Babies clearly have diverse mental abilities from birth. (Ornstein, Robert. Multimind. NY: Doubleday, 1986, p 17)

The two cerebral hemispheres contain more than half of all the brain cells. Each hemisphere is covered by a wrinkled surface area called the cortex. (Restak, Richard, MD. The Secret Life of the Brain. D.C.: The Dana Press and Joseph Henry Press, 2001, p Xv)

Today the exponential growth in knowledge in the neurosciences and biological sciences has shown how brain development in the early years can set trajectories that affect health (physical and mental), learning and behaviour for life. The new understanding about early child development and its effect on human development has profound and exponential implications. (Mustard, J. Fraser, MD. Investing in the Early Years: Closing the gap between what we know and what we do. 2008. p. 10.)

If a male fetus is not exposed to appropriate pre-birth hormones, his brain is likely to remain more typically female; if a female fetus is exposed to a male-pattern hormonal sequence, she is likely to be more typically masculine. (Carter, Rita, Ed. Mapping the Mind. CA: University of California Press, 1998, p 21)

The sensory areas of the brain tend to mature during early childhood, the limbic system by puberty, and the frontal lobes somewhere between 16-18 years of age. (Goleman, Daniel, PhD. Emotional Intelligence. NY: Bantam Books, 1995, pp 226-228)

Adolescents and young adults have brains that are not “finished” yet (e.g., still myelinating) by adult standards. (Healy, Jane M., PhD. Your Child’s Growing Mind. NY: Doubleday, 1987, 1989, pp 121-123)

The infant’s ability to learn to regulate physical and emotional feelings, particular during the first year of life, can be negatively impacted if parents are depressed, mentally ill, or unavailable. The baby of a depressed mother learns diminished expectations of attention and comfort from others. (Karr-Morse, Robin, and Meredith S. Wiley. Ghosts from the Nursery. NY: Atlantic Monthly Press, 1997, p 117)

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