scientific skills, ability to use and understand sign language, spoken and written language. (Tortora, Gerard J. and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 10th Edition. p 477. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.)

The left hemisphere likely generates vigorous beta waves associated with analytical thought. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 324-325, 335-336. NY: Doubleday, 1987, 1989.)

Harvard-trained neuroanatomist, Dr Jill Taylor: left hemisphere is egoistic, intellectual (logic), and attached to time. (Nirvana and the Right Brain.)

The left hemisphere is analytical, logical, precise, and time sensitive. The right is dreamier and processes things in a holistic way rather than breaking them down. It is more involved with sensory perception than abstract cognition. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 36. CA:University of California Press, 1998.)

The left hemisphere tends to break things into component parts, processing in a linear, sequential manner. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 86-88. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

The left hemisphere tends to take over once new learning has become established. It is not as likely to be unduly influenced by the first two brain layers. (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence. p 36-38. VT: Park Street Press, 2002.)

The left hemisphere governs the right side of the body. (Brothers, Joyce, PhD. What Every Woman Should Know About Men. p 29-33. NY: Ballantine Books 1981.)

The left hemisphere searches for patterns in events and tries to find order in chaos, to fit everything into a story and put it into a context. The left-brain interpreter process seeks explanations or causes for events. (Gazzaniga, Michael S. Who's in Charge? p 85-86. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2011)
Left hemisphere deals predominantly with verbal abilities and the detailed orderly processing of information. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. p 38-40. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991.)

Turns a person’s reality into ideas that can be communicated to others through language. (Newberg, Andrew, MD., and Mark Robert Waldman. Why We Believe What We Believe. p 67. NY: Free Press, 2006.)

The analytic left hemisphere specializes in language skills. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 48-52. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

Skilled at operating in “just-the-facts” mode that emphasizes logic and reason. Needs to be combined with right hemisphere processing to attain a unified experience. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 164-169. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

The left brain is analytical, logical, precise, and time-sensitive. It creates the feeling of amusement and so is quite happy to laugh at more or less anything when prompted. The left brain likes the details. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 36. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

Tends to process information in the order that it is presented, step-by-step sequentially. Is concerned with details. (Bricklin, Mark, et al. Positive Living and Health. p 50-52. PA: Rodale Press, 1990.)

The physical functions of the right side of the body are controlled by the left hemisphere. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 74-76. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

From the beginning of life, the left hemisphere has a tendency to want to be in charge. Left is analytical and sequential, right is wholistic and simultaneous. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 128-133. NY: Doubleday, 1987, 1989.)

The left hemisphere controls right side of the body (e.g., left-hemisphere stroke can cause right-leg paralysis). (On the Brain, newsletter. p 2-3. CA:2005. www.PositScience.com)

Writers who are left-brained and report or write to exchange information, are often very careful but lack forms of creativity. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan.Whole Brain Thinking. p 171. NY: Ballantine Books, 1984.)

The brain processing for reading is different from listening (e.g., listening to an audiobook creates a different set of memories compared to reading a book). The right hemisphere is not as active in reading. Listening triggered increased activity in the left part triangularis (a component of Broca’s area). (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. 181-182. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Both left and right hemispheres and the prefrontal systems are used in the brains of good readers. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Endangered Minds. p 215-218. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1990.)

Left hemisphere is more verbal, right hemisphere is more spatial. Melodies, sonar signals, and environmental sounds are better perceived when presented to the left ear (with connections to the Right Hemisphere). When verbal stimuli are used, subjects perform more accurately with information presented to the right visual field and ear (with connections to the Left Hemisphere). (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 18-30. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

The right hemisphere occupies a larger volume in the association cortex, where the most complex levels of information processing and integration are handled. It contains many long neurofibers that connect widely separated regions and functions more holistically. The left hemisphere contains shorter neurofibers that provide richer interconnections within a specific region. It has a more logical, verbal, linear processing style. The two hemispheres communicate with each other over eight-hundred million neurofibers. (Restak, Richard, MD. The Brain has a Mind of its Own. p 36-40. NY: Crown Publishers, Inc. 1991.)

PET scan studies: Activation of the left prefrontal cortex (but not the right) dampened negative attitudes and responses by inhibiting activity in the amygdale. A positive mental attitude can be effective in enhancing left prefrontal activation. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 118-119. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

Study: Children between the ages of 2.5 and 5 years already showed clear inclinations to be either verbalizers (left hemisphere) or visualizers (right hemisphere). (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 335. NY: Doubleday, 1987, 1989.)

The term Hemispheric Preference refers to one hemisphere’s tendency to determine the style of processing that will be used for the task at hand. Study: Children between the ages of 2.5 and 5 years already showed clear inclinations to be either verbalizers or visualizers. See also Brain Lead. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 136-137, 335. NY: Doubleday, 1987.)

The term Hemispheric Stylerelates to a person’s preferred way of processing information when there is a choice of strategy to be used. Although both hemispheres are working, one may set the tone. People vary in their ability to activate the appropriate hemisphere for differing demands. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 136-137. NY: Doubleday, 1987.

Hemispheric specialization is likely present from birth. Its development is shaped by demands and input. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 136-137. NY: Doubleday, 1987.)

Proclamation involves left-hemisphere functions, as compared to spirituality. Although difficult to describe, spirituality relates to functions of the right hemisphere. (Benson, Herbert, MD, with William Proctor. Your Maximum Mind. p 195-198. NY:Avon Books, 1987.)

The brain processing for reading is different from listening (e.g., listening to an audiobook creates a different set of memories compared to reading a book). The right hemisphere is not as active in reading. Listening triggered increased activity in the left part triangularis (a component of Broca’s area). (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. 181-182. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Both left and right hemispheres and the prefrontal systems are used in the brains of good readers. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Endangered Minds. p 215-218. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1990.)

The right hemisphere has longer branches that make more neural connections both within itself and throughout the brain, with strong connections to emotional centers (e.g., the amyhgdala) and to subcortical regions in lower parts of the brain. (Goleman, Daniel Jay, PhD. The Brain and Emotional Intelleigence: New Insights. p 18-24. MA: More Than Sounds, 2011)

The right hemisphere is specialized for such tasks as recognizing upright faces, focusing attention and making perceptual distinctions. The right hemisphere predominantly controls the facial muscles on the left. It is not very good at making inferences and is limited by what it can have feelings about. A box of candy presented to the right hemisphere is literally a box of candy. It is better at perceptual judgments, however. (Gazzaniga, Michael S. Who's In Charge? p 57-58, 62-63. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2011)

The right hemisphere: controls muscle on left side of body, musical and artistic awareness, space and pattern perception, recognition of faces, emotional content of facial expressions, generating emotional content of language, generating mental images to compare spatial relationships, and identifying odors. (Tortora, Gerard J. and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 10th Edition. p 477. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.)

Right hemisphere: interest in gestalt, integrates component parts, relational, constructional, pattern seeking, simultaneous and parallel processing, spatial, visuo-spatial. (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 26. CA:Touchstone Books: 1986.)

Portions of the right brain do not mature emotionally beyond four or five years of age. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 121. NY:Ballantine Books, 1984.)

Harvard-trained neuroanatomist, Dr Jill Taylor: the right hemisphere is egoless, intuitional, and time-transcendent. Comparatively put, the left brain is the function of "Mind" whilst the right brain is the function of "Heart." (Nirvana and the Right Brain.)

Right hemisphere specializes in recognition of faces, music, visual tasks, perception of spatial relationships, and processing of emotion. Study: was unable to use “language” in the testing. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 48-52. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

The right hemisphere has rich connections with the action brain layer and the emotional brain layer, and is involved in new learning. Once established, the left hemisphere tends to take over. (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence.p 36-38. VT: Park Street Press, 2002.)

The right hemisphere governs the left side of the body. (Brothers, Joyce, PhD. What Every Woman Should Know About Men. p 29-33. NY: Ballantine Books 1981.)

The right hemisphere deals with spatial relations and the overall picture. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. p 38-40. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991.)

The right hemisphere is skilled at detecting the emotional component of every situation (e.g., evaluates voice tones, body movement, facial expression). (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 164-168. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

The right brain is dreamier; it processes things in a holistic way rather than breaking them down, and it is more involved with sensory perception than abstract cognition. It “gets” the joke, in that it registers the dislocation in the logic that is the hallmark of more formal humor. It helps find you way around in space, recognizing familiar faces, grasping the whole. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 10, 37. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

The right hemisphere tends to grasp the wholeness of the world spatially through feelings. (Newberg, Andrew, MD., and Mark Robert Waldman. Why We Believe What We Believe. p 67. NY: Free Press, 2006.)

The right hemisphere appears to contribute something to language (e.g., some comprehension, emotional intonation, metaphor, some qualities of humor). (Springer, Sally p., and Georg Deutsch. Left Brain, Right Brain. p 180-181. NY: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1997.)

The right hemisphere is better at understanding spatial relationships, can see how parts of something go together to form a whole, and tends to process information all at once. (Bricklin, Mark, et al. Positive Living and Health. p 50-52. PA: Rodale Press, 1990.)

The right hemisphere controls left side of the body (e.g., right-hemisphere stroke can cause speech problems). (On the Brain, newsletter. p 2-3. CA:2005. www.PositScience.com)

Those with dominance in the right hemisphere are usually easily hypnotized and sometimes are even affected when someone else is the subject. (Whole Brain Thinking. Jacquelyn Wonder & Priscilla Donovan. p 116. Ballentine Books, 1984.)

There is an area in the temporal lobe of the right hemisphere that appears to be able to produce intense feelings of spiritual transcendence, combined with a sense of some mystical presence. Such feelings have been elicited in otherwise unreligious people by stimulating this area. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 20. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

After all, if God exists, it figures He must have created us with some biological mechanism with which to apprehend Him. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 19. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

Spirituality, although difficult to describe, relates to functions of the right hemisphere (as compared with “proclamation” that involves left-hemisphere functions). (Benson, Herbert, MD, with William Proctor. Your Maximum Mind. p 195-198. NY:Avon Books, 1987.)

Writers who are right brained write to tell stories or describe something (real or imagined) and are often very creative, but typically lack editing ability. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 171. NY: Ballantine Books, 1984.)

Both hemispheres have specializations but each is not conscious of the same things and not equally capable of performing tasks. (Gazzaniga, Michael S. Who's In Charge? p 62-63. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2011)

The two hemispheres really do have quite specific skills that are hard-wired to the extent that, in normal circumstances, certain skills will always develop on a particular side. Almost every mental function you can think of is fully or partly lateralized. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 35-38. University of California Press, 1998.)

Proclamation involves left-hemisphere functions, as compared to spirituality. Although difficult to describe, spirituality relates to functions of the right hemisphere. (Benson, Herbert, MD, with William Proctor. Your Maximum Mind. p 195-198. NY:Avon Books, 1987.)

PET Scan studies: right hemisphere is more activated when the learner is feeling depressed or stressed. Left Hemisphere is more engaged when learner is experiencing a healthy optimism about life and the future. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). CA: The Brain Store, 2005.)

Under acute stress, the two hemispheres of the brain become disconnected. Laughter improves creativity and problem-solving, and activates the limbic system in the brain, connecting the right and left sides. It helps you do more whole brain work. (O’Donnell, Sinara Stull. Laugh More at Work To Ease Office Stress.

Right-brained or left-brained thinking (so called) is actually a fluctuation on a continuum between two extremes: Left linear, analytical sequential thinking; versus Right holistic, global, and simultaneous thinking. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Endangered Minds. p 124-126. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1990.)

Left hemisphere is more verbal, right hemisphere is more spatial. Melodies, sonar signals, and environmental sounds are better perceived when presented to the left ear (with connections to the Right Hemisphere). When verbal stimuli are used, subjects perform more accurately with information presented to the right visual field and ear (with connections to the Left Hemisphere). (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 18-30. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

Both hemispheres are equally good at lower-level (first stages) visual processing (e.g., perceiving an illusion where contours are perceived, even though there is no line, luminance, or color change). The right hemisphere, however, is better at a variety of visual tasks that involve advanced processing (e.g., mental rotation of objects, detecting whether two images are identical or mirror reversed, perceptual grouping, and temporal-discrimination tasks). (Gazzaniga, Michael S. Who's in Charge? p 92-93. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2011)

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