Brain Bent and Lateralization

Ignoring who you authentically are can literally be killing you. Forcing yourself to be someone you are not, or stuffing down who you really are, is incredibly taxing and will shorten your life by years and years. (McGraw, Phillip C., PhD. Self Matters. p 17, 88, 127. NY: Simon & Schuster Source, 2001.)

Refer to Adapting and the Brain for additional information.

The average human adult brain consists of eight (8) pounds of dense matter in three major layers. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! p 17-20. CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001.)

The brain weighs 30% of its adult weight at birth. By age two it reaches 70%, and by age six it is at 90%. (Harris, Maureen. Music and the Young Mind. p vii, xi. NY: MENC with Rowman & Littlefield Education, 2009.)

The triune brain, so called, consists of the cortex and neo-cortex, limbic system or mammalian brain, and the brainstem and cerebellum or reptilian brain. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 33. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

The brainstem, the limbic system, and the cerebrum constitute one way of describing the brain. The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres. The cortex of each hemisphere is divided into four areas called lobes: The frontal lobe, the parietal lobe, the occipital lobe, and the temporal lobe. (Ornstein, Robert, and Richard F. Thompson.The Amazing Brain. Preface. NY: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1984.)

There are two cerebral hemispheres and four lobes in each hemisphere: frontal, parietal, occipital, temporal. (Brynie, Faith Hickman. 101 Questions Your Brain Has Asked About Itself But Couldn’t Answer, Until Now. p 15. CT: Millbrook Press, 1998. Giuffre, Kenneth, MD, with Theresa Foy DiGeronimo. The Care and Feeding of Your Brain. NJ: Career Press, 1999.)

Each cerebral lobe is anatomically and functionally specialized (occipital, temporal, parietal, frontal). Only the occipital is dedicated to a single sensation, vision. The other three each dedicate a about 25% to sensory/motor. The remaining 75% makes up the association cortex, a vast network of communicating fibers that unifies perceptual and behavioral experiences. (Restak, Richard. Mysteries of the Mind. p 20. Washington, DC: National Geographic: 2000.)

Each cerebral quadrant brings critically important contributions to effective living and working. (Herrmann, Ned. The Creative Brain. p 69. NC: Ned Herrmann Group, 1993.)

The right hemisphere occupies a larger volume in the association cortex, where the most complex levels of information processing and integration are handled. It contains many long fibers that connect widely separated regions and functions more holistically. The left hemisphere contains shorter fibers that provide richer interconnections within a specific region. It has a more logical, verbal, linear processing style. The two hemispheres communicate with each other over eight-hundred million neurofibers. (Restak, Richard, MD. The Brain has a Mind of its Own. p 36-40. NY: Crown Publishers, Inc. 1991.)

Association is a left hemispheric thinking process based on finding functional relationships between two objects or contexts.  The process of forming mental connections or bonds between sensations, ideas, or memories. (https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/association)

When you follow your own true north you create new opportunities, meet different people, have different experiences, and create a different life.  (Robinson, Ken, Sir, PhD. Out of Our Minds. p 8-10. NY: Capstone Publishing Ltd, (2001), 2011)

Brain function is new field of science made up of more than one traditional field of study with research conducted by investigators from seven broad fields (biology, chemistry, psychology, information science, philosophy, anthropology, and linguistics). (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 25-26, 726. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Brain-based research came into its own in the 1990s. Gurian’s book brings together three primary points of view on brain-based research: Neurologcial and endocrinological (hormonal) effects on learning and development; Developmental psychology; Gender-difference research. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! p 2. CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001.)

Brain imaging technologies (PET, fMRI) are modalities that show the brain neighborhoods that are active during a specific mental activity. (Schwartz, Jeffrey M., MD, and Sharon Begley. The Mind & the Brain. p 23-24. NY: Regan Books, 2002.)

PET scans, MRI, fMRI create images of the brain, and pinpoint areas where the neurons are functioning based on the specific type of mental activity that is occurring. (Brynie, Faith Hickman. 101 Questions Your Brain Has Asked About Itself But Couldn’t Answer, Until Now. p 44-45, 52. CT: Millbrook Press, 1998.)

PET Scans (Positron Emission Tomography): patients receive a radioactive form of glucose, which is taken up by active brain cells and sensed by the scanner. Brain cells that are more active use more glucose and hence, active areas show up on the image as bright areas. (Giuffre, Kenneth, MD, with Theresa Foy DiGeronimo. The Care and Feeding of Your Brain. p 28. NJ: Career Press, 1999.)

PET Scans: Different areas of the brain respond to an individual’s activities in the world: the frontal cortex lights up in planning; the left or the right hemisphere lights up while reading or painting; the reticular activations system (RAS) of the brain stem lights up when one receives sensory input, such as a sound or taste, and it sends these signals to the cortex. Individual brains vary in terms of what areas these activities arouse. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 7. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

PET Scan studies: right hemisphere is more activated when the learner is feeling depressed or stressed. Left Hemisphere is more engaged when learner is experiencing a healthy optimism about life and the future. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 18. CA: The Brain Store, 2005.)

MRI studies have shown that moral decision making is associated with activation of the Brodmann area 10 (the middorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the brain’s cerebrum). Studies by Dr. Damasio have also shown that people who injure this area of the brain may exhibit serve antisocial activity (Researchers Identify Brain’s Moral Center, Reuters Health, 5-3-00. Alper, Matthew. The God Part of the Brain, p. 217-219. IL: Sourcebooks, Inc, 2008.)

Brain imaging studies: the brain starts producing reactions before the person is conscious of his/her intentions. (Lynch, Zack, PhD., with Byron Laursen. The Neuro Revolution, p. 43-44. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.)

The terms Brain Lead or Dominance refer to an innate biochemical preference for processing information in an energy-efficient manner. (Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD.Thriving in Mind. p 8-33, 88-103. TX: KBA Publishing 2000.)

Each person’s brain is unique and operates most efficiently when involved in activities it does best. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 214-216. NY:Harmony Books, 2001.)

There are innate differences in the human personality, including four functions: Feeling (evaluating), Thinking, Sensation, and Intuition (labeled by Carl Jung). Each person is born with one of the four functions dominant. (Dossey, Larry. MD. Healing Words. p 125-130. NY:HarperPaperbacks, 1993.)

People are more productive, as well as happier and healthier when they use and are rewarded for using their natural mental preferences. This is even true when their natural extraverted or introverted needs are simultaneously understood, valued, and rewarded. Everyone can benefit from knowing more about themselves. (I. Katherine Benziger, PhD. Thriving in Mind. p 328. TX:KBA Publishing 2000.)

A preference or predisposition essentially opens up “the path of least resistance.” It takes special energy, conditions, and environment to over-ride or alter systems.

No two brains are exactly the same. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 89-90. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

No two human brains are alike. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 4-5. NY: Doubleday, 1987, 1989.)

Brains are like fingerprints. Each brain possesses a unique neurological topography. (Johnson, Steven. Mind Wide Open. p 4. NY: Scribner, 2004.)

Every human brain is as unique as a fingerprint; no two are exactly alike. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that no two brains function identically. (Williams, Linda.Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 25. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

The particular configuration of bumps and fissures along the cortical surface of any
individual brain is as unique as the pattern of loops and whorls in a fingerprint. (Miller, Lawrence, PhD. Inner Natures. Brain, Self & Personality. p 27. NY: Ballantine Books, 1990.)

Like fingerprints, each human brain is different. (Herrmann, Ned. The Creative Brain. p 22. NC: Ned Herrmann Group, 1993.)

Your brain possesses a unique neurological topography. Brains are like fingerprints. (Johnson, Steven. Mind Wide Open. p 4. NY: Scribner, 2004.)

Synaptic connections evolve or originate as a consequence of an individual’s experiences and continue evolving throughout the person’s life. The term Experience-Dependent Brain Development refers to the way in which unique or individual experiences contribute to brain growth and refine existing brain structures. Neuronal synapses are uniquely affected by life experiences. Differences among the brain of individuals (e.g., poets, mechanics, and mathematicians) can be attributed to each person’s habitual exercise of differing regions in the brain. (Schramm, Derek D., PhD.The Creative Brain. p 2, 7-8. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Health Update. 2007.)

People differ with respect to the structure and organization of their brains, which includes variability in the encoding of individual abilities. There is no one “best” personality-type. (Miller, Lawrence, PhD. Inner Natures. p 32-33. NY: Ballantine Books, 1990.)

Each brain’s developmental pattern is unique so no two brains are alike. Even the brains of identical twins are not exactly the same. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 3, 191-192. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

The brain of each human being on planet earth is unique. (Levine, Mel, MD. A Mind at a Time. p 13-14, 60-62. NY:Simon & Schuster, 2002.)

Although people’s brains don’t look much different from each other, they are as different as their faces. No two brains on the planet are exactly alike. Each brain is different. (Brynie, Faith Hickman. 101 questions your brain has asked about itself but couldn’t answer until now. p 15. CT:Millbrook Press, 1998.)

Individual differences in brain structure will be the norm rather than the exception, even in identical twins. (Byrnes, James, p. Minds, Brains, and Learning. p 44. NY: The Gulford Press, 2001.)

There are about 6 billion belief systems in the world (since each human brain is unique). (Newberg, Andrew, MD., and Mark Robert Waldman. Why We Believe What We Believe. p 25. NY: Free Press, 2006.)

No two human brains are exactly alike. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind.p 4. NY:Doubleday, 1987.)

Each brain contains approximately the same number of neurons in each brain system. The particular way those neurons are connected is distinct, however. That uniqueness makes us who we are. (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self. p 300-304. NY:Penguin Books, 2002.)

All brains look very much the same to the naked eye. (Greenfield, Susan, Con. Ed. Brain Power, Working out the Human Mind. p 105. NY:Ivy Press Limited, 1999.)

Each mind has its specialties and frailties. No one can be good at everything. However, society / school expects children to shine in all classes, athletics, and in following verbal directions. (Levine, Mel, MD. A Mind at a Time. p 60-62. NY:Simon & Schuster, 2002.)

All of our brains have the same general features that make us human, but each neural connection is unique, reflecting a person’s special genetic endowment and life experience. Circuit connections are made stronger or weaker throughout a lifetime according to use. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 30-31. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)

Every time one individual duplicates another, the world has lost a person. In the process they lose their own identity and their unique contribution to the world. (Conway, Jim and Sally. Women In Midlife Crisis. p 99-100. IL:Tyndale House Publishers, Inc., 1971.)

Synaptic connections evolve or originate as a consequence of an individual’s experiences and continue evolving throughout the person’s life. The term Experience-Dependent Brain Development refers to the way in which unique or individual experiences contribute to brain growth and refine existing brain structures. Neuronal synapses are uniquely affected by life experiences. Differences among the brain of individuals (e.g., poets, mechanics, and mathematicians) can be attributed to each person’s habitual exercise of differing regions in the brain. (Schramm, Derek D., PhD.The Creative Brain. p 2, 7-8. CA:Institute for Natural Resources, Health Update. 2007.)

People differ with respect to the structure and organization of their brains, which includes variability in the encoding of individual abilities. There is no one “best” personality-type. (Miller, Lawrence, PhD. Inner Natures. p 32-33. NY:Ballantine Books, 1990.)

Each person’s brain is unique and operates most efficiently when involved in activities it does best. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 214-216. NY:Harmony Books, 2001.)

Paul Broca, a young surgeon, eventually pinpointed the area of the brain involved in instances of conscious speech loss (circa 1864). It has since come to be known as Broca’s area. (Springer, Sally p., and Georg Deutsch. Left Brain, Right Brain. p 11-14. NY: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1997.)

Audible speech is produced in Broca’s Area (left frontal lobe). Heard speec is processed in Wernicke’s area (also located in the left hemisphere for most people). (Brynie, Faith Hickman. 101 Questions Your Brain Has Asked About Itself But Couldn’t Answer, Until Now. p 129-130. CT: Millbrook Press, 1998.)

Damage to Broca’s area can result in expressive dysphasia. Damage to Wernicke’s area can result in receptive dysphasia. (Greenfield, Susan, Con. Ed. Brain Power, Working out the Human Mind. p 55. The Ivy Press Limited, 1999.)

Broca’s area activates during audible speech or reading aloud. It is located toward the center of the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere. First however, the brain must assemble appropriate words in Wernicke’s area and then relay them to Broca’s area for transshipment to the motor cortex that controls speech production. (Restak, Richard, MD. The Secret Life of the Brain. p 42. Washington D.C.: The Dana Press and Joseph Henry Press, 2001.)

Burnout represents a state of emotional and physical exhaustion typically triggered excessive and prolonged stress. It can produce a sense of hopelessness and helplessness in which emotions are blunted and there is a loss of motivation and ideals. Over time it can lead to profound depression and/or a sense that life is not worth living. It can also contribute to serious physical illness. (Preventing Burnout: Signs, Symptoms, and Strategies to Avoid It. Provided by HelpGuide.org, Article)

Burnout resulting from excess stress is a clear risk factor for heart disease and is characterized by fatigue. (Hafen, Brent Q., et al. Mind/Body Health. MA: Simon & Schuster, 1996, pp 81, 90-92)

Burnout is a term for a condition characterized by long-term exhaustion and diminished interest. Maslach and Jackson identified this condition in the 1970’s. The Maslach Burnout Inventory weighs the effects of emotional exhaustion (hallmark symptom), depersonalization, and reduced sense of personal accomplishment). It has become the standard tool for measuring burnout in research on the syndrome. Source.

Refer to Burnout and the Brain for additional information.

The term cognitive unconscious refers to one way in which the brain processes information. The person unknowingly does an action without the usual subjective feeling that accompanies willed action. There is a split between intention and conscious awareness, on the one hand, and the carrying out of a complex series of manoeuvres, on the other. Michael Faraday discovered this during investigations of table-turning session, Ouija boards, and automatic writing. (Restak, Richard, MD. The Naked Brain. p 26-27. NY: Three Rivers Press, 2006.)

Since we live in a composite whole-brain world, and the reality of any multifunctional group is the diversity of its thinking and, therefore, its perceptions and language, it is essential from a c9ommunications standpoint to increase our tolerance of and understanding of what people are saying who are different from us. (Herrmann, Ned. The Whole Brain Business Book. p 38-41. NY:McGraw-Hill, 1996.)

Refer to Brain-Body Connection for additional information.

Refer to Communication and the Brain for additional information.

Competency and Preference are not the same. Everyone can and generally does develop competencies in every cerebral mode. Some of the competencies may be at a very high level (e.g., mastery). It is possible for a person to develop this type of mastery in more than one of the four specialized cerebral regions. But each person only has one preference (e.g., one specialized region with natural efficiency that allows it to use 1/100th the energy that is required by the other three modes). Competency alone may improve efficiency by 1-2 percent. While the person’s one and only preference improves efficiency by 100 percent. Thinking with “preference” uses so little energy the person feels it is easy and effortless. This was shown originally more than a decade ago by Dr. Richard Haier and subsequently by other independent researchers including Dr. Karl Pribram. (Benziger, Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind: The Art and Science of Using Your Whole Brain. p 250-263. IL: KBA, 2009.)

A new field called connectomics involves the study of the circuitry of the human brain. A piece of technology called the Automatic Tape Collecting Lathe Ultra Microtome or ATLUM cuts samples of brain tissue into very thin slices. These are then placed under a scanning electron microscope to create images of individual cells and all their connections to other cells. (Robinson, Ken, Sir, PhD. Out of Our Minds. p 129. NY: Capstone Publishing Ltd, 2001, 2011)

Using your brain structure, your dominance also determines which of your non-preferred modes you are most likely to use. Two of your less efficient modes are more available to you because they are located next to your preference and are connected to it by substantial neuronal bridges. Where such bridges exist, communication between modes and consequently iterative thinking is faster and easier. It is these two non-preferred modes, connected to your preference that you can use as auxiliaries.

Mutually Available Modes

Bridges Connecting Them

Frontal Left and Frontal Right

Corpus callosum

Basal Left and Basal Right

Corpus callosum

Frontal Left and Basal Left

Conduit between Broca’s and Wernicke’s

Frontal Right and Basal Right

Conduit between two unnamed, similarly located areas, in right hemisphere

Frontal Left and the Basal Right

Not connected

Frontal Right and the Basal Left

Not connected

Your third non-preferred mode, the one that is not next to your preference and is not connected to it by a bridge built of neurons, is your natural weakness. It is as inefficient as your other non-preferred modes and is located diagonally across the brain from your preference.  As no diagonal bridges exist in the brain, getting from your preference to this non-preferred mode is difficult. And, communication between this mode and your preference is significantly more work.  It is this third non-preferred mode, the one that is not connected to your preference, that you cannot readily use as an auxiliary and that you must ultimately accept as your weakest mode or inferior function. (Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind – The Art and Science of Using Your Whole Brain. p. 55. IL: KBA The Human Resource Technology Company, 2006.)

The prefrontal cortex is responsible principally for four control functions: Sequencing, Drive, Executive Control, and Future Memory. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 47-50.NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

The pre-frontal portions of the brain play a role in the “volitional control of conscious sensory experience.” (Schwartz, Jeffrey M., MD, and Sharon Begley. The Mind & the Brain. p 313-315. NY: Regan Books, 2002.)

Creativity has not only made the human race unique in nature; what is more important for the individual, it gives value and purpose to human existence. Creativity requires more than technical skills and logical thought; it also needs the cultivation and collaboration of the appositional (right hemispheric specific processes) mind. Having two modes of thought so segregated is advantageous, depending on the extent to which the corpus callosum mediates the ideational, as well as the sensory-motor gap between the two sides of the brain. Put differently, possession of two independent problem-solving organs increases the prospects of a successful solution to a novel situation although it has the hazard of conflict in the event of different solutions. (Bogen, Joseph, Dr., and Glenda Bogen, The Other Side of the Brain III: The Corpus Callosum and Creativity.

Refer to Creativity and the Brain for additional information.

The terms Brain Lead or Dominance refer to an innate biochemical preference for processing information in an energy-efficient manner. Your preference (or dominance) is your predisposition for one type of thinking based on its superior natural efficiency that makes using it fun and effortless. You are born with this preference. It is a key part of who you are and it never changes. (Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind. p 8-33, 88-103. TX: KBA Publishing 2000.)

Each person’s brain is unique and operates most efficiently when involved in activities it does best. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 214-216. NY:vHarmony Books, 2001.)

Individuals, although a coalition of four different selves (e.g., four cerebral quadrants), prefer to use one or more of those selves compared to the others. All profiles are composed of most preferred and least preferred thinking modes. These combinations of preferences are sometimes extreme. Over time the chances are good that we will do the things we prefer as a result of our thinking style, and we will not do the things that we prefer not to do.

Anomalous dominance has been observed in about 3% of the population in his studies (e.g., dominant eye differs from dominant hand). Is sometimes also referred to as mixed dominance. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

The ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the midbrain, houses cells that make and distribute dopamine, the brain chemical associated with feelings of elation (e.g., core feelings of romantic love). (Fisher, Helen, PhD. Why We Love. p 69-80. NY:vHenry Holt and Company, 2004.)

The ventral tegmental area (VTA) in humans and other primate brains lacks clear borders that separate it from adjacent regions, and can be difficult to distinguish from the substantia nigra (SN) and surrounding nuclei. Source.

The ventral tegmental area (VTA) in the midbrain, like the substantia nigra (SN), is populated with dopaminergic neurons. (Alcaro, A., and Huber R. Huber and J. Panksepp. Behavioral functions of the mesolimbic dopaminergic system: An affective neuroethological perspective. Brain Research Reviews. 2007 Dec;56(2):283-321.)

The substantia nigra is a brain structure located in the midbrain that plays an important role in reward, addiction, and movement. Latin for black substance, parts of the substantia nigra appear darker than neighboring areas due to high levels of melanin in dopaminergic neurons. Parkinson’s disease is caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Symptoms appear when 50-80% of dopaminergic neurons in the pars compacta of the substantia nigra have died. Source.

Each person’s brain is unique and operates most efficiently when involved in activities it does best. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 214-216. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

Robinson uses the term "element" to describe the place wehre the things you love to do and the things you are good at doing come together. He encourages people to find their "element" as the future of communities and institutions will depend on indiiduals finding and connecting and using their individual talents and passions. There is a breathtaking diversity in human talents. When people identify what they naturally do well and that also ignites their passions, they may find high levels of achievement and personal satisfaction. (Robinson, Ken, PhD. The Element. How Finding Your Passion Changes Everything. p xii-8. NY: Penguin Group, 2009.)

Emotional intelligence involves circuitry that runs between the brain’s executive centers in the prefrontal lobes and the brain’s limbic system, which governs feelings, impulses, and drives. Skills based in the limbic areas are best learned through motivation, extended practice, and feedback. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD, with Richard Boyatzis, and Annie Mckee. Primal Leadership. p 102-104. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002.)

The right hemisphere is more in touch with the emotional feeling centers in the limbic system. It likely generates alpha brain waves. Alpha waves may be activated by meditation, relaxation, biofeedback, and imagery techniques. (Healy, Jane M., PhD.Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 324-325, 335-336. NY: Doubleday, 1987, 1989.)

Activity of the right hemisphere enables us to both express our own emotions and read the emotions of others. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot.p 73-74. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

Left frontal lobe houses both positive and negative emotional expression. The right frontal lobe houses only negative emotional processes. Emotional perception is associated with the posterior structures of the right hemisphere. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 361-370. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

The mammalian brain contains functions related to the immune system, memory, biorhythms, personal relationships, awareness of one’s internal world including past and present, and tools (e.g., emotions) by which relationships are qualitatively evaluated. (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence. p 24-32. VT: Park Street Press, 2002.)

Emotional expression is associated with the frontal lobes. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 361-370. GA:Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

PET Scan studies: right hemisphere is more activated when the learner is feeling depressed or stressed. Left Hemisphere is more engaged when learner is experiencing a healthy optimism about life and the future. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 18. CA: The Brain Store, 2005.)

Much of the energy influencing your decision to put off doing certain tasks comes from your natural dominance and your own internal desire to do the things that uplift and energize you, even if you have not known that they did this because: they use your preference, or they match your natural extraversion or introversion, or they do both. (Thriving in Mind. Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. p 133. TX: KBA Publishing, 2000.)

When engaged in an activity it finds easy, the brain doesn’t have to work as hard (e.g., uses less energy, shows up as a less active PET scan). (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 30-31. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

The discipline of epistemology involves the study of the origin, nature, methods, and limits of knowledge. It is exemplified by Brain Function, a new field of science. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 25-26, 726. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

Discouraging an individual from attempting a task when that person is perfectly capable of accomplishing the desired result is suppressive and manipulative. Equally significant, but almost always overlooked, is expecting an individual to do something that is not within his/her natural capacity. (Tanenbaum, Joe. Male & Female Realities, Understanding the Opposite Sex. p 23. NV: Robert Erdmann Publishing, 1990.)

Synaptic connections evolve or originate as a consequence of an individual’s experiences and continue evolving throughout the person’s life. The term Experience-Dependent Brain Development refers to the way in which unique or individual experiences contribute to brain growth and refine existing brain structures. Neuronal synapses are uniquely affected by life experiences. Differences among the brain of individuals (e.g., poets, mechanics, and mathematicians) can be attributed to each person’s habitual exercise of differing regions in the brain. (Schramm, Derek D., PhD. The Creative Brain. p 2, 7-8. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Health Update. 2007.)

The RAS controls the general level of arousal (e.g., one’s position on the extroversion-ambiversion-introversion continuum). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 51-52. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

Looking at faces activates the fusiform area; looking at places activates the parahippocampal area. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain.p 180-181. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

PET scans of face recognition task show activation of posterior right hemisphere regions. (Springer, Sally p., and Georg Deutsch. Left Brain, Right Brain. p 81-83. NY: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1997.)

Ability to recognize the meaning of a facial expression (amygdala) is quite separate from the ability to recognize who the face belongs to. (Greenfield, Susan, con. Ed.Brain Power. p 76-77. Britain: Element Books Limited, 1999.)

Problems with facial recognition occur after right temporal lobectomy (but not after left temporal lobectomy (when right hemisphere is nondominant for speech). (Pribram, K. H., ed. Brain and Behavior 2, Perception and Action. p 319. Britain: Penguin Books Inc., 1969.)

The term Falsifying Type was coined by Jung to describe individuals who were trying to do or be something that ran counter to their innate preferences. Studies by Benziger and associates of individuals who were falsifying type (by gender and brain lead) showed:

  • Males - 22% Frontal Left; 65% Basal Left; 48% Basal Right; 43% Frontal Right
  • Females - 31% Frontal Left; 43% Basal Left; 41% Basal Right; 47% Frontal Right

(Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. Falsification of Type; it’s Jungian and Physiological Foundations. p 16, 56. TX: KBA Publishing, 1995.)

Individuals who Falsify Type spend hours each day in activities that require their brains to work up to 100 times harder. This throws their body systems into distress. As Jung said in Psychological Types, the only thing that can make a difference is the individual’s reowning of his/her natural preference. (Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD.Thriving in Mind. p 236. TX: KBA Publishing, 2000.)

Refer to Adapting and the Brain for additional information.

Peak experiences sometimes referred to as flow (e.g., Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi) or by others as being in the zone, have been associated with physiological changes in the body. These may include the release of adrenalin and endorphins, changes in metabolic rates, alteration in patterns of breathing and heart rate, an increase in alpha wave activity, increased energy, and so on. It comes about through a sense of doing something that feels perfectly natural. Aviator Wilbur Wright described it as a sensation of perfect peace mingled with an excitement that strains every nerve to the utmost. (Robinson, Ken, PhD. The Element. p 90-96. NY: Penguin Books, 2009.)

The hypothalamus, part of the limbic system, regulates the four Fs: feeding, fighting, fleeing, and sexual activity. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 39-41. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

The anterior singulate in humans (located near the centerline in the front of the brain and measuring only a fraction of an inch across) may be the site of “free will.” (Quartz, Steven, R., PhD and Terrence J. Sejnowski PhD. Liars, Lovers, and Heroes. p 28. NY: HarperCollins, 2002.)

The orbito-frontal cortex seems to be the area of the brain that bestows a quality known as free will. The Orbito-frontal cortex has rich neural connections to the unconscious brain where drives and emotions are generated. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 197. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

Located toward the front of the brain, the frontal lobes contain almost 50% of the volume of each cerebral hemisphere. In addition to importance in personality, emotion, and executive control, the frontal left lobe plays important roles in language, movement, planning, and consciousness. (Restak, Richard. Mysteries of the Mind. p 20. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 2000.)

The brain is composed of different regions, each with its specific and particular functions, although each communicates with other regions. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. Why We Love. p 68-80. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004.)

Life requires many brain functions, functions require systems, and systems are made of synapses connecting neurons. All have similar brain systems and numbers of neurons. The way those neurons are connected is distinct, however, and that uniqueness makes each person unique. (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self. p 303-304. NY: Penguin Books, 2002.)

The brain is composed of subsystems that are responsible for the way you think, feel, and act. The problem has been less in trying to pin down discrete neuroanatomical loci than in defining a “function” or “behavior” exactly. (Miller, Lawrence, PhD. Inner Natures. p 31. NY: Ballantine Books, 1990.)

Each part of the human brain has a specific function but each brain is unique and environmentally sensitive. Its modules are interdependent and interactive and their functions are not rigidly fixed. One bit may take over the job of another or fail to work at all. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 10. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

Specialized functions are assigned to each lobe of each cerebral hemisphere:

  • Frontal lobes: formulate schedules, frame sound arguments, imagine things that have not yet happened, store short-term memories so can consider a new idea while remembering concepts previously entertained, (L frontal lobe – Broca’s area where thoughts turn into words)
  • Parietal Lobes: most responsible to sensory stimulation, absorbs clues about taste, temperature, touch, and movement; assist with reading and arithmetical abilities
  • Temporal lobes: processes auditory signals; integrate memories and sensations involving taste, sound, sight, and touch
  • Occipital lobes: process visual images and link them with images already stored in memory

(Schramm, Derek D., PhD. The Creative Brain. p 2, 7-8. CA: Institute for Natural Resources, Health Update. 2007.)

Each brain region is responsible for selected functions. For example:

  • Brain stem (Medulla oblongata, Pons, Midbrain):Reticular formation, relays motor impulses, vital regulating centers.
  • Cerebellum: Coordinates complex, skilled movement.
  • Diencephalon (Epithalamus, Thalamus, Subthalamus, Hypothalamus): Relays almost all sensory input to cerebral cortex, Regulates emotional and behavioral patterns and circadian rhythms.
  • Cerebrum: Interpret sensory impulses, association areas function in emotional and intellectual processes.

(Tortora, Gerard J. and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 10th Edition. p 471-472. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.)

Gender becomes hard-wired in the brain and body in a three-stage process of genetics (markers on the X and Y chromosomes), hormones (surges in mother’s body during gestation and in body of fetus and again at puberty), and societal impacts. Some individuals are hard-wired toward the middle of the gender/brain spectrum and have higher-than-average-amounts of the other gender’s brain characteristics. (Gurian, Michael, PhD., and Barbra Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. p 6-10. NY: Jossey-Bass, 2007.)

The brain is not as plastic when it comes to gender as it is about other aspects of brain development. In large part we are hard-wired to be who we are. (Gurian, Michael, PhD., and Barbra Annis. Leadership and the Sexes. p 12-13,23. NY: Jossey-Bass, 2007.)

Males have a specific location in the brain for sensing direction. Females have specific locations for speech. People are not naturally good at/don’t particularly enjoy tasks that require use of skills for which there is no clear brain location. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 48-50. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Genes have been found to account for only about 50% of a particular personality trait. What this statement means is that genes account at most for half of a given trait, not that half of all of personality is accounted for by genes. For some traits, genetic influence is far less and is often not measurable.... The second caveat to the genetic account of personality stability comes from research showing that people are not always true to their so-called personality traits (e.g., behavioral and mental states may be situationally determined). (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self, How Our Brains Become Who We Are. p 29-30. NY: Penguin Books, 2002.)

The brain contains a navigation system much like satellite navigation? According to neuroscientist Dr Hugo Spiers in a presentation to the BA Festival of Science at the University of Liverpool, the brain has a navigation system (maps, compass, grids) in the hippocampi. This was demonstrated in the famous London taxi drivers research by Professor Eleanor Maguire at UCL (University College London). (The 'satellite navigation' in our brains.) 

Normally, people are able to switch flexibly between the two hemispheric modes of cognition. The composer can use precise musical notation to plot out the separate instrumental lines of an orchestral score, then sit back and listen to how the whole thing sounds. (Miller, Lawrence, PhD. Inner Natures. Brain, Self & Personality. p 79-80. NY: Ballantine Books, 1990.)

The hemispheres alternate cycles of efficiency every 90-100 minutes (from high spatial-low verbal, to high verbal-low spatial). Learners switch from right- to left-brain dominant sixteen times throughout the day. Students need 5-10 minute breaks every 90 minutes. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 42-44. CA: The Brain Store, 2005.

The left hemisphere: controls muscles on right side of body, numerical and scientific skills, ability to use and understand sign language, spoken and written language. (Tortora, Gerard J. and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 10th Edition. p 477. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.)

Left hemisphere processes words, definitions, and language. Right hemisphere processes inflection, tonality, tempo, and volume of communication. Female brain processes both language and feelings at the same time far more efficiently than the male brain. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 16-17. CA: The Brain Store, 2005.)

The left hemisphere tends to break things into component parts, processing in a linear, sequential manner. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 86-88. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

Association is a left hemispheric thinking process based on finding functional relationships between two objects or contexts. Source.

The left hemisphere likely generates vigorous beta waves associated with analytical thought. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 324-325, 335-336. NY: Doubleday, 1987, 1989.)

Left hemisphere is more verbal, right hemisphere is more spatial. Melodies, sonar signals, and environmental sounds are better perceived when presented to the left ear (with connections to the Right Hemisphere). Verbal stimuli was better perceived when presented to the right visual field and ear (with connections to the Left Hemisphere). (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 18-20. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

Harvard-trained neuroanatomist, Dr Jill Taylor: left hemisphere is egoistic, intellectual (logic), and attached to time. (Nirvana and the Right Brain.)

The left hemisphere is analytical, logical, precise, and time sensitive. The right is dreamier and processes things in a holistic way rather than breaking them down. It is more involved with sensory perception than abstract cognition. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 36. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

Left hemisphere: analytical, interested in component parts, detects features, sequential and serial processing, temporal, verbal. (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 26. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

The left hemisphere tends to break things into component parts, processing in a linear, sequential manner. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 86-88. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

The left hemisphere tends to take over once new learning has become established. It is not as likely to be unduly influenced by the first two brain layers. (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence. p 36-38. VT: Park Street Press, 2002.)

The left hemisphere governs the right side of the body. (Brothers, Joyce, PhD. What Every Woman Should Know About Men. p 29-33. NY:Ballantine Books 1981.)

Left hemisphere deals predominantly with verbal abilities and the detailed orderly processing of information. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. p 38-40. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991.)

The left hemisphere turns a person’s reality into ideas that can be communicated to others through language. (Newberg, Andrew, MD., and Mark Robert Waldman. Why We Believe What We Believe. p 67. NY: Free Press, 2006.)

The analytic left hemisphere specializes in language skills. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. p 48-52. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

The left hemisphere is skilled at operating in “just-the-facts” mode that emphasizes logic and reason. Needs to be combined with right hemisphere processing to attain a unified experience. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 164-169. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

The left brain is analytical, logical, precise, and time-sensitive. It creates the feeling of amusement and so is quite happy to laugh at more or less anything when prompted. The left brain likes the details. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 36. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

The left hemisphere tends to process information in the order that it is presented, step-by-step sequentially. Is concerned with details. (Bricklin, Mark, et al. Positive Living and Health. p 50-52. PA: Rodale Press, 1990.)

The physical functions of the right side of the body are controlled by the left hemisphere. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 74-76. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

From the beginning of life, the left hemisphere has a tendency to want to be in charge. Left is analytical and sequential, right is wholistic and simultaneous. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 128-133. NY: Doubleday, 1987, 1989.)

The left hemisphere controls right side of the body (e.g., left-hemisphere stroke can cause right-leg paralysis). (On the Brain, newsletter. p 2-3. CA:2005.www.PositScience.com)

Proclamation involves left-hemisphere functions, as compared to spirituality, although difficult to describe, relates to functions of the right hemisphere. (Benson, Herbert, MD, with William Proctor. Your Maximum Mind. p 195-198. NY: Avon Books, 1987.)

Writers who are left brained and report or write to exchange information, are often very careful but lack forms of creativity. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan.Whole Brain Thinking. p 171. NY: Ballantine Books, 1984.)

The right hemisphere: controls muscle on left side of body, musical and artistic awareness, space and pattern perception, recognition of faces, emotional content of facial expressions, generating emotional content of language, generating mental images to compare spatial relationships, and identifying odors. (Tortora, Gerard J. and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 10th Edition. p 477. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.)

Studies of patients who have undergone “split brain” surgery: the right hemisphere is superior when it comes to coping with the novel and unvamiliar, especially when there are no clues how to respond. It functions as a generalist, a jack of all trades, trying many approaches to a problem until it finds one that fits. (Restak, Richard, MD. The Brain has a Mind of its Own. p 36-40. NY: Crown Publishers, Inc. 1991.)

Right hemisphere: interest in gestalt, integrates component parts, relational, constructional, pattern seeking, simultaneous and parallel processing, spatial, visuo-spatial. (Williams, Linda. Teaching for the Two-Sided Mind. p 26. CA: Touchstone Books: 1986.)

Portions of the right brain do not mature emotionally beyond four or five years of age. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 121. NY: Ballantine Books, 1984.)

Harvard-trained neuroanatomist, Dr Jill Taylor: the right hemisphere is egoless, intuitional, and time-transcendent. Comparatively put, the left brain is the function of ‘Mind’ whilst the right brain is the function of ‘Heart.’ (Nirvana and the Right Brain.)

Right hemisphere specializes in recognition of faces, music, visual tasks, perception of spatial relationships, and processing of emotion. Study: was unable to use “language” in the testing. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain.p 48-52. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983.)

Bisociation is a process of thinking by appearance for multiple meanings, that utilize right hemispheric processes. It includes a mixing of visual physiognomies from two contexts or categories that are normally considered separate for the formation of meaningful and creative metaphoric analogies. Source.

Although the hemispheres don’t function in isolation from each other (unless the corpus callosum is missing), the right hemisphere is specialized for working with images over words. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 72-73. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

The right hemisphere has rich connections with the action brain layer and the emotional brain layer, and is involved in new learning. Once established, the left hemisphere tends to take over. (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence.p 36-38. VT: Park Street Press, 2002.)

The right hemisphere governs the left side of the body. (Brothers, Joyce, PhD. What Every Woman Should Know About Men. p 29-33. NY: Ballantine Books 1981.)

The right hemisphere is better at perceiving the whole picture by synthesizing and attending to general configurations. It engages in parallel processing that involves many operations going on at the same time. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 86-88. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

The right hemisphere deals with spatial relations and the overall picture. (Moir, Anne, and David Jessel. Brain Sex, the Real Difference Between Men & Women. p 38-40. NY: Carol Publishing Group, 1989, 1991.)

The right hemisphere is skilled at detecting the emotional component of every situation (e.g., evaluates voice tones, body movement, facial expression). (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 164-168. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

The right brain is dreamier; it processes things in a holistic way rather than breaking them down, and it is more involved with sensory perception than abstract cognition. It “gets” the joke, in that it registers the dislocation in the logic that is the hallmark of more formal humor. It helps find you way around in space, recognizing familiar faces, grasping the whole. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 10, 37. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

The right hemisphere tends to grasp the wholeness of the world spatially through feelings. (Newberg, Andrew, MD., and Mark Robert Waldman. Why We Believe What We Believe. p 67. NY: Free Press, 2006.)

The right hemisphere appears to contribute something to language (e.g., some comprehension, emotional intonation, metaphor, some qualities of humor). (Springer, Sally p., and Georg Deutsch. Left Brain, Right Brain. p 180-181. NY: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1997.)

The right hemisphere is better at understanding spatial relationships, can see how parts of something go together to form a whole, and tends to process information all at once. (Bricklin, Mark, et al. Positive Living and Health. p 50-52. PA: Rodale Press, 1990.)

The right hemisphere controls left side of the body (e.g., right-hemisphere stroke can cause speech problems). (On the Brain newsletter. p 2-3. CA: 2005. www.PositScience.com)

Those with dominance in the right hemisphere are usually easily hypnotized and sometimes are even affected when someone else is the subject. (Whole Brain Thinking. Jacquelyn Wonder & Priscilla Donovan. p 116. Ballentine Books, 1984.)

There is an area in the temporal lobe of the right hemisphere that appears to be able to produce intense feelings of spiritual transcendence, combined with a sense of some mystical presence. Such feelings have been elicited in otherwise unreligious people by stimulating this area. After all, if God exists, it figures He must have created us with some biological mechanism with which to apprehend Him. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 19-20. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

Spirituality, although difficult to describe, relates to functions of the right hemisphere (as compared with “proclamation” that involves left-hemisphere functions). (Benson, Herbert, MD, with William Proctor. Your Maximum Mind. p 195-198. NY: Avon Books, 1987.)

Writers who are right brained write to tell stories or describe something (real or imagined) and are often very creative, but typically lack editing ability. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 171. NY: Ballantine Books, 1984.)

The right hemisphere is more in touch with the emotional feeling centers in the limbic system. It likely generates alpha brain waves. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 324-325, 335-336. NY: Doubleday, 1987, 1989.)

To obtain one total experience, the brain integrates the different operations carried out by the right and left cerebral hemispheres. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 71-73.NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

Right-brained or left-brained thinking (so called) is actually a fluctuation on a continuum between two extremes: Left linear, analytical sequential thinking; versus Right holistic, global, and simultaneous thinking. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Endangered Minds. p 124-126. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1990.)

Cross-over exercises: Movement activities provide opportunities to cross the body’s mid-line. Doing so requires left and right hemispheres to communicate across the corpus callosum. This hemispheric integration is essential to the ability to read and write. (Pica, Rae. 10 Reasons to Promote Emergent Literacy through Movement & Active Learning.

The two hemispheres are somewhat distinct in structure, neurochemistry, and processing. There is a great deal of laterality. (Siegel, Daniel J., MD. The Developing Mind. p 177-180. NY: The Guilford Press, 1999.)

The hemispheres are interdependent. Brain Scans: Left processes grammar and pronunciation; right processes intonation. (On the Brain,newsletter.www.PositScience.com. p 2-3. CA:2005.)

There are asymmetries between the hemispheres (e.g., Broca’s area and Wernicke’s areas in the left hemisphere). (Marcus, Gary, PhD. The Birth of the Mind. p 130-131. NY: Basic Books, 2004.)

In most people, the left and right hemispheres tend to dominate in different cognitive functions, just as people engage the world differently with their left and right hands. (Fields, R. Douglas, PhD. The Other Brain. p 4-5. NY: Simon & Schuster, 2009.

The hemispheres remain in balance when encountering images of positive or emotionally neutral scenes. The balance of activity shifts toward the right hemisphere when the image is one of horror, carnage, suffering, death, or injury—and it can become overwhelmed and dysfunctional. Watching images of disaster has a more powerful effect on one’s mental stability than reading about the disaster. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 71-74. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Typically there is instant communication between hemispheres, although each perceives events and records information independently. This provides an illusion of unity. Déjà vu may result when there is a brief delay in transmission of information. (Bragdon, Allen D., and David Gamon, PhD. Brains that Work a Little Bit Differently. p 52-56. NY Barnes and Noble Books, 2000.)

Many imaging studies may show only small real hemispheric asymmetries in function because the brain has a tendency to show symmetrical increases in activity even though the task is really initiated by one side much more than the other. (Springer, Sally p., and Georg Deutsch. Left Brain, Right Brain. p 72-73. NY: W.H. Freeman and Co., 1997.)

Imagine that you have a gray glove on your left hand and a white one on the right. There are, in fact, slight differences in color between the two cerebral hemispheres. The left side has more gray matter; the right more white (contains more myelination since it houses the essential intuitive, feeling, reactive skills). (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 6. NY: Ballantine Books, 1984.)

At any given time there will be more activity in one hemisphere compared to the other. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised). p 21. CA: The Brain Store, 2005.)

Speaking effectively requires a fine balance between the left and right hemispheres. Speakers who hold your attention usually shift from side to side, alternating between precise, logical speech in rapid crisp style, and some personal comment, a joke, or a dramatic experience in an animated expressive style. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 166. NY: Ballantine Books, 1984.)

The two hemispheres really do have quite specific skills that are hard-wired to the extent that, in normal circumstances, certain skills will always develop on a particular side. Almost every mental function you can think of is fully or partly lateralized. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 35-38. University of California Press, 1998.)

We still do not properly understand why the brain divides tasks in the way we observe in most people. (Greenfield, Susan, Con. Ed. Brain Power, Working out the Human Mind. p 53. The Ivy Press Limited, 1999.)

Hitchcock’s surprising and usually humorous endings rely heavily on leading the viewer through the logical, left-brain facts of the situation and then suddenly revealing the paradoxical, right-brain side of the story. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Prescilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 106. NY: Ballentine Books, 1984.)

Under acute stress, the two hemispheres of the brain become disconnected. Laughter improves creativity and problem-solving, and activates the limbic system in the brain, connecting the right and left sides. It helps you do more whole brain work. (O’Donnell, Sinara Stull. Laugh More at Work To Ease Office Stress.

Laughter stimulates both sides of the brain to enhance learning. It eases muscle tension and psychological stress, which keeps the brain alert and allows people to retain more information. (Humor and Laughter: Health Benefits and Online Sources.)

Refer to Cerebral Hemispheres (under Brain Function) for additional information.

Evidence of hemispheric dominance has been around since 1976 (Science News, Volume 109, #14, p 219, issued on April 3, 1967). For example:

Left Hemisphere:

Right Hemisphere:

Speech, verbal
Logical, mathematical
Linear and detailed
Sequential
Controlled
Intellectual
Dominant
Worldly
Active
Analytical
Reading, writing, naming
Sequential ordering
Perception of significant order
Complex motor sequences

Spatial, musical
Holistic
Artistic and symbolic
Simultaneous
Emotional
Intuitive and creative
Minor (quiet)
Spiritual
Receptive
Synthetic, Gestalt
Facial recognition
Simultaneous comprehension
Perception of abstract patterns
Recognition of complex figures

(Herrmann, Ned. The Whole Brain Business Book. p 10-14. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.)

Human beings have the potential to develop a sense of humor and each is born with the capacity to laugh. (Padus, Emrika, et al. The Complete Guide to Your Emotions & Your Health. p 546-547. PA: Rodale Press, 1992.)

Damage to the right frontal lobe of the cerebrum can decrease one’s ability to appreciate humor. This can, in turn, reduce one’s tendency to smile or laugh in response to a joke. (Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 93-94. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Humor and laughter are processed via a complex pathway of brain activity. Three main components: sections of the frontal lobe near the forehead to “get” the humor; the supplementary motor area for smiling / laughing muscle movements; nucleus accumbens to elicit happiness felt after a funny experience. (Humor, Laughter, and the Brain. Brain Briefings, December 2001. 
http://www.sfn.org/index.cfm?pagename=brainBriefings_humorLaughterAndTheBrain

Study 2003, Reiss and colleagues: the brain's mesolimbic reward center, which is responsible for the rewarding feelings that follow such events as monetary gain or cocaine use, is also activated by humor. (http://www.news-medical.net/?id=14460)

MRI study of brains of 16 healthy adults: used to detect areas of the brain that were activated when the subject found a cartoon funny. In addition to activating areas of the brain involved in language processing, humor also stimulated regions of the brain known as reward centers, such as the amygdala, which releases dopamine. (WebMD Medical News. Humor Activates Reward Center of the Brain. http://www.webmd.com/balance/news/20031203/funny-thing-about-humor-brain)

Study using EEG topographical brain mapping of an individual hearing a joke: left hemisphere began to process the words. Then the frontal lobe center of emotionality was activated. 120 milliseconds later the right hemisphere began processing the pattern. A few milliseconds later the occipital lobe showed increased activity. Delta waves increased, the brain got the joke, and laughter erupted. (Dunn, Joseph R., PhD, Ed. New Discoveries in Psychoneuroimmunology. p 6-7. (interview with Dr. Lee S. Berk).Humor & Health Letter, Vol III. No 6, Nov/Dec 1994, MS: Dunn.)

When using or experiencing positive humor and mirthful laughter, the whole brain is involved, not just one side, and there's more coordination between both sides. (O’Donnell, Sinara Stull. Laugh More at Work To Ease Office Stress. 
http://www.careerjournal.com/myc/climbing/20011206-odonnell.html)

fMRI Studies of brain activities activates in two types of humor. High-level visual areas were activated during visual humor and classic language areas were activated during language-dependent humor. (Watson, Karli K., et al. Brain Activation during Sight Gags and Language-Dependent Humor. 
http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/bhj149v1)

Both hemispheres are needed to produce a fully rounded sense of humor. The left brain creates the feeling of amusement and so is quite happy to laugh at more or less anything when prompted to do so. The right hemisphere “gets” the joke by registering the dislocation in logic that is a hallmark of most formal humor. Meaning emerges from the pulling together of all the threads of the joke, including context, assumptions, and knowledge of personal prejudices. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 17. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

The two hemispheres understand humor in two different ways. It takes a whole brain to appreciate a joke fully. The left is literal in its interpretations of the joke and is especially drawn to wordplay (e.g., the bigger the summer vacation, the harder the fall). The right is more alert to subtleties and nuances. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 105. NY: Ballantine Books, 1984.)

Humor processing (getting the joke and laughing) appears to involve parts of the frontal lobes and a component of the pleasure pathway, the anterior cortex of the hypothalamus. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 92-94. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Various portions of the brain work together to experience humor and laughter. Left hemisphere sets up the joke. Right hemisphere is involved in getting the joke. (Dossey, Larry, MD. Healing Beyond the Body. p 133-149. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc., 2001.)

The left cerebral hemisphere creates the feeling of amusement and laughs when prompted. The right hemisphere “gets” the joke. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 36-38. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

Refer to Laughter - Humor and the Brain for additional information.

Those with dominance in the right hemisphere are usually easily hypnotized and sometimes are even affected when someone else is the subject. (Whole Brain Thinking. Jacquelyn Wonder & Priscilla Donovan. p 116. Ballentine Books, 1984.)

This region is associated with memory, imagery, and attention. Damage to this area, especially on the dominant (usually left) side of the brain, can result in the loss of an ability to recognize words and letters, spell, or calculate. (Fields, R. Douglas, PhD. The Other Brain. p 4-5. NY: Simon & Schuster, 2009.)

Variations in brain organization produce special talents in some individuals and deficits in others. In fact, deficits and talents can be seen in the same person. Fundamental elements of personality (e.g., thought, feeling, action, subtleties of perception and communication) can be understandable in terms of individual differences in cognitive style--encoded in the hemispheric brain systems. (Miller, Lawrence, PhD. Inner Natures. Brain, Self & Personality. p 44-46. NY: Ballantine Books, 1990.)

Some things are easy to learn and to do. Others may be easy to learn and hard to do (e.g., tying shoelaces). Some are hard to learn and hard to do (e.g., golf). Talent is when something is easy to do and you don’t remember learning it. When you mix talent with what you love to do, you are in a state of grace. (Frare, Bob, CSP. The Legacy of William H. Gove. Professional Speaker. p 11. NSA, October 2002.)

Each individual has a set point, like that of a thermostat, for each of three basic dimensions or aspects of temperament: gain, deliberation-liberation, and approach-withdraw. Where one is set on each of these dimensions seems to endure within the individual. They are the primitive roots of individuality. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 48. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

Children definitely have “styles” or preferences for thinking and processing information. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 73-74. NY: Doubleday, 1987.)

Individuals differ in cognitive style, defined as a person’s consistent approach to organizing and processing information during thinking. This doesn’t appear related to intelligence; reflects qualitative rather than quantitative differences between individuals. (Riding, Richard J., and Eugene Sadler-Smith. Cognitive Style and Learning Strategies: Some Implications for Training Design.

Sooner or later every kid proclaims what it is he is wired for as well as what he is miswired for. Nobody may be watching or listening. Care providers need to respond positively to these declarations of identity. (Levine, Mel, MD. A Mind at a Time. p 296. NY:Simon & Schuster, 2002.)

Every individual is born with a set of preferred talents and activities. Although at birth, human beings have many innate predispositions, yet they are born unfinished, open to development. Individuals need the world to give them their individuality, yet the world can only develop what has been inherited. (Beck, Martha, PhD. The Joy Diet. p 46-47. NY: Crown Publishers, 2003.)

There are innate differences in the human personality, including four functions: Feeling (evaluating), Thinking, Sensation, and Intuition (labeled by Carl Jung). Each person is born with one of the four functions dominant. (Dossey, Larry. MD. Healing Words. p 125-130. NY: HarperPaperbacks, 1993.)

The world can profoundly effect our development, and this fact allows us to remake ourselves through conscious choice, even in adulthood. Yet we can never abandon our inherent natures, our roots. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 12. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

Research suggests we have inherent tendencies (e.g., getting to the point, knowing bottom line, need context, impatient with details, craving details, making own judgment). There is little evidence that we can actually change such inherent tendencies but we can recognize them in our relationships with others and become more flexible. (Cooper, Robert K., PhD., and Ayman Sawaf. Executive EQ. p 98-99. NY: Grosset/Putnam, 1997.)

To process a negative instruction (e.g., don’t fall down), the child must access some representation of “falling down.” That internal representation, especially if it is kinesthetic, will usually result in the behavior you are trying to prevent. A positive instruction (e.g., be careful, move slowly) will access a representation that will help the child cope with the situation. (Bandler, Richard, and John Grinder. Frogs into Princes. p 64-65. UT: Real People Press. 1979.)

Refer to Affirmation and the Brain for additional information.

There is no relation whatever between brain size and intelligence. One of the smallest was that of the gifted French writer Anatole France (1,100 grams); the largest on record was that of an idiot (2,850 grams). (Montague, Ashley. The Natural Superiority of Women. p 62-63. NY: Collier Books, a division of Macmillan Publishing Co., Inc., 1952, 1974.)

General intelligence is closely linked to the amount of gray matter in the frontal lobes, and has more to do with the number of brain cells in the frontal lobes than with the density of fibers connecting them. To some degree, intelligence is plastic and modifiable. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 30-34. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

fMRI studies by Dutch scientists: the most efficiently wired brains tend to belong to the most intelligent people. Their brains don't have more connections, but they have more efficiently placed connections. It’s like taking a direct airplane flight versus one with two or more stop-overs. (Callaway, Ewen. Speeding up brain networks might boost IQNew Scientist Life, 2009.)

Gray matter, located in a quarter-inch layer at the surface of the brain, is basically responsible for intelligence. Blood flows faster through gray matter than through any other brain tissue. Women and left-handers (male or female) have more gray matter than men who are right-handed. Gray matter processes information locally in the brain. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? How Men and Women Compare. p 86-87. NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985.)

Intuition is as a natural human ability and a key dimension of the creative process, problem solving, and decision making. Highly developed intuition flows. Many scientists, artists, musicians, leaders, entrepreneurs have said they owed their greatest accomplishments to intuition. (Cooper, Robert K., PhD., and Ayman Sawaf. Executive EQ. p 298-214. NY: Grosset/Putnam 1997.)

Intuition tkes place due to interactions between the emotional brain, and the temporal lobes and right hemisphere of the neocortex. (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence. p 30-32. VT: Park Street Press, 2002.)

Imagination, along with creativity, and intuition, are qualities with emotional dimensions. They can lead to surviving, thriving, and serendipity. (Siebert, Al, PhD. The Survivor Personality. p 54-55. NY: A Perigee Book, 1996.)

Intuition is perception beyond the physical senses. It is closely tied to emotional intelligence and includes aspects of intelligence as well. Intuition services creativity: it is the sense that an idea that has never been tried might work. It unveils hidden possibilities. Intuition also serves inspiration. It is the sudden answer to a question. (Cooper, Robert K., PhD., and Ayman Sawaf. Executive EQ. p 42-43. NY: Grosset/Putnam 1997.)

Intuition works best when data from a gut sense are used to build on other kinds of data (e.g., if business plan looked good on paper but didn’t “feel right,” proceed with caution). (Goleman, Daniel, PhD, with Richard Boyatzis, and Annie Mckee. Primal Leadership. p 42-44. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002.)

Studies: The left hemisphere analyzed the words and structure of the joke; the right hemisphere carried out the intellectual analysis required to "get" the joke. (Brian, Marshall. How Laughter Works.)

If children are born into multilingual households, they learn all the languages they are regularly exposed to. Infants can learn three or four languages or more. In the process of learning to speak, there are strong relationships between speech, song and music. Areas of the brain that are primarily concerned with music and language overlap considerably. (Robinson, Ken, Sir, PhD. Out of Our Minds. p 130-131. NY: Capstone Publishing Ltd, 2001, 2011)

For most people, whether they are left- or right-handed, language abilities are sited in the brain’s left hemisphere. People who learn a second language after early childhood tend to process the second language in the right hemisphere. (Restak, Richard, MD. The Secret Life of the Brain. p 48. Washington D.C.: The Dana Press and Joseph Henry Press, 2001.)

Two main language areas—Wernicke’s and Broca’s—have been recognized for more than a century, but brain imaging has shown other areas that are involved such as the insula that lies within the Sylvian fissure that divides the temporal and frontal lobes. Each main area of language cortex is probably split, like the sensory cortices, into many different processing regions and subregions. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 149. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

Study: Language related to conceptual thought is processed in left hemisphere (e.g., sedate the right hemisphere and the person can speak normally but can’t sing). (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 34-36. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

While articulation and grammar are seated in Broca’s area on the left side (of the brain), the emotional tone of phrasing and voice derive from the right side of the brain. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 9. NY: Ballantine Books, 1984.)

Generally, linear Western languages appear to be housed in the left hemisphere. Eastern languages and some dialects appear to be housed in the right hemisphere. This means that a brain injury in one side of the brain may interfere with one language while leaving use of the other language intact. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family.)

In most people (97%), both Broca's area (spoken speech) and Wernicke's area (heard speech) are found in only the left hemisphere of the brain. (Chulder, Dr. Eric. The Brain and Communication. Think Quest.)

Language, the most obviously lateralized of skills, is atypically organized in about 5% of people. The two hemispheres really do have quite specific skills that are hard-wired to the extent that, in normal circumstances, certain skills will always develop on a particular side. Almost every mental function you can think of is fully or partly lateralized. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 35-38. University of California Press, 1998.)

Lateralization describes the pattern by which specific abilities are distributed between the two hemispheres. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. p 136-138. NY: Doubleday, 1987, 1989.)

The brain appears to have a lateral specialization of function for many tasks (e. g., speech). (Greenfield, Susan, Con. Ed. Brain Power, Working out the Human Mind. p 153. The Ivy Press Limited, 1999.)

Specific brain areas are important but they participate in functions by way of their synaptic connections with other areas. Chemicals are also important, but mainly because of their work at synapses within functional systems. (LeDoux, Joseph.Synaptic Self, How Our Brains Become Who We Are. p 33-34. NY Penguin Books, 2002.)

Human beings have the potential to develop a sense of humor and each is born with the capacity to laugh. (Padus, Emrika, et al. The Complete Guide to Your Emotions & Your Health. p 546-547. PA: Rodale Press, 1992.)

Laughter stimulates both sides of the brain to enhance learning. It eases muscle tension and psychological stress, which keeps the brain alert and allows people to retain more information. (Humor and Laughter: Health Benefits and Online Sources.)

Laughter is the most enjoyable form of human communication. Humans are the only animals able to appreciate all the shadings of humor; it integrates the limbic system with the frontal lobes. (Donahue, Phil. The Human Animal. p 331-334. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1985, 1986.)

Under acute stress, the two hemispheres of the brain become disconnected. Laughter improves creativity and problem-solving, and activates the limbic system in the brain, connecting the right and left sides. It helps you do more whole brain work. (O’Donnell, Sinara Stull. Laugh More at Work To Ease Office Stress. )

Humor processing (getting the joke and laughing) appears to involve parts of the frontal lobes and a component of the pleasure pathway, the anterior cortex of the hypothalamus. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 92-94. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Various portions of the brain work together to experience humor and laughter. Left hemisphere sets up the joke. Right hemisphere is involved in getting the joke. (Dossey, Larry, MD. Healing Beyond the Body. p 133-149. Boston: Shambhala Publications, Inc., 2001.)

The left cerebral hemisphere creates the feeling of amusement and laughs when prompted. The right hemisphere “gets” the joke. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 36-38. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

EEG Studies of brain activity when subject laughed: Within four-tenths of a second of exposure to something potentially funny, an electrical wave moved through the cerebral cortex. If the wave took a negative charge, laughter resulted. (Brain, Marshall. How Laughter Works.)

Study: Laughter resulted when a small 2 cm by 2 cm area on the subject’s left superior frontal gyrus (part of the left frontal lobe) was stimulated. (What’s so Funny and Why: Laughter and the Brain.)

The left brain creates the feeling of amusement and so is quite happy to laugh at more or less anything when prompted. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 11, 36. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

When using or experiencing positive humor and mirthful laughter, the whole brain is involved, not just one side, and there's more coordination between both sides. (O’Donnell, Sinara Stull. Laugh More at Work To Ease Office Stress.)

Laughter stimulates both sides of the brain to enhance learning. It eases muscle tension and psychological stress, which keeps the brain alert and allows people to retain more information. (Humor and Laughter: Health Benefits and Online Sources.)

fMRI Studies of brain activities activates in two types of humor. High-level visual areas were activated during visual humor and classic language areas were activated during language-dependent humor. (Watson, Karli K., et al. Brain Activation during Sight Gags and Language-Dependent Humor.)

Study using EEG topographical brain mapping of an individual hearing a joke: left hemisphere began to process the words. Then the frontal lobe center of emotionality was activated. 120 milliseconds later the right hemisphere began processing the pattern. A few milliseconds later the occipital lobe showed increased activity. Delta waves increased, the brain got the joke, and laughter erupted. (Dunn, Joseph R., PhD, Ed. New Discoveries in Psychoneuroimmunology. p 6-7.(interview with Dr. Lee S. Berk).Humor & Health Letter, Vol III. No 6, Nov/Dec 1994, MS: Dunn.)

Refer to Laughter - Humor and the Brain for additional information.

Three layers of the brain are known for distinct functions (though all functioning areas constantly interact). Brain stem (fight or flight, instinct); Limbic system (emotion is processed); Four lobes at the top of the brain, generally where conscious thinking occurs. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! p 18. CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001.)

The fourth brain layer is defined as the prefrontal cortex. It can function, especially the left hemisphere portion, without being influenced unduly by the first two brain layers. (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence. p 36-38. VT: Park Street Press, 2002.)

Learning can be Explicit or ImplicitExplicit learning is effortful, conscious memorization. Implicit learning happens without any effort (e.g., child’s ability to master native language). (Wilson, Timothy D. Strangers to Ourselves. p 25-26. England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002.)

Learning is not left-brained or right-brained; it is holistic, whole-brained, and highly interactive. There are, however, preferences where more of one hemisphere is activated than another. (Jensen, Eric. Brain-Based Learning (Revised).p 16-17. CA: The Brain Store, 2005.)

One’s lifestyle actually changes one’s brain. Think of it as laying down footprints in the brain that correspond to one’s experiences, actions taken, and behaviors exhibited. (Schwartz, Jeffrey M., MD, and Sharon Begley. The Mind & the Brain. p 366-367. NY: Regan Books, 2002.)

The limbic system is a ring of structures on the inner border of the cerebrum. Sometimes called the “emotional brain” because it plays a primary role in a range of emotions (e.g., pain, pleasure, docility, affection, anger), it also is involved in smelling, memory, and aspects of behavior. (Tortora, Gerard J. and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 10th Edition. p 471-472, G-23. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003.)

Study: The caudate nucleus is involved in human romantic love. Individuals in love for longer periods of time (e.g., 2.3 years versus 7 months), also showed activity in the insular cortex (processing of emotions, registering butterflies in the stomach) and in the anterior cingulate gyrus (attention, working memory, and emotions interact). (Fisher, Helen, PhD. Why We Love. p 70-80. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004.)

fMRI scans revealed significant increased activity in the anterior cingulated cortex of the brain when participants were lying. Four areas of brain activation included the prefrontal and frontal, parietal, temporal, and subcortical regions. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. p 272-273. NY: Broadway Books, 2004.)

A variety ofphysiological changes are associated with arousal (e.g., eye pupil dilates, respiratory rate changes, BP and heart rate rise). Changes can be recorded by a polygraph related to arousal anxiety but cannot prove innocence or guilt. (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 24-26. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Polygraph tests measure changes taking place downstream from the brain rather than in the brain itself. fMRI study: “lies” could be detected based on increased blood flow to the anterior cingulated cortex (ACC). (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 104-106. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

The polygraph is a stress detector, NOT a lie detector. “Farwell Brain Fingerprinting” is a new technique that uses sensors to establish brain wave patterns (e.g., a specific memory network established in the brain is measurably activated when recalled). It depends on the skill of the operator in presenting visual stimuli that only a guilty person would know. (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. p 373-374. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000.)

A lie triggers physiological changes (in nonsociopaths). The accuracy of a new computerized polygraph system is close to 100% (refer to Voice Stress Analysis). (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. p 271. NY: Broadway Books, 2004.)

Contains the functions for all forms of relationships, including tools (e.g., emotions) by which relationships are qualitatively evaluated. It provides an awareness of one’s internal world including the past and the present. (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence. p 24-26. VT: Park Street Press, 2002.)

The human brain has the same organization, the same types of neurons, and the same set of neurotransmitters as other mammalian brains, which is why rats and monkeys are so widely used to test theories about human brain function. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 22. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)

Anyone can choose to go into management. The way in which the individual manages, however, will differ based on the person’s innate giftedness (if they are living true to their preference). For examples:

  • A brain lead in the frontal left lobe: authoritative, directive, and all business
  • A brain lead in the left posterior lobes: traditional, conservative,, and risk avoiding
  • A brain lead in the right frontal lobe: holistic, risk-oriented, adventurous, and entrepreneurial
  • A brain lead in the right posterior lobes: personable, interactive, and face-to-face

Herrmann analyzed management styles by brain quadrant dominance and by gender. A management styles matrix is included in his book. (Herrmann, Ned. The Whole Brain Business Book. p 98-114. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.)

A study of Australian Aboriginal children who do not know “words for numbers:” conclusions were that they did equally well in numeracy when compared to English-speaking children. It appears that the human brain has a built-in ability to do mathematics even if the individual does not possess the language to express it. Source.

Brain scan studies have shown that adolescents have diminished brain capacity (compared to adults) due to the fact that their brains are not fully developed, particular in the frontal lobes that are crucial to reasoning skills. (Lynch, Zack, PhD., with Byron Laursen. The Neuro Revolution, p. 44-45. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.)

The frontal cortex lights up during meditation (or prayer, which is a form of meditation). Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind. CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

Refer to Meditation - Prayer and the Brain for additional information.

The hippocampus is especially involved in associating odors, sounds, and sights to construct mental maps. (Katz, Lawrence C., PhD and Manning Rubin. Keep Your Brain Alive. p 60. NY: Workman Publishing Company, Inc., 1999.)

Personal memories are encoded in the hippocampus. In the right hemisphere the hippocampus is responsible for spatial memory. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Exploring Consciousness. p 29, 115. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

The hippocampus and parahippocampal (rhinal) areas constitute the medial temporal lobe memory system and are involved in explicit or declarative memory. Not part of the neocortical temporal lobe, they are not involved in its sensory-processing functions. Needed for memory storage initially (e.g., direct the storage process) the role decreases as time goes by. (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self, How Our Brains Become Who We Are. p 100-107. NY: Penguin Books, 2002.)

The brain creates its own nonverbal imagery (e.g., sees without external visual input) through the "mind's eye.” (Givens, David B. Human Brain. Center for Nonverbal Studies. 1998-2005.)

Bisociation is a process of thinking by appearance for multiple meanings, that utilize right hemispheric processes. It includes a mixing of visual physiognomies from two contexts or categories that are normally considered separate for the formation of meaningful and creative metaphoric analogies. Source.

Outcomes from a mismatch between brain function and career choice can include depression and illness. Individuals would be on the road to recovery if only they could see clearly the mismatch of their occupations with their minds. (Mel Levine, Mel, MD. A Mind at a Time. p 48-49. NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002.)

 

A multidominant person (e.g., tribrainer) may find giving a party difficult because his friends don’t like each other. In fact, they may actively put each other down, as they compete for the person’s approval. (Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind. p 159. TX: KBA Publishing, 2000.)

The right frontal lobe is focally responsible for music and, if it is damaged, musical abilities are impaired. (Robinson, Ken, Sir, PhD. Out of Our Minds. p 14. NY: Capstone Publishing Ltd, 2001, 2011)

Study: music is primarily appreciated in the right hemisphere. Singing appears to be a right-hemisphere activity (e.g., if you sedate the left hemisphere the person can sing but not speak). (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. p 34-36. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992.)

Estimates are that 10,000 hours of practice is required to achieve world-class level of mastery, in music as well as any field of endeavor. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 20-21. CA: Institute for natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

Most of who we are is a result of the interaction of our genes and our experiences. In some cases, the genes are more important; while in others the environment is more crucial…the issue is not nature versus nurture. It is the balance between nature and nurture. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 31-34. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)

Genetic inheritance exerts its influence within an environment. Thus, the environment must be conducive to the development of a particular talent (regardless of how powerful the genetic inheritance). For example, a musical talent is honed among people who appreciate music and help the individual further his/her talents. In another environment the talent might wither. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 26-29. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Odor processing does not follow the brain’s typical cross-over pattern. What is taken in through the left nostril is processed in the left hemisphere and vice versa. (Wonder, Jacquelyn and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 45-47. NY: Ballantine Books, 1984.)

In order to be successful in managing your environment long-term, it is important to implement strategies that match what your brain does easily—innately—with minimal energy expenditure. (Nakone, Lanna, MA. Organizing for Your Brain Type. p 1-190. NY: St. Martin’s Griffin, 2004.)

Pain comes from activation of areas associated with emotion and attention. The anterior cingulate cortex is particularly active when pain is registered. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. P33, 100. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

The Periaqueductal gray, a structure located in the limbic system (or emotional brain), contains many opiate receptors and is involved in the perception of pain. (Candace Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. Audio Cassettes. NY: Sound Ideas, 1997.)

The Periaqueductal is the pain center. It contains the same peptide receptors that are present elsewhere in the brain. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind. Audio Cassettes. CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

What seems to be going on in pain alteration (e.g., yogis who through breath training alter perceptions of physical pain, mothers with Lamaze breathing techniques) is that these people are able to plug into their periaqueductal gray, gaining access to it with their conscious intention, and then, I believe, are able to reset their pain thresholds. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. p 186. NY: Scribner, 1997.)

Parents are better off getting to know their own children than trying to mold them into some ideal created out of thin air. Children are to be discovered as well as shaped; they should be allowed and encouraged to develop to their own potential. People are unique from the moment of conception. (Hamer, Dean and Peter Copeland. Our Genes — Why They Matter More Than You Think. p 25. NY: Doubleday, 1998.)

Located just behind the frontal lobe, the parietal lobe processes every sensation except smell, which connects directly to the limbic system. The parietal lobe is a sensory integrator responsible for your sense of bodily position. It is separated from the frontal lobe by the narrow motor cortex, home of neurons that direct the body’s motor nerves and thus bodily motion. (Restak, Richard. Mysteries of the Mind. p 20. Washington, DC: National Geographic, 2000.)

Rehearsing a new alternative with emotional intensity creates a new highway in the brain. (Robbins, Anthony. Awaken the Giant Within. p 136-140. NY: Fireside, 1991.)

We have to work harder and longer to change a habit than when we learned it in the first place. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD, with Richard Boyatzis, and Annie Mckee. Primal Leadership. p 104-105. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002.)

The more higher skills (e.g., bike riding, cognition) are practiced the more automatic they become. Initially these routines require mental strain and stretching—the formation of new synapses—but mastered, the mental processing becomes easier. Neurons initially recruited for the learning process are freed to go to other assignments, the fundamental nature of learning in the brain. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. p 34-35. NY: Vintage Books, 2002.)

Estimates are that 10,000 hours of practice is required to achieve world-class level of mastery, in music as well as any field of endeavor. (Sternberg, Barbara, PhD. Music & the Brain. p 20-21. CA: Institute for natural Resources, Home-Study #2320, 2009).

According to Ericsson, the highest levels of performance and achievement appear to require at least 10 years of intense prior preparation—sometimes referred to as the Ten-Year Rule. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. p 23. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

A person's strong preferences often represent work activities that "turn them on." Their non-preferences almost always represent work activities that "turn them off." When people are turned off they drop out of the game. They become selectively blind and deaf to the discussions and activities that take place in their areas of avoidance. When a large percentage of a person's work falls into a quadrant of avoidance, the likelihood of job success is enormously reduced. (Herrmann, Ned. The Whole Brain Business Book. p 40-46. NY: McGraw-Hill, 1996.)

The terms Brain Lead or Dominance refer to an innate biochemical preference for processing information in an energy-efficient manner. Your preference (or dominance) is your predisposition for one type of thinking based on its superior natural efficiency that makes using it fun and effortless. You are born with this preference. It is a key part of who you are and it never changes. (Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind. p 8-33, 88-103. TX: KBA Publishing 2000.)

A preference or predisposition essentially opens up “the path of least resistance.” It takes special energy, conditions, and environment to over-ride or alter systems. (Blum, Deborah. Sex on the Brain. p 17-20. NY: Penguin Books, 1997.)

Each person’s brain is unique and operates most efficiently when involved in activities it does best. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 214-216. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

Individuals, although a coalition of four different selves (e.g., four cerebral quadrants), prefer to use one or more of those selves compared to the others. All profiles are composed of most preferred and least preferred thinking modes. These combinations of preferences are sometimes extreme. Over time the chances are good that we will do the things we prefer as a result of our thinking style, and we will not do the things that we prefer not to do. (Herrmann, Ned. The Whole Brain Business Book. p 38-41. NY:McGraw-Hill, 1996.)

There are innate differences in the human personality, including four functions: Feeling (evaluating), Thinking, Sensation, and Intuition (labeled by Carl Jung). Each person is born with one of the four functions dominant. (Dossey, Larry. MD. Healing Words. p 125-130. NY: HarperPaperbacks, 1993.)

There is a lesson to be learned from studying brain dominance in families and schools: context is all-important. In order to determine what someone might be experiencing, we need to look at their preference and introversion or extraversion, the preferences and E-I of those around them, and finally what activities they are being asked to do. When a person is not thriving, there is a good chance the context in which that person is living, studying, or working is not validating for their brain. (Benziger, Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind: The Art and Science of Using Your Whole Brain. p 250-263. IL: KBA, 2009.)

The hind brain (e.g., brain stem, cerebellum), that functions in a habitual manner, registers present tense only. (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence. p 24-25. VT: Park Street Press, 2002.)

Much of the energy influencing your decision to put off doing certain tasks comes from your natural dominance and your own internal desire to do the things that uplift and energize you, even if you have not known that they did this because: they use your preference, or they match your natural extraversion or introversion, or they do both. (Thriving in Mind. Benziger, I. Katherine, PhD. p 133. TX: KBA Publishing, 2000.)

The symptoms of Prolonged Adaptive Stress Syndrome (PASS) that can occur after years of adapting or Falsifying Type, include: fatigue, hypervigilance, immune system alterations, memory impairment, altered brain chemistry, diminished frontal lob functions, discouragement and/or depression, and self-esteem problems. (Benziger, Katherine, PhD. Thriving in Mind: The Art and Science of Using Your Whole Brain. p 266-272. IL: KBA, 2009.)

Both left and right hemispheres and the prefrontal systems are used in the brains of good readers. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Endangered Minds. p 215-218. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1990.)

The brain processing for reading is different from listening (e.g., listening to an audiobook creates a different set of memories compared to reading a book). The right hemisphere is not as active in reading. Listening triggered increased activity in the left part triangularis (a component of Broca’s area). (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. 181-182. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

The hind brain that functions in a habitual manner, can’t alter learned patterns of behavior on its own. It can take over the physicial functions of learned skills (e.g., typing, bike riding, driving a car). It registers present tense only. (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence. p 24-25. VT: Park Street Press, 2002.)

The RAS collects sensory input from the body, collates it, and routes it to appropriate decoding centers in other parts of the brain (e.g., the cerebrum). (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence. p 110. VT: Park Street Press, 2002.)

Activity in the Reticular Formation stimulates the cortex into action—without which there is no consciousness. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Exploring Consciousness. p 29, 115. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

The RAS originates in brainstem and handles functions essential to the alert conscious state. (Guiffre, Kenneth, MD. The Care and Feeding of Your Brain. p 22-23. NJ: Career Press, 1999.)

fMRI studies at USC Brain and Creativity Institute with a task that measures risk tolerance have identified distinct brain regions in the prefrontal with competing responses. Activity in one region identified risk-averse volunteers, while activity in a different region was greater in those with an appetite for risk. (Brain Mysteries. Risk and reward compete in brain. 2008.)

Each individual has a set point, like that of a thermostat, for each of three basic dimensions or aspects of temperament: gain, deliberation-liberation, and approach-withdraw. Where one is set on each of these dimensions seems to endure within the individual. They are the primitive roots of individuality. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. p 48. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995.)

The hypothalamus is the sex center. Less than an ounce in weight and about the size of a cherry, it is larger in the male brain than in the female brain or in the brains of homosexuals and transsexuals. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. p 183-200. NY: Broadway Books, 1998.)

Sexual drive centers on the hypothalamus, but like other urges, it radiates out to encompass a wide range of other brain areas in both the limbic area and the cortex. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 72. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

Refer to Sexuality and the Brain for additional information.

Shifting enables you to use more of your brainpower by consciously selecting the appropriate brain style. This can increase energy levels and release creative abilities. For example: Shift phone to left ear (controlled by right brain) for empathetic listening. Shift phone of right ear (controlled by left hemisphere) for analytic listening. (Wonder, Jacquelyn and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 52-56. NY: Ballantine Books, 1984.)

The use of sign language can stimulate and educate the right brain, thereby cultivating student creativity. Sign language's benefits are that it forces the hearing person to think differently, can add clarity to oral communication, and could be applied to help children with learning disabilities. (ERIC: EJ405300 - Using Sign Language to Access Right Brain Communication: A Tool for Teachers)

Speaking and drawing utilize different areas in the brain. Speaking and writing, however, share some of the same brain circuitry. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain.p 60-62. PA: Rodale, 2003.)

Speaking effectively requires a fine balance between the left and right hemispheres. Speakers who hold your attention usually shift from side to side, alternating between precise, logical speech in rapid crisp style, and some personal comment, a joke, or a dramatic experience in an animated expressive style. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan. Whole Brain Thinking. p 166. NY: Ballantine Books, 1984.)

Differing areas of the brain are specialized for different functions. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. p 86-88. NY: Harmony Books, 2001.)

Brains are like fingerprints. Each brain possesses a unique neurological topography. (Johnson, Steven. Mind Wide Open. p 4. NY: Scribner, 2004.)

Each mind has its specialties and frailties. No one can be good at everything. However, society / school expects children to shine in all classes, athletics, and in following verbal directions. (Levine, Mel, MD. A Mind at a Time. p 60-62. NY: Simon & Schuster, 2002.)

There is an area in the temporal lobe of the right hemisphere that appears to be able to produce intense feelings of spiritual transcendence, combined with a sense of some mystical presence. Such feelings have been elicited in otherwise unreligious people by stimulating this area. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. p 20. CA: University of California Press, 1998.)

Spirituality, although difficult to describe, relates to functions of the right hemisphere, as compared with “proclamation” that involves left-hemisphere functions. (Benson, Herbert, MD, with William Proctor. Your Maximum Mind. p 195-198. NY: Avon Books, 1987.)

Refer to Spirituality and the Brain for additional information.

In 1981, Roger Sperry won the Nobel Prize for his proof of the split-brain theory, which says that one’s problem-solving skills, physical and mental abilities, and even personality traits are strongly influenced by the use of one side of the brain more than the other. Brain bias explains why one person is a math whiz while “creative types” often flounder when trying to balance their checking accounts. Not only individuals, but also organizations have brain bias. (Wonder, Jacquelyn, and Priscilla Donovan.Whole Brain Thinking. p X. NY:Ballantine Books, 1984.)

The most important aspect of split-brain research is not that specific areas in the brain perform specific tasks but that in undertaking most physical and mental activities, the intricate integration of both hemispheres is fundamental. Smaller communicating commissures in the brainstem (e.g., left and right superior colliculi) are not cut in split-brain operations. (Dauphin, Bridget. Understanding Brain Specialization Through Split-Brain Research.)

The tendency to categorize and stereotype other people is an example of automatic thinking, which is likely innate. The brain is prewired to fit people into categories. The content of one’s stereotypes is not innate, however. (Wilson, Timothy D. Strangers to Ourselves. p 52-53. England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002.)

Under acute stress, the two hemispheres of the brain become disconnected. Laughter improves creativity and problem-solving, and activates the limbic system in the brain, connecting the right and left sides. It helps you do more whole brain work. (O’Donnell, Sinara Stull. Laugh More at Work To Ease Office Stress.)

Refer to Stress and the Brain for additional information.

Studies by Emmanuael Donchin, Director of the Laboratory for cognitive Psycholophysiology at the University of Illinois: as much as 99% of cognitive activity may be nonconscious. (Lipton, Bruce, PhD, and Robert M. Williams, MA. Mind or Genes: What Controls Your Life?)

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