Emotions and Feelings

Males may react to perceived emotional abandonment by becoming angry and striking out. (Chapter by Morton H. Shaevitz, PhD, on how men really feel.) (Shaevitz, Marjorie Hansen. The Superwoman Syndrome. NY: Warner Books, 1984, pp 33-46)

Batterers—individuals who have been guilty of battering a spouse—have been found by neuroimaging to be impelled by the fear of abandonment. When shown enactments of abandonment (e.g., a battered spouse announced his/her independence and leaves) areas of the batterers brain associated with anxiety and anger fire up. (Lynch, Zack, PhD, with Byron Laursen. The Neuro Revolution, p. 36-37. NY: St. Martin’s Press, 2009.)

Early experiences with an emotionally unresponsive or abusive caregiver can inhibit the maturation of the orbitofrontal cortex. This can result in a lifelong limited ability, especially under stress, to regulate the intensity, frequency, and duration of primitive negative states such as rage, terror, and shame. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997, p 38)

Refer to Trauma and the Brain for additional information.

The need for achievement can be a strong motivator to some, although there can be a downside. Some become workaholics at the sacrifice of most everything else in life. If they have perfectionistgic tendences, they tend to focus on what they could hve done better, failing to acknowledge what they did well. People who are high in the need to achieve may do things that look risky to others, but in fact have done the research and have the data, or have mastered skills they know will help them achieve the goal. (Goleman, Daniel Jay, PhD. The Brain and Emotional Intelligence: New Insights. p 40-44. MA:More Than Sound, 2011)

There is an important difference between experiencing emotions and feelings, and acting out. Sometimes taking no action is appropriate. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

Whether watching actual footage or a dramatic recreation, the right hemisphere processes the images the same way, and the emotional brain provides the same emotional responses as if the events were actually occurring. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. PA: Rodale, 2003, pp 80-81)

If you lose touch with your authentic self, you will pay a price (e.g., apathy, pain, fear, frustration, anger, and the sense of being disconnected from your own life). (McGraw, Phillip C., PhD. Self Matters. NY: Simon & Schuster Source, 2001, pp 17, 88, 127)

Refer to Adapting and the Brain for additional information.

Affective language is housed in the right hemisphere. Males who lose function in Broca’s conscious speech area (left frontal lobe) may still retain affective speech (e.g., four-letter words, singing) in the right hemisphere. They can’t quote words to a song but can sing it. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Affective process differs from cognitive process. Affective or emotional processing may displace cognitive processing (at least momentarily). You can define an argument as a dialogue in which affect displaces cognition, and emotion overpowers reasoning. (Restak, Richard, MD. The Naked Brain. p 14-16. NY: Three Rivers Press, 2006.)

Thinking aggressive thoughts can alter blood flow to the brain, and can activate patterns related to angry impulses. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. PA: Rodale, 2003, pp 82-83)

Aggressiveness tends to be learned, and it can be passed from generation to generation. Children of aggressive parents tend to repeat that style of parenting with their children. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD. Emotional Intelligence. NY: Bantam Books, 1995, pp 196-197)

Alexithymia (from the Greek for “lacking words for emotions”) describes and inability to recognize and/or describe even basic/extreme emotions, although the individual does have emotions. Some are good at recognizing their wants, needs, joys, and sorrows, and when their feelings are at odds with cultural theories and standards, while others are less skilled at this type of self-awareness. (Wilson, Timothy D. Strangers to Ourselves. England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002, p 135)

Allergic reactions can include restlessness, tears, rage, violence, or exhaustion. Some mood and attention problems resolve overnight when sensitive people remove allergy foods (e.g., sugar) from the diet. (Ross, Julia, MA. The Diet Cure. NY: Penguin Books, 1999, pp 74-75)

Allostasis refers to the process whereby bodily systems react to changes in the environment, as opposed to homeostasis, in which there is a single set point that the body tries to maintain. (Wilson, Timothy D. Strangers to Ourselves. England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002, pp 142-143)

Drugs that change behavior (e.g., heroin, marijuana, Librium, PCP or angel dust) create an altered state of consciousness. (Refer to Substances and the Brain for additional information.) (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY: Scribner, 1997, p 30)

Molecules of emotion create altered states of consciousness, each of which comes with different behavioral patterns, memories, postures, facial expressions, and levels of information substances. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

The amygdala is the brain's radar for threat, a trigger point for emotional distress (e.g., anger, fear, impulse) and can hijack the rest of the brain (especially the pre-frontal cortex) in an instant, especially in modern life where "danger" is often symbolic rather than physical. In the workplace, the five top amygdala triggers are:

  1. Condescension and lack of respect
  2. Being treated unfairly
  3. Being unappreciated
  4. Feeling you're not being listened to or heard
  5. Being held to unrealistic deadlines

(Goleman, Daniel. The Brain and Emotional Intelleigence: New Insights. p 29-31. MA:More Than Sounds, 2011)

The amygdala (in the emotional brain layer) is an emotional specialist, and can trigger an emotional impulse before the conscious cortex has had time to fully understand what is happening. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD. Emotional Intelligence. NY: Bantam Books, 1995, pp 14-15)

The amygdalae (there are two of them) create emotions. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. CA: University of California Press, 1998, p 103)

The amygdale (a limbic brain structure that scans what happens to us from moment to moment) is the trigger point for emotional impulses. The prefrontal area is able to veto an emotional impulse to help ensure a more appropriate response. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD, with Richard Boyatzis, and Annie Mckee. Primal Leadership. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002, p 28)

According to Dr. Newberg, co-author of How God Changes Your Brain, anger and irritability can derail activity in the frontal love. When this happens, one's ability to resolve conflicts all but vanishes, as the frontal lobe gove3rns reasoning, language, and cooperative communication. (The Mind Health Report, Special Report, 1011-REV1111)

If you can’t recognize and deal with anger you will likely begin to tolerate the intolerable. Holding on to anger, however, can result in being hurt from the anger itself. (Cooper, Robert K., PhD., and Ayman Sawaf. Executive EQ. NY: Grosset/Putnam, 1997, pp 36-37, 74-75)

Anger (and frustration) impacts the body in the same way regardless of whether the brain perceives that the anger was justified. Adrenalin rises and the nervous system is thrown into a state of alarm and disorder occurs in the heart’s rhythms (known as heart rate variability or HRV). (Childre, Doc and Howard Martin. The HeartMath Solution. CA: Harper SF, 1999, pp 36, 56-57)

Any anger or fear shifts energy and attention from the neocortex to the reptilian brain. (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence. VT: Park Street Press, 2002, pp 30-36)

There is an important difference between feeling and acting. Controlling your temper when the officer demands to see your license does not threaten your well being; but you do risk a depressed immune system if you talk yourself out of your anger because you believe it unjustified. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

People and events can only act as a trigger. You decide to react and can become mad, glad, angry, or loving. (Fox, Arnold, MD, and Barry Fox, PhD. Wake Up! You’re Alive! FL: Health Communications, 1988, p 15)

The emotion of anger tries to limit potential injury by making it a little less safe to approach you. It may be the only emotion that very controlling people feel comfortable expressing. (Viscott, David. MD. Emotional Resilience. NY: Crown Publishers Inc., 1996, pp 81-83)

Simply remembering/recalling an angry feeling for about five minutes can impair the immune system for over six hours. Imagine what a really angry outburst could do! (Childre, Doc and Howard Martin. The HeartMath Solution. CA: Harper SF, 1999, pp 162-164)

Anger and resentment are the most contagious of all emotions. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. PA: Rodale, 2003, pp 36-38)

Anger needs to be expressed appropriately and worked through in order for the person to be healthy. Misdirecting or suppressing anger completely are unhealthy forms of expressions. (Hafen, Brent Q., et al. Mind/Body Health. MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1996, pp 172-174)

Males are inclined to turn jealous anger inward, confront the woman with it, or seek revenge. Women are more likely to respond with feelings of helplessness, betrayal, insecurity, and inadequacy, and tend to seek the support of a friend, make plans to get even, and to cry when alone. (Stump, Jane Barr, PhD. What’s the Difference? NY: William Morrow and Company, Inc., 1985, pp 108-109)

Maintaining negative emotions can result in production of body chemicals that are dangerous when present in the wrong proportions (e.g., ACTH, adrenaline, noradrenaline, cortisone). (Fox, Arnold, MD, and Barry Fox, PhD. Wake Up! You’re Alive! FL: Health Communications, 1988, pp 102-103)

Some core emotions appear to be exhibited universally (e.g., embarrassment, anger/rage, disgust, flirting). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD and David Sobel, MD. The Healing Brain. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1987, p 63)

Study: One 5-minute episode of mentally and emotionally recalling an experience of anger resulted in a rise in IgA, followed by severe depletion (e.g., took the body more than 6 hours to restore normal production of IgA). A single episode of recalling an experience of anger and frustration can suppress the immune system for a day. (Childre, Doc. Freeze Frame. CA: Planetary Publications, 1194, 1998, pp 41-43)

Chronic anger and fear can trigger permanent changes in one’s chemical profile, which may actually become encoded in the genes and passed on to the next generation (which may become successively more aggressive). (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997, pp 167-168)

Anger and love are independent systems in the brain, although closely related. A person can be very angry and still be in love. (Fisher, Helen. Why We Love. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004, pp 167-168)

Anger or rage, while experienced by all children, may represent inherited behavioral tendencies. There is increasing evidence that irritability tends to run in families. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997, pp 200-201)

Psychologists are reporting a new phenomenon of "desk rage" (anger) with workers resorting to stand-up rows with their colleagues because of the pressure they face. Desk rage (anger) may represent low EQ behaviors. Psychologist Sue Keane of the British Psychological Society urged workers to find time for a break. It is estimated that 40 million working days are lost in the UK every year because of stress. (Health Workers at Risk of Desk Rage.)

According to the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health and a report entitled Compensation and Working Conditions conducted by the University of Virginia , in 1998 alone, 700 homicides occurred in the workplace in the U.S. Along with the increase in desk rage has been the "Dilbertization" of the workplace. That is, implementing cost-cutting measures that place workers into increasingly smaller workplaces. Integra reports that 1 in 8 office workers now work in a cubicle.(Williams, Ray B. Look out - Here Comes Desk Rage.)

Non-human mammalian: limited to anger, fear, loneliness, and joy. Non-human reptilian: Limited to primitive fight-or-flight responses. (Newberg, Andrew, MD., and Mark Robert Waldman. Why We Believe What We Believe. NY: Free Press, 2006, p 34)

Animals don’t have the frontal cortex as do humans, but animals are able to experience emotions. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

Addresses nine categories of feline sensitivity: narcissism, love, contentment, attachment, jealousy, fear, anger, curiosity, and playfulness. Provides glimpses into the secret emotional world of cats. (Masson, Jeffrey Moussaieff. The Nine Emotional Lives of Cats. NY: Ballantine Books.)

Explores the emotional needs of “problem” pets, including a wide array of psychological maladies afflicting animals, and the promising results of animal psychopharmacology. (Dodman, Nicholas H. If Only They Could Speak: stories about pets and their people. W.W. Norton & Company.)

Anxiety is a cognitive state in which working memory is monopolized by fretful, worrying thoughts, and concerns about what might be going to happen. (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self. NY: Penguin Books, 2002, pp 288-289)

Uncomfortable feelings (e.g., fear, anxiety) are central to the integrity of being human. When you are willing to experience all emotions, you begin to enter the real world of the bodymind. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

In the presence of insecurity, anxiety, indecision, and tension, the focus of attention can become divided among the three brains (e.g., thinking one thing, feeling another, and acting from impulses that are different from either of these). (Pearce, Joseph Chilton. The Biology of Transcendence. VT: Park Street Press, 2002, pp 32-36)

High levels of dopamine are associated with anxiety, fear, intense motivation, and goal-directed behaviors. (Refer to Substances and the Brain for more information about dopamine.) (Fisher, Helen. Why We Love. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004, pp 160-165)

Brain scans: high activity in the amygdala and the right prefrontal area in a person who is anxious. High activity in circuitry from the left prefrontal cortex down to the amygdala in a person who is in a good mood. The left prefrontal area inhibits the action of the amygdala related to distress. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD, with Richard Boyatzis, and Annie Mckee. Primal Leadership. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002, pp 45-46)

In a state of deep love or appreciation the brain synchronizes or entrains (comes into harmony) with the heart’ harmonious rhythms, creating a sense of well-being and heightened intuitive clarity. (Childre, Doc and Howard Martin. The HeartMath Solution. CA: Harper SF, 1999, pp 38-39)

The “approach-withdrawal” continuum has to do with one’s basic emotional approach to life. Both shy and outgoing children seem to stay the same way from birth until at least their eighth birthday, and perhaps for life. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995, p 5, 39-40)

Study: closer relation between hearing and emotional arousal than between seeing and emotional arousal (e.g., usually have music in motion pictures). (Storr, Anthony. Music and the Mind. NY: Ballantine Books, 1992, pp 25-28)

When the emotional atmosphere is calm and positive, problems that could be potentially lethal are often handled very objectively. (Friedman, Edwin H. Generation to Generation. NY: The Guilford Press, 1985, pp 240-242)

Vasopressin and oxytocin, produced in the hypothalamus, appear involved in the chemistry of attachment. Testosterone seems to play a negative role in attachment. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. NY: Random House, 1999, pp 256-258)

Attachment (pair-bond formation) is a key element of love. Oxytocin and vasopressin, present in the brains of humans and released during sexual behavior, haven’t yet been proven to underlie attachment. (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self. NY: Penguin Books, 2002, pp 230-233)

Imprinting of attachment loss affects memory and, consequently, learning. Emotional stress in students (pre-school and daycare) is generally founded in the fear of loss of attachment. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001, pp 76-78)

Laboratory testing known as the Strange Situation: based on reactions, the infant is classified as having a secure, avoidant, or anxious/ambivalent working model of attachment. A fourth attachment style (disorganized) has recently been identified. (Wilson, Timothy D. Strangers to Ourselves. England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002, pp 79-80)

Your emotions (or psychoactive drugs that take over the receptors) decide what is worth paying attention to. Even when “stuck” emotionally, there is always a biochemical potential for change and growth. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY: Scribner, 1997, pp 146-147)

Your habitual attitudes form neural circuits in the brain. If you choose to maintain a specific attitude, the brain can literally rewire itself to facilitate that attitude. (Childre, Doc and Howard Martin. The HeartMath Solution. p 195-196. CA: Harper SF, 1999.)

To be emotionally honest is to be real and authentic. Relevance is important (e.g., appropriate expression of feelings that are congruent with purpose and consistent with ethical values). (Cooper, Robert K., PhD., and Ayman Sawaf. Executive EQ. NY: Grosset/Putnam 1997, pp 10-11)

Emotion-specific activity in the autonomic nervous system was generated by constructing facial prototypes of emotion muscle by muscle and by reliving past emotional experiences; it distinguished between positive and negative emotions and among negative emotions. (Ekman, P., R. W. Levenson, and V. W. Friesen. Science. 1983 Sep 16;221(4616):1208-10. PMID: 6612338 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]. Article.)

Need to learn to identify, feel, and appropriately express the entire range of emotion available to the human brain; to be emotionally expressive (e.g., music, acting, verbalizations); to live between the emotional extremes of avoidance / wearing a mask, and letting it all hang out. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

Advantageous to be able to react to one’s environment emotionally, and also to be able to avoid emotional extremes. (Wilson, Timothy D. Strangers to Ourselves. England: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002, pp 142-143)

We all begin life with the same basic emotions, the same color vision, and the same time orientation. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995, p 31)

The basal ganglia, three masses of gray matter located deep within each cerebral hemisphere, likely act with the limbic system to regulate emotional behaviors. (Tortora, Gerard J. and Sandra Reynolds Grabowski. Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 10th Edition. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003, pp 469-471)

It is not the events in your life that shape you but your beliefs about what those events mean. (Sometimes referred to as the 20:80 Rule.) (Robbins, Anthony. Awaken the Giant Within. NY: Fireside, 1991, pp 73-74)

All your talents are mustered by belief. When you believe in yourself, you are better able to find solutions and quicker to spot opportunity. Circuits and emotional channels in your brain open wide, allowing knowledge and wisdom to circulate freely. (Fox, Arnold, MD, and Barry Fox, PhD. Wake Up! You’re Alive! FL: Health Communications, 1988, pp 54-55)

Opiate receptors are densely concentrated in the limbic brain, but also occur in every other part of the body. When opiate molecules bind to receptors on cell surfaces, the cells respond by generating bliss—at a preconscious, physiological level. This information is sent to the frontal cortex, where you form thoughts about what you are experiencing. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

Blood flow is closely regulated by emotional peptides, which signal receptors on blood vessel walls to constrict or dilate. If emotions are blocked due to denial, repression, or trauma, blood flow can become chronically constricted, depriving the frontal cortex and other organs of vital nourishment. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY: Scribner, 1997, p 289)

May be more damaging to the brain/body (than just fuming over angry feelings) and can actually reinforce the emotional pattern in the brain’s neural circuitry – which leads to more anger and aggression. (Childre, Doc and Howard Martin. The HeartMath Solution. CA: Harper SF, 1999, pp 57-58)

Your emotions are stored in your body. Therefore, they must be addressed in your body (e.g., massage). (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

Your body reacts to every thought you have as the limbic system translates your emotional state into physical sensations of relaxation or tension. Learn to notice how your body reacts to every thought you have. Never leave your thought patterns to chance. (Amen, Daniel G., MD. Change Your Brain Change Your Life. NY: Times Books, 1998, pp 56-60)

Oxytocin, produced in the hypothalamus as a result of stimulation to the sex and reproductive organs, seems to impact bonding (sexual, and between parent and child). (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. CA: University of California Press, 1998, p 76)

Refer to Dysfunctions of the Brain for additional information.

Boys need to be taught how to express emotions in appropriate nonverbal ways. (Joy, Donald, PhD. The Innate Differences Between Males & Females (Audio Cassette). CO: Focus on the Family, 1967.)

Each person has a resting left-to-right ratio of prefrontal activity. Higher activity on the left predicts more positive emotions; higher activity on the right predicts more negative emotions. People who flourish in life tend to have at least three positive emotional events for every negative one; in top teams the left-right ratio is five-to-one. (Goleman, Daniel. The Brain and Emotional Intelleigence: New Insights. p 34-37. MA:More Than Sounds, 2011)

The left hemisphere is skilled at operating in “just-the-facts” mode that emphasizes logic and reason. It needs to be combined with right hemisphere processing to attain a unified experience. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. NY: Harmony Books, 2001, pp 164-168)

Studies at IHM: the field radiated by your heart is literally picked up by the brains of people nearby. When two people are touching or even standing near each other, it is now possible to measure the heartbeat of one person being registered in the other person’s brainwaves. (Childre, Doc. Freeze Frame – One Minute Stress Management. CA: Planetary Publications, 1994, 1998, p 36)

The early years including the in utero period are critical and sensitive for the development of neuron function and neural pathways. The neurons and pathways involved in emotions and behaviour, and language and literacy are very sensitive to the early period of brain development. The early neural pathways are not as plastic as some of the other pathways that form later. The brain architecture and function that forms early is hard to change by the time the children are in the school system. (Mustard, J. Fraser, MD. Investing in the Early Years: Closing the gap between what we know and what we do, 2008. p. 13.)

Individuals with damage to the brain’s prefrontal-amygdala circuit show that their decision-making ability is terribly flawed (e.g., make disastrous choices in personal and business lives, obsess endlessly over a simple decision), although they show no deterioration in IQ or other cognitive abilities. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD. Emotional Intelligence. NY: Bantam Books, 1995, pp 27-28)

Females tend to cry, be depressed, and tell their friends. Males may deny feelings of sadness, try to run from the loss (e.g., turn to alcohol or drugs, overwork), and don’t want to talk about the event. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. NY: Random House, 1999, pp 275-276)

Males tend to bully women who are sensitive and quiet, and accustomed to giving in to a domineering male. Females tend to emotionally bully males who deal with facts, data, and concrete realities, and who cope less well with emotions. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004, pp 85-90)

Strong emotions that are not processed thoroughly are stored at the cellular level. At night stored information is released into consciousness as a dream. Re-experiencing the emotions through dreaming can be healing (e.g., integrate the information for growth, take actions to forgive and let go). (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY: Scribner, 1997, p 290)

Exercise: mentally focus on your heart. It can help you regulate your emotions. Picture taking disturbed feelings into the heart and soaking them there. This won’t necessarily make the issue disappear, but it can take the density out of your cellular memory and reduce its power. (Childre, Doc and Howard Martin. The HeartMath Solution. CA: Harper SF, 1999, pp 193-194)

Refer to Human Brain for additional information.

Emotions are cellular signals involved in the process of translating information into physical reality, literally transforming mind into matter. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY: Scribner, 1997, pp 118-189, 261)

All human emotions are biochemical in nature. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Listen and Women Can’t Read Maps. NY: Broadway Books, 1998, pp 155-160)

The tendency is to treat yourself the way your parents treated you, and to recreate (in your personal relationships) the emotional environment you experienced in your early childhood. (Hay, Louise L. You Can Heal Your Life. CA: Hay House, Inc., 1984, pp 8-10)

Provides examples: when a male accused his partner of not understanding him, his strongest feelings were attached to old memories he had carried around since childhood—not to anything his partner had done in the present. (Childre, Doc. Freeze Frame – One Minute Stress Management. CA: Planetary Publications, 1994, 1998, p 97)

Since only one core emotion can be in place at a time, human beings potentially have the ability to choose their state of mind. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

You are responsible for your thoughts and feelings. Knowing this opens new possibilities in life. Owning your thoughts and feelings places you in charge of them and helps you recognize that you are the chooser. Being the chooser of your thoughts and feelings means that you can keep them or let them go. (Source)

We may not be able to choose what specific emotions a specific thought or situation will trigger. We can choose what we will think about. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD. Emotional Intelligence. NY: Bantam Books, 1995, pp 293-294)

Quotes Marcus Aurelius. If you are distressed by anything external, the pain is due less to the thing itself and more to your own estimate of it. You can change your estimate at will. (Robbins, Anthony. Awaken the Giant Within. NY: Fireside, 1991, pp 59-61)

A closed-loop such as the circulatory system is self-regulating. What happens in the circulatory system of others around us does not impact our own system. (Refer to Open-Loop System.) (Goleman, Daniel, PhD, with Richard Boyatzis, and Annie Mckee. Primal Leadership. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002, pp 6-8)

Studies by Deborah Sharpe, author of The Psychology of Color and Design: the color yellow is related to cheer, happiness, and fun. (Colby, Barbara, ASID. Color & Light: Influences and Impact. CA: Barbara Colby, 1990, p 59)

A state that allows us to retain our own authenticity, without over-caring for others, while still allowing us to perceive what another person is feeling. (Childre, Doc and Howard Martin. The HeartMath Solution. CA: Harper SF, 1999, p 43)

Compulsive behavior, at its most fundamental, is a lack of self-love; it is an expression of a belief that we are not good enough. Love and compulsion cannot coexist. (Roth, Geneen. When Food is Love. NY: Penguin Books Inc, 1992, pp 19, 23)

Study: people with OCD (Obsessive Compulsive Disorder) had lower levels of serotonin in the blood than did controls. (Fisher, Helen. Why We Love. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004, pp 52-60)

Most of us have been conditioned since childhood to distrust our emotions….too bad, because the brain is organized to process emotions along with logic. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. NY: Harmony Books, 2001, pp 115-116)

Managers spend an average of 18% of their time managing employee conflicts, a figure that has nearly doubled in the last decade or so. (Article: Resolving conflicts: workplace conflicts happen. US Fed News Service, Including US State News; August 19, 2006.)

Each time you recall a specific event you brain releases chemical similar to those released when you originally inputted your impressions of the event. If you want to feel positive, recall positive memories. (Amen, Daniel G., MD. Change Your Brain Change Your Life. NY: Times Books, 1998, pp 76-77)

The orbitofrontal cortex (the region just behind the bridge of the nose) is responsible for the conscious perception of em0tions. If it is not active, emotion is reduced to a robotic reflex without feeling. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Exploring Consciousness. CA: University of California Press, 1998, pp 115, 181)

Emotional contagion means that negative emotions exert a more powerful effect in social situations than positive ones. Limit time you spend with people given to pessimism and expressions of futility. To accomplish something that demands determination and endurance, surround yourself with others who possess these qualities. (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. PA: Rodale, 2003, pp 36-38)

Emotions fall along a continuum in humans. They are inherited, universal, involuntary, have similar facial poses, hard to fake, and often difficult to control. They include joy, anger, fear, sadness, disgust, and surprise. (Fisher, Helen. Why We Love. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004, pp 96-100)

While unable to prevent an initial reaction from occurring, the prefrontal cortex (thinking brain layer) can put “the brakes on the amygdala’s (emotional brain layer) impulse to rampage.” (Goleman, Daniel, PhD. Emotional Intelligence. NY: Bantam Books, 1995, pp 208-210)

You only have control over: where you put your attention and the decisions you make about what happens to you or around you. (Dodd, Ray. The Power of Belief. VA: Hampton Roads Pub. Co. Inc., 2003, pp 97-98)

Emotions are stored in the body so they must be addressed in the body (e.g., massage). Only one core emotion can be on stage at a time. Potentially, you have the ability to be in any state of mind you choose. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

Quotes UCSF psychologist, Paul Ekman: six basic emotions (plus contempt) are universal: happiness, anger, fear, sadness disgust, and surprise. It can be difficult to distinguish between fear and surprise in facial expressions. (Shreeve, James. Beyond the Brain. National Geographic, Vol. 207, No. 3, March, 2005, p 19)

All human beings begin life with the same basic emotions, the same color vision, and the same time orientation. (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. NY: HarperCollins Publishing, 1995, p 31)

Specific emotions such as anger, fear, love, joy, and sadness, are considered primary emotions. All humans are believed to have them. Other emotions (e.g., hate, excitement, grief, pity, sympathy, guilt, envy, shame) are considered secondary learned emotions. (Shaevitz, Marjorie Hansen. The Confident Woman. NY: Harmony Books, 1999, pp 174-175)

Robert Plutchik has proposed a theory of eight primary emotions (sadness, disgust, anger, anticipation, joy, acceptance, fear, surprise) that, much like primary colors, could be mixed to get secondary emotions (e.g., fear + surprise = alarm, joy + fear – guilt). (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY: Scribner, 1997, p 132)

The central executive portion of the brain. Among many other functions it collects and weighs sensory data, integrates thoughts with feelings, makes choices, and controls basic drives. (Fisher, Helen. Why We Love. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004, p 76)

You can create an emotion by picturing in your mind the kinds of things that create it. You can adopt the specific postures and breathing patterns that create that state in your body (e.g., ecstasy, compassion, love, and any other emotion). (Robbins, Anthony. Unlimited Power. NY: Fireside, 1986, pp 8-12)

Creativity needs a positive emotional climate. The right hemisphere is involved in artistic expression, and is more in touch with the emotional feeling centers in the limbic system. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. NY: Doubleday, 1987, 1989, pp 324-325, 335-336)

Imagination, along with creativity, and intuition, are qualities with emotional dimensions. They can lead to surviving, thriving, and serendipity. (Siebert, Al, PhD. The Survivor Personality. NY: A Perigee Book, 1996, pp 54-55)

See Creativity and the Brain for additional information.

Studies: a few emotions can be distinguished cross-culturally. These are happiness, sadness, anger, and fear. (Dunn, Laurel, J. Nonverbal Communication: Information Conveyed Through the Use of Body Language. Abstract.)

The female brain is better at handling emotive data. (Gurian, Michael, PhD. The Wonder of Boys. NY: Jeremy P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1996, pp 18-19)

Defensive aggression is related to strong emotions, notably fear and anger. (Wilson, Glenn. The Great Sex Divide. England: Peter Owen Publishers, 1989, pp 119-120)

Depersonalization can occur during acute trauma (e.g., car accident). At the time the event is experienced in a distant way, seemingly without emotion. But in fact the emotional memory is being formed in the limbic system and later it can flood back. Because it was laid down in isolation, without being bound to words, such a memory may not have any describable content—it will just be a replay of the emotional state that the person was in when it was laid down. Panic attacks and post-traumatic stress disorder may be a late effect of this type of depersonalization. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Exploring Consciousness. CA: University of California Press, 1998, pp 264-267)

A series of clinical studies and additional laboratory animal experiments support the hypothesis that alterations in central nervous system (CNS) corticotropin-releasing factor  or CRF-containing circuits play an important role in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. (Nemeroff CB. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) hypothesis of depression: new findings and new directions. Mol Psychiatry. 1996 Sep;1(4):336–342. )

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a 41-amino acid peptide derived from a 196-amino acid preprohormone. CRH is secreted by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in response to stress. Increased CRH production has been observed to be associated with Alzheimer's disease and major depression. (Raadsheer, F.C., et al. "Corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus of patients with Alzheimer's disease and depression." Am J Psychiatry 152 (9): 1372–6. PMID 7653697.)

There is an overproduction of the major HPA-stimulating neuropeptide Corticotropin-releasing Factor or CRF within the Central Nervous System or CNS in psychiatric patients with major depression. The CSF CRF immunoreactivity appears to be unrelated to the actual suicidal behavior and is only parallel with the depressive syndrome. The major (endogenous-type) depressive syndrome in its complexity appears to be related to the endocrine dysfunction. Major depression is one important cause of suicidal acts and therefore its biological basis, including HPA axis overactivity probably due to primary CRF excess, must be kept in mind in both prevention and treatment of suicide. (Banki, C.M., et al. “Cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites and neuroendocrine findings: biochemical markers in suicidal patients.” J Affect Disord 6:341-350. Banki, C.M., et al. “Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-like immunoreactivity in depression and schizophrenia.” Am J Psychiatry 144:873-877.)

Effects of Corticotropin-Releasing Factor or CRF in limbic brain regions have been associated with increased fear, alertness, decreased appetite and libido, all functions relevant in the fight or flight response and dysregulated in depression and anxiety disorders. Overactivity of the CRF/CRF1 receptor system has been demonstrated to be one of the long-term neurobiological sequelae of early life trauma, a major risk factor for the development of affective disorders. In fact, both rodents and non-human primates exposed to adverse experiences in early life exhibit evidence of hyperactivity of the CRF system as adults. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3666571/  Accessed 7-16))

A series of clinical studies and additional laboratory animal experiments support the hypothesis that alterations in central nervous system (CNS) corticotropin-releasing factor  or CRF-containing circuits play an important role in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. (Nemeroff CB. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) hypothesis of depression: new findings and new directions. Mol Psychiatry. 1996 Sept;1(4):336–342. )

There is an overproduction of the major HPA-stimulating neuropeptide Corticotropin-releasing Factor or CRF within the Central Nervous System or CNS in psychiatric patients with major depression. The CSF CRF immunoreactivity appears to be unrelated to the actual suicidal behavior and is only parallel with the depressive syndrome. The major (endogenous-type) depressive syndrome in its complexity appears to be related to the endocrine dysfunction. Major depression is one important cause of suicidal acts and therefore its biological basis, including HPA axis overactivity probably due to primary CRF excess, must be kept in mind in both prevention and treatment of suicide. (Banki, C.M., et al. “Cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites and neuroendocrine findings: biochemical markers in suicidal patients.” J Affect Disord 6:341-350. Banki, C.M., et al. “Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-like immunoreactivity in depression and schizophrenia.” Am J Psychiatry 144:873-877.)

In “Work Time Control and Mental Health of Workers Working Long Hours: The Role of Gender and Age,” Dorota Żołnierczyk-Zreda studied the relationship between work time control and mental health in workers working long hours. There were significant gender differences in low-flexibility working conditions in the youngest and the oldest groups. The youngest female workers and the oldest male workers had a higher level of depression than participants from the other gender groups working in low-flexibility conditions. (Accessed 7-16. https://www.ciop.pl/CIOPPortalWAR/file/71765/2014072991938%26zolnierczyk-zreda_18(3).pdf)

Some men who drastically lower their cholesterol level experience depression, suicidal tendencies, and a higher rate of accidents. (Dossey, Larry, MD. Be Careful What You Pray For. P 43. NY: HarperCollins, 1998.)

There is an overproduction of the major HPA-stimulating neuropeptide Corticotropin-releasing Factor or CRF within the Central Nervous System or CNS in psychiatric patients with major depression. The CSF CRF immunoreactivity appears to be unrelated to the actual suicidal behavior and is only parallel with the depressive syndrome. The major (endogenous-type) depressive syndrome in its complexity appears to be related to the endocrine dysfunction. Major depression is one important cause of suicidal acts and therefore its biological basis, including HPA axis overactivity probably due to primary CRF excess, must be kept in mind in both prevention and treatment of suicide. (Banki, C.M., et al. “Cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites and neuroendocrine findings: biochemical markers in suicidal patients.” J Affect Disord 6:341-350. Banki, C.M., et al. “Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-like immunoreactivity in depression and schizophrenia.” Am J Psychiatry 144:873-877.)

Sara Thomée, doctoral student at the University of Gothenburg’s Sahlgrenska Academy and colleagues conducted four studies to evaluate the effects of heavy computer and cell phone by young adults on sleep quality, stress levels, and general mental health. The studies found that young adults who make particularly heavy use of mobile phones and computers run a greater risk of sleep disturbances, stress, and symptoms of mental health. Heavy use of mobile phones was linked to an increase in sleeping problems in males and an increase in depressive symptoms in both males and females.
(University of Gothenburg. "Intensive mobile phone use affects young people's sleep." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 11 June 2012.  Accessed 7-16. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2012/06/120611134233.htm>)

Studies by Sara Thomée, doctoral student, and colleagues at the University of Gothenburg’s Sahlgrenska Academy have shown links between frequent computer use without breaks and late at night and health problems.

  • Frequent computer use without breaks was found to increase the risk of stress, sleeping problems, and depressive symptoms in women
  • Males who use computers extensively without breaks were more likely to develop sleeping problems.

Regularly using a computer late at night was associated not only with sleep disorders but also with stress and depressive symptoms in both men and women (http://www.huffingtonpost.com/david-volpi-md-pc-facs/technology-depression_b_1723625.html  Accessed 7-16).

The mental disorder of depression is partially caused by the reward system. A person who is depressed has a less reactive reward system. Due to this reduced reward system, it leads to a depressed person who is unable to react to positive rewards that they receive. Because of the person’s inability to react to positive stimulants the person is unable to feel positive about anything. This pessimistic outlook on life causes the person dealing with depression to question their life and all the things that they own. The person does not consider rewards such as: life, a job, money, and family as rewards. The person's unreactive reward system causes no positivity in the person's life, and this leads the contemplation of suicide in order to escape such a life.  [“The role of the brain reward system in depression.” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 25: 781–823. doi:10.1016/S0278-5846(01)00156-7.]

Effects of Corticotropin Releasing Factor or CRF in limbic brain regions have been associated with increased fear, alertness, decreased appetite and libido, all functions relevant in the fight or flight response and dysregulated in depression and anxiety disorders. Overactivity of the CRF/CRF1 receptor system has been demonstrated to be one of the long term neurobiological sequelae of early life trauma, a major risk factor for the development of affective disorders. In fact, both rodents and non-human primates exposed to adverse experiences in early life exhibit evidence of hyperactivity of the CRF system as adults. (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3666571/)

A series of clinical studies and additional laboratory animal experiments support the hypothesis that alterations in central nervous system (CNS) corticotropin-releasing factor  or CRF-containing circuits play an important role in the pathophysiology of anxiety and depression. (Nemeroff, CB. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) hypothesis of depression: new findings and new directions. Mol Psychiatry. 1996 Sep;1(4):336–342. )

Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a 41-amino acid peptide derived from a 196-amino acid preprohormone. CRH is secreted by the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus in response to stress. Increased CRH production has been observed to be associated with Alzheimer's disease and major depression. (Raadsheer, F.C., et al. "Corticotropin-releasing hormone mRNA levels in the paraventricular nucleus of patients with Alzheimer's disease and depression." Am J Psychiatry 152 (9): 1372–6. PMID 7653697.)

Significantly higher CRF (Corticotropin-releasing Factor) concentrations were found in the suicide group than in the controls. Retrospective psychiatric assessments on 200 comparable cases of consummated suicide from the same forensic institute showed sixty-one percent of these suffered from a recent episode of affective disorder. It is assumed that the elevated CRF concentration found in suicides can be related to their underlying depression and not to the suicidal behavior, as we found no differences in CSF CRF between suicidal and nonsuicidal depressed patients in a clinical investigation. (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/20618714_CRF_in_suicide_victims)

A study has shown dysregulation of Corticotrophin-releasing Hormone or CRH and GABA as well as other brain chemicals in the brains of those who committed suicide. This study is the first to show the integration of GABAA subunit mRNAs in frontal brain regions, and the first to demonstrate that dysregulation occurs in association with a psychopathological state. (http://www.jneurosci.org/content/24/6/1478.full)

There is an overproduction of the major HPA-stimulating neuropeptide Corticotropin-releasing Factor or CRF within the Central Nervous System or CNS in psychiatric patients with major depression. The CSF CRF immunoreactivity appears to be unrelated to the actual suicidal behavior and is only parallel with the depressive syndrome. The major (endogenous-type) depressive syndrome in its complexity appears to be related to the endocrine dysfunction. Major depression is one important cause of suicidal acts and therefore its biological basis, including HPA axis overactivity probably due to primary CRF excess, must be kept in mind in both prevention and treatment of suicide. (Banki, C.M., et al. “Cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites and neuroendocrine findings: biochemical markers in suicidal patients.” J Affect Disord 6:341-350. Banki, C.M., et al. “Cerebrospinal fluid corticotropin-like immunoreactivity in depression and schizophrenia.” Am J Psychiatry 144:873-877.)

According to a report published in the journal Translational Psychiatry: in a pilot study of 28 adolescents, a blood test of 11 genetic markers was able to accurately predict which teens were experiencing normal teenage angst versus clinical depression. If larger studies confirm these results, it may eventually be possible to screen for clinical depression as is currently done for some other conditions such as Diabetes. The open question is whether or not this relates specifically to early onset depression or if researchers would be able to get similar results with older individuals. (Source)

Depression is not a single clinical condition so the same treatment doesn’t work on all depressed people. It afflicts about 15% of the population. Monoamines are involved (e.g., serotonin). The adrenal cortex secretes more cortisol, which can decrease neurotrophins (brain food). (LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self, How Our Brains Become Who We Are. NY: Penguin Books, 2002, pp 272-282)

Studies: aging humans who consumed more omega-3 fatty acids had increased gray matter brain volume. Most new tissue development was observed in the portion of the brain associated with happiness. (Sarah M. Conklin, PhD. High -6 and Low -3 Fatty Acids are Associated With Depressive Symptoms and Neuroticism. 2007.)

A well-defined area of the prefrontal cortex is underactive in the depressed brain. The same area is smaller in the left hemisphere of depressed patients but not in that of controls. (Brynie, Faith Hickman. 101 Questions Your Brain Has Asked About Itself But Couldn’t Answer, Until Now. CT: Millbrook Press, 1998, p 95)

Studies: antidepressants usually begin to work within 1-6 weeks, while psychotherapy usually takes 6-8 weeks. In some studies there were no differences in overall responses observed (e.g., drugs versus therapy) so need to address underlying causes. (Glenmullen, Joseph, MD. Prozac Backlash. NY: Simon & Schuster, 2000, pp 252-258)

Depression was the 4th leading cause of disease-burden in 1990 and by 2020 will be the single leading cause. (Childre, Doc. Freeze Frame. CA: Planetary Publications, 1994, 1998, pp xvi-xvii)

Depression apparently can lead to atrophy of the hippocampus (that can be related to memory difficulties). (Restak, Richard, MD. The New Brain. PA: Rodale, 2003, p 122)

(Attributed to Carolyn Stearns, massage therapist). Underneath your depression is anger. Underneath anger is sadness. Underneath sadness is fear – which may be the root of the depression. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY: Scribner, 1997, p 244)

Studies: brain changes indicative of depression can occur in nondepressed volunteers if they allow themselves to think sad or depressing thoughts. Initially, it may be negative thoughts and attitudes that unfavorably alter brain function (one’s mental attitude is important). As depression deepens, this sequence may change with the dysfunctional brain producing increasingly depressive thoughts. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. NY: Harmony Books, 2001, pp 112-116)

Reports on studies that correlate religious commitment with a lowered risk for depression. (Greenwood-Robinson, Maggie, PhD. 20/20 Thinking. NY: Avery, Putnam Special Markets, 2003, pp 264-268)

For contextual depression (e.g., events related), try exercise, meditation, and appropriate nutritional supplements before automatically going on medication. Take responsibility for exploring stress-reducing techniques with your health care provider. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

Fat in fish (or flaxseed oil) can help to protect arteries from clogging and the heart from shutting down, as well as the brain from depression. This may help explain why depression often precedes and predicts heart disease. (Carper, Jean. Your Miracle Brain. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2000, p 79)

Lack of dopamine is believed to be a factor in the lethargy and mind-numbing effects seen in the syndrome of depression. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. CA: University of California Press, 1998, p 66)

Depression may be different from anger. Depression may be anger turned inward, or anger extinguished, or a sequel to anger. (Tavris, Carol. Anger: The Misunderstood Emotion. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1982, pp 101-104)

One of the reasons for depression may be to allow the brain/body to conserve energy in times of stress. (Fisher, Helen. Why We Love. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004, pp 170-175)

The brains of people who are depressed are generally much less active than normal, but certain areas show overactivity (e.g., outside edge of the prefrontal lobe, amygdalae, upper middle portion of the thalamus). (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. CA: University of California Press, 1998, p 100)

Study: May be a gene on chromosome 6 (close to genes involved with CAH – the masculinizing of female fetuses, and with schizophrenia) that is involved with depression. (Durden-Smith, Jo, and Diane deSimone. Sex and the Brain. NY: Arbor House Publishing, 1983, pp 160-161)

Discusses several major types of depression including symptoms, and suggestions for therapies (major depressive disorder, dysthymia or chronic depression, bipolar disorder or manic depressive illness, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and situational depression). (Greenwood-Robinson, Maggie, PhD. 20/20 Thinking. NY: Avery, Putnam Special Markets, 2003, pp 189-204)

Serotonin, a stimulant, is produced by day, whereas melatonin, a depressant, increases when it is dark. Depression appears to be closely linked with melatonin levels, and sufferers tend to show rapid improvement in response to natural sunlight or light therapy using full-spectrum lamps. (Graham, Helen. Discover Color Therapy. CA: Ulysses Press, 1998, p 15)

Low levels of serotonin are associated with depression and with suicide. (Fisher, Helen. Why We Love. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004, pp 175-180)

German studies: individuals (ages 65-91) who had vitamin deficiency (especially thiamin, riboflavin, vitamin B12, and vitamin C) were much more likely to be depressed, emotionally unstable, excitable, nervous, anxious, angry, irritable, easily discouraged, and fatigued. (Carper, Jean. Your Miracle Brain. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 2000, pp 206-207)

Study: brain changes indicative of depression occurred when nondepressed volunteers thought sad or depressing thoughts. In initial stages at least, negative thoughts/attitudes alter brain function unfavorably. As the depression deepens, this sequence may change with the dysfunctional brain producing increasingly depressive thoughts. (Restak, Richard, MD. Mozart’s Brain and the Fighter Pilot. NY: Harmony Books, 2001, pp 112-116)

Studies of clinical depression: people had higher levels of activity in the right frontal lobe, and lower levels in the left frontal lobe (compared to people who had never been depressed). (Goleman, Daniel, PhD. Emotional Intelligence. NY: Bantam Books, 1995, pp 220-222)

Anxiety can be triggered by loss, especially when the loss is either impending or thought to be temporary, but it contains some hope. Depression or despair can surface if the loss appears to be permanent. (Viorst, Judith. Necessary Losses. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1986, pp 31-33)

The ventromedial or subgenual cortex (the brain’s emotional control center in the prefrontal cortex) is very active during bouts of mania, and inactive (along with other prefrontal areas) during depression. The connections with the limbic system beneath closely bind the conscious mind with the subconscious. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. CA: University of California Press, 1998, p 197)

Explains importance of helping children prevent depression through helping them develop strategies for dealing with difficulties. There is a connection between even mild childhood depressive episodes and more severe episodes later in life. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD. Emotional Intelligence. NY: Bantam Books, 1995, pp 242-244)

Women synthesize brain serotonin at half the rate of men, which may help explain why women are more prone to depression. Serotonin circuits also grow weaker with age because neurons lose receptors needed to activate serotonin. (Carper, Jean. Your Miracle Brain. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, Inc., 2000, p 10)

Depression may be the result of psychological distress rather than the cause of it (e.g., serotonin levels). (Glenmullen, Joseph, MD. Prozac Backlash. NY: Simon & Schuster, 2000, pp 190-205)

Studies: children who ate breakfast had 40% higher math grades and were less apt to be absent or tardy from school. Non-breakfast-eaters were twice as likely to be depressed, four times as apt to have anxiety, 30% more likely to be hyperactive and have a variety of psychosocial problems. (Carper, Jean. Your Miracle Brain. NY: HarperCollins Publishers, 2000, p 113)

A meta-analysis of community-based studies found that obese people were more likely to have depression than people with healthy weights. Since the studies included in the analysis assessed weight and mood only at one point in time, the investigators could not say whether obesity increases the risk of depression or depression increases the risk of obesity. New evidence confirms that the relationship between obesity and depression may be a two-way street. A meta-analysis of 15 long-term studies that followed 58,000 participants for up to 28 years found that people who were obese at the start of the study had a 55 percent higher risk of developing depression by the end of the follow-up period, and people who had depression at the start of the study had a 58 percent higher risk of becoming obese. (http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-consequences/health-effects/)

Emotions are an inner source of energy, influence, and information. They are inherently neither good nor bad. It is what we do with the information and energy they produce that makes the difference. (Cooper, Robert K., PhD., and Ayman Sawaf. Executive EQ. NY: Grosset/Putnam 1997, pp 12-13)

Experts distinguish among emotion, mood, and temperament. Emotion is most transient and identifiable in terms of what causes it; mood can last for hours or days and is less easily traced; temperament is genetically based. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY: Scribner, 1997, p 132)

Psychologists are reporting a new phenomenon of "desk rage" (anger) with workers resorting to stand-up rows with their colleagues because of the pressure they face. Desk rage (anger) may represent low EQ behaviors. Psychologist Sue Keane of the British Psychological Society urged workers to find time for a break. It is estimated that 40 million working days are lost in the UK every year because of stress. (Health Workers at Risk of Desk Rage.)

Desk rage is a sign of stress; on-the-job anger that increasingly is triggered by the pressures and tensions of the workplace. To help prevent over-reaction, Count to ten. Take a few deep breaths and remind yourself the rage is about the other individual, not you. Note your own emotion but take control of it. Stay calm and collected. (Forget About Road Rage...Here Comes Desk Rage. 2008. (Source)

Early childhood losses make one sensitive to later losses. Suggests that emotional detachment (along with compulsive caretaking and/or premature autonomy) is a defense against loss. (Viorst, Judith. Necessary Losses. NY: Simon & Schuster, 1986, pp 31-33)

Can be described in young children as a type of pathological mourning (e.g., can be due to separation from or maternal deprivation). The quality of relationship with the primary caregiver is crucial to healthy development. (Karen, Robert, PhD. Becoming Attached. NY: Oxford University Press, 1994, 1998, pp 100-102)

Brain parts that process emotion grow relatively early, and a very sensitive to parental handling and feedback. (Diamond, Marian, PhD, and Janet Hopson. Magic Trees of the Mind. NY: A Dutton Book 1998, pp 124-126)

The critical period for developing emotions occurs from 10-18 months. If patents regularly respond to baby with delight, the child’s circuits for positive emotions are reinforced. If parents respond with horror, the fear circuits will be reinforced. Prolonged depression in the mother conditions the baby for depression. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. NY: Vintage Books, 2002, p 42)

Emotions need to be connected with the intellect. When the analytical mind is engaged with emotions and intuition, your senses and emotional intelligence can scan in moments through hundreds of possible choices or scenarios to arrive at an optimum solution in a matter of seconds instead of hours (and the solution will be as good or better than if intellect was relied on solely). (Cooper, Robert K., PhD., and Ayman Sawaf. Executive EQ. NY: Grosset/Putnam 1997, pp xii-xiii)

Emotional survivors recover quickly from feelings of discouragement. They avoid dwelling on the past or on what has been lost, and direct their energy to getting things to turn out well. (Siebert, Al, PhD. The Survivor Personality. NY: A Perigee Book, 1996, pp 194-195)

The same area of the brain that responds to offensive tastes (anterior insula) is also activated when one person sees another make a face showing disgust. (Ratey, John J., MD. A User’s Guide to the Brain. NY: Vintage Books, 2002, p 75)

Depersonalization is characterized by a flattening of emotion, likely related to abnormal activity in the pathways leading to and from the limbic system. “Stuck” in this part of the brain, the information cannot flow up to the prefrontal cortex to create conscious emotion, nor can it form a memory, or be translated into words. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Exploring Consciousness. CA: University of California Press, 1998, pp 264-267)

As many as one person in 100 may have DID. Many people with DID go for years—perhaps their entire lifetime—without realizing their condition. All they know is that they have inexplicable blanks in their memory and that other people report that during this time they have behaved in an odd way. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Exploring Consciousness. CA: University of California Press, 1998, pp 264-267)

When you experience distressing emotions, the right prefrontal cortex shows activity. COnversely, when you feel enthused and energized, the left prefrontal cortex shows activity. (Goleman, Daniel. The Brain and Emotional Intelleigence: New Insights. p 34-36. MA: More Than Sounds, 2011)

Dopamine, a brain chemical that creates a sense of well-being, is enhanced by endorphins. (Hartmann, Thom. The Edison Gene. VT: Park Street Press, 2003, pp 129-130)

Refer to Substances and the Brain for additional information.

Refer to Downshifting of the Brain for additional information.

Approximately 1/10 children has a learning disability related to nonverbal messages. They may misread emotional cues and/or send emotional messages that create uneasiness in others. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD. Emotional Intelligence. NY: Bantam Books, 1995, pp 120-122)

The electromagnetic radio spectrum of the heart is profoundly affected by a person’s emotional response to the world. The emotional response changes the hearts electromagnetic spectrum, which is what the brain feeds on. Ultimately, everything in your life hinges on your emotional response to specific events (Mercogliano and Debus 1999). (D' Alberto, Attilio, BSc (Hons). Cellular Memory and ZangFu Theory. Article.)

Refer to Electromagnetic Energy for additional information.

Divides the spectrum of human emotion into two groups: primary (happiness, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, disgust); secondary ( social emotions of pride, jealousy, embarrassment, and guilt). (Johnson, Steven. Mind Wide Open. NY: Scribner, 2004, pp 36-38)

Emotions are in constant flow unless you try to block them. To stop any of your internal information from flowing is to invite stagnation, toxicity, and eventual release in forms beyond your conscious control. (Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind. Candace Pert, PhD. Audio Cassettes. Sounds True, Boulder, CO.)

Emotions include the basic sensations of pain and pleasure, drive states such as hunger and thirst, and familiar human experiences (e.g., fear, anger, joy); plus a variety of subjective experiences unique to humans (e.g., spiritual inspiration, awe, and bliss). (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

Emotions are motivating forces. Compares them to an engine that provides energy to propel the vehicle. (Twerski, Abraham, MD. Addictive Thinking. CA: Harper & Row, 1990, pp 51-52)

Each emotion appears to have specific and unique physiological responses (e.g., fear causes vasoconstriction, anger leads to vasodilatation). (Howard, Pierce J., PhD. The Owner’s Manual for the Brain. GA: Bard Press, 1994, 2000, pp 361-370)

Each emotion likely has a specific neural circuitry in the brain (University of Iowa’s Antonio Damasio from PET scans). (The Secret Life of the Brain. Richard Restak, MD The Dana Press and Joseph Henry Press, p 111)

Each emotion offers “a distinctive readiness to act.” (Goleman, Daniel, PhD. Emotional Intelligence. NY: Bantam Books, 1995, p 4)

Emotions exist in the body as informational chemicals, neuropeptides and receptors. Emotions also exist in the realms you experience as feeling, inspiration, love—beyond the physical. They flow freely between both realms, connecting the physical and the nonphysical. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY: Scribner, 1997, p 307)

States that each major emotion comes with its own unique set of cues that are automatically generated by the body based on some trigger or stimulus. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD. Emotional Intelligence. NY: Bantam Books, 1995, pp 295-296)

All emotions are healthy, because emotions are what unite the mind and the body. Anger, fear, and sadness, the so-called negative emotions, are as healthy as peace, courage and joy. To repress these emotions can destroy integrity of the system and create stress that can lead to disease. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY: Scribner, 1997, pp 192-193)

Emotions are all positive, each serves a purpose. The way in which people deal with them can be either positive or negative. (Hafen, Brent Q., et al. Mind/Body Health. MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1996, pp 14-20)

Experts distinguish among emotion, mood, and temperament. Emotion being the most transient and clearly identifiable in terms of what triggers it; mood lasting for hours or days and being less easily traced; and temperament being genetically based. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY, Scribner, 1997, p 132)

Only one core emotion can be in place at a time. There may even be a specific neuropeptide associated with each. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

Emotions and feelings are mediated by distinct neuronal systems. Emotions appear to be automatic responses to sensory stimuli. Feelings are subjective experiences that emerge from the cognitive processing of an emotion eliciting state. (Lynch, Zach, PhD. Emotions in Art and the Brain. Britain: THE LANCET Neurology, Vol 3, March 2004, p 191)

Emotions are highly intense, fleeting, and sometimes disruptive to work. Moods tend to be less intense and longer-lasting, but typically don’t interfere with the job at hand. An emotional episode usually leaves a corresponding lingering mood. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD, with Richard Boyatzis, and Annie Mckee. Primal Leadership. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002, pp 6-8)

Boys move more emotive material down from the limbic system to the brain stem where fight-or-flight responses are stored. Girls move more emotive material upward to the cerebrum where complex thought occurs. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001, p 29)

Emotions and memory are closely interrelated. The earliest and oldest memory is usually an extremely emotion-laden one. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY: Scribner, 1997, pp 143-144)

Emotions, like all the other information conveyed from peptide to receptor, are never still—unless you try to block them from taking their natural course. To block flow is to invite stagnation, toxicity, and eventual release in forms beyond one’s conscious control. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

The immune system can be boosted by even small pleasures (and suppressed by negative emotions). What is important is not which emotion surfaces but your reaction to it. (Hafen, Brent Q., et al. Mind/Body Health. MA: Allyn & Bacon, 1996, pp 14-20)

You begin to enter the real world of the bodymind when you are willing to experience all emotions. Uncomfortable feelings such as grief, fear, and anxiety are central to the integrity of your experience as a human being. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Your Body is Your Subconscious Mind (audiocassettes). CO: Sounds True, 2000.)

Emotional systems such as components of love (e.g., lust, romantic attraction, and attachment) are independent. Because of this they can cross interact and create havoc. (Fisher, Helen. Why We Love. NY: Henry Holt and Company, 2004, p 152)

The theory that the brain (or a certain part of the brain) controls emotions is probably an incomplete assumption. Emotions arise simultaneously in the brain and in the cells of the body. (Pert, Candace, PhD. Molecules of Emotion. NY: Scribner, 1997, pp 133-134)

Emotions are neutral. Depending on the perception that triggers them they can provide warmth, vibrancy, and clarity or be like a dark cloud, making it difficult to see solutions. When the heat of the emotions is turned down, the mind can see more options. (Childre, Doc. Freeze Frame. CA: Planetary Publications, 1994, 1998, p 62)

Study: Emotions spread whenever people are near one another, even when the contact is only noverbal. When three strangers sit facing each other in silence for a minute or two, the one who is most emotionally expressive transmits his or her mood to the other two without speaking a word. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD, with Richard Boyatzis, and Annie Mckee. Primal Leadership. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002, pp 6-8)

The approach-withdrawal continuum describes one’s basic emotional approach to life. You tend to use the left hemisphere to approach (e.g., signals of joy and pleasure); and the right hemisphere to withdraw (e.g., the site of anger and disgust). (Ornstein, Robert, PhD. The Roots of the Self. NY: HarperCollins, 1995, pp 5, 39-40)

Males are more likely to be victims of emotional blackmail. Females are more likely to use emotional blackmail to get their way rather than directly asking for what they want. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a Clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004, pp 72-76)

Emotional blackmailers may appear strong but they have a poor self-image. They are bullies who lack self-confidence, are usually fearful, and try to destroy the victim’s self-image by accusing him/her of qualities they themselves possess (e.g., selfishness, self-centeredness. (Pease, Barbara and Allan. Why Men Don’t Have a clue and Women Always Need More Shoes. NY: Broadway Books, 2004, pp 85-90)

Studies in intensive care unit: the comforting presence of another person lowers blood pressure and slows secretion of fatty acids that block arteries. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD, with Richard Boyatzis, and Annie Mckee. Primal Leadership. Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 2002, pp 6-8)

This term reflects an inability to process feelings of the moment as well as the sum total of your adapting to all the hurts and nurturing—your unique history. It directly reflects one’s self-esteem (high emotional debt reveals low self-esteem). (Viscott, David. MD. Emotional Resilience. NY: Crown Publishers Inc., 1996, pp 282-286)

Males have fewer same-sex confidents. Teenage boys are more emotionally dependent on girlfriends, men on sweethearts during a romance, or wives. (Fisher, Helen, PhD. The First Sex. NY: Random House, 1999, pp 275-276)

The development of a child’s emotional circuitry is impacted by the emotional environment he/she is exposed to, especially in the early years of life. (Childre, Doc and Howard Martin. The HeartMath Solution. CA: Harper SF, 1999, pp 228-230)

Emotional fragility in females may result from having so many emotive functions they become overwhelmed by the emotional material; boys from having fewer brain functions available to process emotion. (Gurian, Michael, PhD, and Patricia Henley, with Terry Trueman. Boys and Girls Learn Differently! CA: Jossey-Bass, 2001, pp 31-33)

Refer to Emotional Intelligence and the Brain for additional information.

Whenever a traumatic memory surfaces, forge new associations by reliving the trauma without something negative happening. This lessens their power. (Johnson, Steven. Mind Wide Open. NY: Scribner, 2004, pp 202-204)

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